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«/ НО S ШИЦИ А л ш ш 2003 МИНИСТЕРС ТБО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН АЛМАТИНСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ ЯЗЫКА И ПЕРЕВОДА ЛЛ.Ерохвна, Р.3.3агидуллин, Р.Ш.Амраева, А.А.Бейсеке^ва Практикум по ...»

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Л.Н.Ерохш1а,Р.З.Загид)ташн,

Р.Ш.Амрае«а,А.А. Бсйсекееьа

/

НО

S

ШИЦИ

А л ш ш 2003

МИНИСТЕРС ТБО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН

АЛМАТИНСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ ЯЗЫКА И ПЕРЕВОДА

ЛЛ.Ерохвна, Р.3.3агидуллин, Р.Ш.Амраева, А.А.Бейсеке^ва

Практикум

по

инЦюрмативному переводу

Алматы

Б Б К 8 3.3

Рецензенты: к.ф.н., д о и е н т М е д е т о в а М.Е. (К а з У М О и М Я Абылай им .

С.С .

х а н а ), к.п.н., д о ц е н т Н у р к е е в а (А к а д е м и я К Н БРК) Е рохина Л.Н., Загн д ул ли н Р.З., Амраева Р.Ш., Бейсекеева А.А .

П р а к т и к у мпо и н ф о р м ати в н о м у переводу: английский язык - русский язык ( У ч е б н о е п о с о б и е ). - А л м а т ы : А К И Я и П, 2 0 0 2. с.

3 0 0 Д а н н о е п о с о б и есодержит практические задания по выработке навы ков и н ф о р м а т и в н о г о перевода на основе изучения различных м а т е р и а л о в п о т а к и м а к т у а л ь н ы м Казахстана предметным областям для как а р х и т е к т у р а и с т р о и т е л ь с т в о,е г а я ' металлургия, нефть и газ, сл ’ •• ***•' ‘ - :

м еди ци на й Ю р и сп р уден ц й я .

У ч е б н о е п о с о б и е п р едн азн а ч ается дл я м а ги стр а н то в и с т у д старш их к урсов уни верситетов, и нститутов и к осущ ествляю щ и х подготовку с п е ц и а л и с т о в специальности по «П ереводческ ое дело». П особие м ож ет б ыполезно для ть преподавателей, п е р е в о д ч и к о в -п р а к ти к о в и всех интересующихся англи йск и м я з ы к э д ~ х = з е = ----- т| \Г7 с. Торайгыров |1 I II aTbiKA^fW ПМУ-AiH Л |акав®ник С.Евйсемеаевц,’

–  –  –



Учитывая то, что до обретения суверенитета Республикой Казах­ стан, в стране не существовало ни одного специализированного факуль­ тета или вуза, где решалась бы задача подготовки профессиональных пе­ реводчиков, не была создана самостоятельная школа переводоведения. в сентябре 2000 года на базе Казахского университета международных от­ ношений и мировых языков им. Абылай хана был создан Научноисследовательский центр по проблемам межкультурной коммуникации и перевода (далее - НИЦ МКП), учрежденный Министерством образования и наук

и РК в январе 2001 года в качестве научного подразделения КазУМОиМЯ .

В соответствии с разработанным Положением основными задачами

НИЦ по проблемам межкультурной коммуникации и перевода являются:

• осуществление перспективного и текущего планирования работ по лингводидактическому обеспечению межкультурной коммуникации и переводческой деятельности:

• создание учебных пособий (в том числе на электронных носите­ лях) по актуальным направлениям учебной деятельности университета опыта учебной деятельности университета и работы профессорскопреподавательского состава КазУМОиМЯ и других вузов, специалистов в области межкультурной коммуникации и перевода;

• создание двуязычных и многоязычных словарей, тезаурусов, глоссариев по различным областям науки и техники, экономики и т.д.:

• организация общеуниверситетских и межвузовских семинаров, проведение международных и региональных конференций по актуаль­ ным проблемам межкультурной коммуникации и перевода .

Развитие научно-методической деятельности Центра предполагает лингводидактическое обеспечение межъязыковой и межкультурной коммуникации посредством разработки и подготовки к печати учебных по­ собий и лексикографических изданий; разработки нормативных докумен­ тов. разработки и внедрения инновационных технологий в процесс под­ готовки переводчиков .



Среди учебных пособий, уже подготовленных к печати, можно на­ звать настоящий «Практикум по информативному переводу» и 2-е изда­ ние пособия по страноведению «Countries and Styles» (Ерохина Л.Н., Бейсекеева А.А.) Среди планируемых учебных пособий значительный инте­ рес может вызвать, на наш взгляд, подготовка электронного учебника по теории и практике перевода для студентов казахского отделения перево­ дческих факультетов (доц. Ермагамбетова А.С., Кабылдаева Д.) В области разработки нормативных документов следует отметить успешную разработку трех Государственных стандартов по спеииальноз сти «021400,- Переводческое дело»: высшего профессионального образо­ вания (проф. Загидуллин Р.З., доценты Давлетова Г.Р., Аухадиева З.Ж., Ермагамбетова А.С., Медетова М.Е.), дополнительного высшего образо­ вания (проф. Загидуллин РЗ., доценты Макатова Ж.А., Давлетова Г.Р., Евдокимов А.П.), высшего образования по сокращенной образовательной программе (проф. Загидуллин Р.З., проф. Ерохина Л.Н., доценты Медето­ ва М.Е., Аухадиева З.Ж.), утвержденных Министерством образования и на\ ки РК в качестве общеобязательных для всех вузов страны .

В рамках специальности «Переводческое дело» во всех вышеука­ занных стандартах предусмотрены специализации «переводчик-рефе­ рент», «переводчик-синхронист», «гид-переводчик» и «преподаватель перевода». Предлагаемый практикум по информативному переводу ори­ ентирован на лингводидактическое обеспечение подготовки, прежде все­ го, переводчиков-референтов, однако может быть полезен также и для будущих переводчиков-синхронистов и преподавателей перевода, ибо подавляющее большинство переводов, выполняемых в настоящее время, представляют собой переводы именно этого типа .

Сочетание «информативный перевод» представляет собой так на­ зываемый «зонтичный термин» (umbrella term), обозначающий любые пилы перевода кроме художественного, т.е. научно-технический, меди­ цинский, юридический перевод, перевод официально-деловых докумен­ тов, газетно-информационных материалов, рекламы и т.п. При всем мно­ гообразии текстов, охватываемых информативным переводом, их пере­ вод на другой язык требует выполнения одного общего условия - точно­ сти передачи информации, содержащейся в тексте оригинала .

Проиллюстрировать кардинальные, онтологические (т е. присущие по самой своей природе) различия между художественным и информа­ тивным видами перевода можно на примере простого предложения «Не is six feet tall». Если в рамках требований художественного перевода вполне достаточным и оправданным будет перевод типа «Он высокого роста», то при информативном переводе это же предложение следует перевести на русский язык или как «Его рост шесть футов», или как «Его рост - 183 сантиметра» .





Варьирование предлагаемых выше переводов обусловлено воздей­ ствием целого ряда факторов, которые необходимо учитывать перево­ дчикам как художественных, так и информативных текстов. Наиболее полно данную совокупность факторов можно, на наш взгляд, предста­ вить, опираясь на когнитивно-коммуникативную концепцию перевода и, используя разработанную в рамках последней, структурно­ деятельностную модель переводческого процесса1 .

1См. подробнее: Загидуллин Р.З. Теоретические и методологические основы переводческого тезауру­ са. Дне....Д-ра филол. наук (Москва. 1993) или одноименную монографию (Бишкек. 1992) Согласно указанной концепции под переводом понимается деятельность, направленная на извлечение и передачу знаний иноязычному [ субъекту. Нели сравнить данное определение с наиболее распространен­ ными дефинициями, принятыми в литературе по проблеме, то можно увидеть его важное, существенное отличие от таких как «перевод - вид языкового посредничества, при котором содержание иноязычного текста передается на другой язык путем создания на этом языке коммуникатив­ но равноценного текста» (Комиссаров В.Н., 1990), «перевод — это переда­ ча смыслового содержания и стилистических особенностей высказывания на одном языке средствами другого языка» (Гальперин И.Р., 1979), «пе­ ревод - трансляция феноменов, принадлежащих одной культуре в поле другой» (Текст как явление культуры, 1989), «перевод - процесс преI образования речевого произведения на одном языке в речевое произведе­ ние на другом языке при сохранении неизменного плана содержания, т.е .

значения коммуникативно адекватного текста» (Шаймерденова Н.Ж., 2001) .

Ключевыми в этих и десятках других определений перевода явля­ ются слова «процесс», «передача» («трансляция»), «преобразование»

(((трансформация») и т.п., тогда как понятия, ими обозначаемые, являют­ ся лишь составляющими (хотя и безусловно, важными) более глобально­ го понятия переводческой деятельности. Само же понятие деятельности, можно сказать, автоматически предполагает, что в рамках единого подхода могут и должны рассматриваться: субъекты действия (автор, пере­ водчик, адресат), само действие и отдельные операции, входящие в его состав (т.е перевод как процесс), объект действия в его исходном и ко­ нечном состоянии (т.е. перевод как результат, продукт), а также инстру­ менты деятельности, причины, цели, место, время действия и т.д .

Преобразования («переодевания» и т.п.) не составляют, по нашему мнению, суть перевода, это факторы, сопутствующие ему (наблюдаемые, как известно, не только при межъязыковой деятельности). Сущностными характеристиками перевода являются именно извлечение и передача зна­ ний иноязычному субъекту. При этом нет необходимости вводить в оп­ ределение перевода такие компоненты как «иная культура», «националь­ но-культурные особенности» и т.п. - иной язык предполагает и иные линг во-кульгурные характеристики. Понятие же субъекта является теоре­ тически и методологически значимым, поскольку позволяет, с одной сто­ роны, избежать (в тех случаях, когда это не является необходимым) про­ тивопоставления отдельной личности, группы (коллектива) или лингвис­ тического сообщества в целом, а с другой - подчеркнуть необходимость «сообразности» перевода с реципиентом, его потребностями и тезаурум .

И, наконец, если подходить к переводу с лингвофилософских пози­ ций, то именно знания определяют гносеологический статус перевода как особого вида деятельности - ради этих знаний, их извлечения и передачи иноязычному субъекту осуществляется перевод. При этом под знанием можно понимать любые виды последнего: «теоретическое и обыденное, рациональное и иррациональное, сознательное и бессознательное - лю­ бые когнитивные образования, выступающие как результат переработки информации человеком в его взаимодействии с миром»1 .

В конкретном акте межъязыковой коммуникации эти знания могут различаться как по виду (знания о мире, знание об авторе, знание о тек­ сте, знание о конкретной предметной области или денотате и т.п.), так и по форме их языкового воплощения, однако это не меняет сути и сущно­ сти перевода как единой формы человеческой деятельности .

Очевидно, что для разных видов перевода наиболее существенны­ ми, преобладающими могут быть знания определенного вида: так, если для художественного перевода это могут быть знания о мире и/или зна­ ния об авторе, то для информативного перевода в качестве таковых на первый план выступают знания о конкретной предметной области (на­ пример, об экономике, юриспруденции или технике) .

Что же касается формы языкового воплощения извлеченного зна­ ния, то если для художественного перевода передача стилистических особенностей высказывания, действительно, является одной из первосте­ пенных задач, то для информативного перевода эта задача либо отступает на второй план, либо признается излишней. Нередко составители кон­ тракта требуют от переводчика-референта сохранения даже синтаксиче­ ской структуры оригинала, не говоря уже о словесных формулировках в языке перевода. То, что с позиций языка перевода может рассматриваться как нарушение стилистических и иных норм этого языка, при переводе офицИально-деловых документов считается вполне приемлемым. С дру­ гой стороны, вряд ли правомерно ожидать от перевода, например, рек­ ламных или газетных текстов, сохранения стилистических особенностей оригинала, ибо нормы построения подобных текстов в англоязычных и русскоязычных сообществах существенно различаются, хотя в последнее время и наблюдается их определенное сближение .

Требование сохранения «неизменного плана содержания», вклю­ чаемое во многие определения перевода, претендующие на универсаль­ ность, также весьма уязвимо с позиций реальной практики перевода. Жи­ вучесть подобного представления объясняется, на наш взгляд, во-первых, тем, что теоретические исследования в области переводоведения перво­ начально проводились в сфере художественного перевода (где, действи­ тельно, трудно назвать иноязычную аннотацию, например, романа JI.H .

Толстого «Анна Каренина», переводом данного произведения) и, вовтррых, значительным воздействием на мировое и отечественное перевоКассам Б.Б. Язык я питие // Язык я структура знания Сб. трУ Ин-т языкознания АН СССР. - М .

1990. С.8 доведение положений так называемой Лейпцигской школы перевода (Г .

Егер, О. Каде, А. Нойберт и др.), рассматривающей понятие «перевод»

как видовое по отношению к родовому «языковое посредничество» и противопоставляющей друг другу термины «собственно перевод» и «адаптивное транскодирование» .

Интересно, что научным взглядам самэго создателя термина «(язы­ ковое посредничество» выдающегося немецкого теоретика перевода О .

Каде была чужда косная окончательность. Если в работе 1968 года, став­ шей канонической, О. Каде отрицал возможность рассмотрения интер­ претации и парафразы как равноценных и самостоятельных форм осуще­ ствления перевода, считая собственно переводом лишь субституцию (т.е .

прямое перекодирование с использованием межъязыковых системных соответствий), то спустя 12 лет в своей последней и - как считает иссле­ дователь склада О. Каде в науку о переводе А.В. Батрак - лучшей работе он изложил принципиально иную, новую концепцию. Различая такие процедуры как «транслирование» (прямое перекодирование), адаптивное транскодирование и свободное перефразирование, О. Каде только по­ следнюю не признает переводом .

Между тем, как показывает анализ литературы, традиция рассмат­ ривать адаптивное транскодирование как противочлен «собственно пере­ вода» сохраняется и в определенной степени продолжает развиваться .

Гак, один из крупнейших представителей концепции перевода как вида языкового посредничества А.Д. Швейцер считает, что в сопоставлении с рефератом, аннотацией, пересказом, переложением иноязычного текста и новым произведением, созданным по мотивам оригинала (входящими на­ ряду с переводом в класс опосредованной межъязыковой коммуникации), перевод обнаруживает характерную черту, отсутствующую у смежных явлений, а именно: замещать или репрезентировать первичный текст в другой языковой и культурной среде .

Подобное утверждение не представляется бесспорным, особенно если рассматривать его через призму структурно-деятельностного подхо­ да к переводу, где понятия перевода как процесса и как продукта дея­ тельности гносеологически разграничены. По-видимому, и «собственно перевод» (т.е. полный текст на языке перевода), и различные другие фор­ мы вербализованного на языке перевода знания (рефераты, аннотации и т.д.) рождаются в результате процесса перевода с исходного языка на ПЯ, а для иноязычного получателя информации последние' нередко могут быть единственными и достаточными репрезентантами первичного тек­ ста. Ср. многочисленные реферативные журналы, резюме статей на дру­ гих языках, которые используются наравне и даже вместо полных текстов перевода. Речь, по-видимому, может идти не о принципиальной неспо­ собности рефератов и других видов ((опосредованной межъязыковой коммуникации» замещать первичные тексты (и исключении их из катего­ рии перевода), а о различной степени возможности подобного замеще­ ния, полноты репрезентации .

В работе, специально посвященной сложной проблеме соотноше­ ния понятий «перевод» и «языковое посредничество», В.Н. Комиссаров характеризует процесс адаптивного транскодирования как парапереводческий, поскольку последний «как бы совмещает в себе элементы пере­ вода и преобразования информации. Теоретически, - продолжает автор, адаптивное транскодирование можно осуществить в два этапа: сначала перевести оригинал, а затем проделать необходимые преобразования тек­ ста перевода». Иными словами, возможно рассматривать адаптивное транскодирование как один из видов перевода, осуществляемого по схе­ ме «собственно перевод» + адаптация и/или сокращение. Об этом пишет ниже и сам автор: «В конце концов, можно все, что делает переводчик (выделено нами. - Р.З.), называть переводом и различать «собственно пе­ реводы», «переводы-рефераты», «упрощенные переводы», «сокращенные переводы», «прагматически-адаптированные переводы» и т.д. Важно лишь, - считает В.Н. Комиссаров, - четко разграничивать процесс со­ здания текста, коммуникативно равноценного тексту оригинала... и все­ возможные иные способы передачи содержания иноязычного текста»’ .

Сочетание «собственно перевод» настолько глубоко укоренилось в переводоведении, что даже сторонники понимания перевода как понятия глобального, универсального, т.е. охватывающего все типы языкового посредничества, включая и так называемые «дезидераггивно адекватные переводы» (реферативный, аннотационный, сегментный, аспектный и т.п.), не могут не использовать его. Так, соглашаясь с тем, что с позиции семантико-стилистической теории адекватности такие виды обработки текстов не должны считаться переводами, автор приведенного выше тер­ мина Ю.В. Ванников полагает, что поскольку такие неполные переводы могут правильно реализовать коммуникативную установку, инициируе­ мую получателем, их следует признать полноправными переводами, от­ личающимися от других «собственно переводов» типом своей адекватно­ сти .

Строго говоря, любые тексты на ПЯ (включая и полные переводы оригинала) создаются в результате различного рода преобразований, со­ кращений и адаптации (т.е. «адаптивного транскодирования» в той или иной степени), в то же время даже выборочный перевод (встречающийся, кстати, в практике информативного перевода гораздо чаще, чем полный, реферативный и т.п.) может быть для коммуниканта равноценным по со­ держанию тексту оригинала.

При поиске необходимой информации спе­ циалисту нередко достаточно знать перевод заголовка статьи или какогоСм.: Комиссаров В.Н Перевод и языковое посредничество // Тетради переводчика:

сб. ст. - Вып. 21 - М : Высшая школа, 1984. - С. 23-25 .

либо ее сегмента, например, «методы», «результаты», и т.п. Более того, в ряде случаев даже отсутствие определенной информации в переводимом тексте может быть для специалиста когнитивно релевантным, значимым, ценным .

В настоящее время переводчик (как устный, так и письменный) нередко выполняет коммуникативные функции, выходящие за рамки самого широкого понимания языкового посредничества - информатора, редактора или критика оригинала (Комиссаров В.Н.). Рамки концепции перевода как вида языкового посредничества оказываются узкими и для художественного перевода, где, с одной стороны, наблюдается «бальмонтизация» оригинала (термин К.И. Чуковского), а с другой определенное превосходство над оригиналом переводов таких «языковых посредников» как С. Маршак, В. Левик и др .

С позиции соотношения филологического и специального образо­ вания у лиц, осуществляющих ныне перевод в сфере специального зна­ ния, можно выделить следующие категории субъектов переводческой деятельности:

'• НИ - нелингвисты-неспециалисты (студенты неязыковых вузов и т.д.);

• НС - нелингвисты-специалисты (аспиранты, инженеры, врачи и т.д.);

• ЛН - лингвисты-неспециалисты (преподаватели иностранных языков, переводчики-филологи);

• ЛС - лингвисты-специалисты (самая немногочисленная группа) .

Каждая из перечисленных категорий имеет свои особенности, свои проблемы в плане подготовки и работы с иноязычными текстами, экс­ пликация которых может стать предметом отдельного исследования, но здесь хотелось бы подчеркнуть следующее: любые физические лица из всех четырех категорий могут и не выступать в качестве языковых по­ средников. В этом случае переводчик заинтересован непосредственно в информации, фактах и нередко может полностью игнорировать их интер­ претацию автором, его оценку и цели, а также форму изложения, струк­ туру и т.д .

Таким образом, рассмотрение перевода как вида языкового посред­ ничества, обусловленное всей историей развития перевода, на современ­ ном этапе, как нам представляется, существенно ограничивает предмет теории и практики перевода, поскольку, с одной стороны, субъект пере­ водческой деятельности все более часто может выходить за рамки чисто языкового посредничества, а с другой - вообще не являться языковым посредником, используя перевод как способ извлечения знаний из текста оригинала для удовлетворения собственных когнитивных потребностей .

Для разграничения двух разных форм перевода («перевода для дру­ гих» и «перевода для себя») в рамках предлагаемой нами концепции пе­ ревода вводятся специальные рабочие термины «коммуникативный пере­ вод» (т.е. перевод в форме языкового посредничества) и «когнитивный перевод» (перевод ради познания, расширения своего индивидуального тезауруса) .

Разграничивая терминологически и концептуально две формы осуще­ ствления перевода, мы вместе с тем не считаем, что указанные разновидно­ сти являются полярно противоположными сущностями. В основе размеже­ вания двух вариантов перевода лежит приоритет цели (точнее, целей) субъ­ ектов переводческой деятельности. Если для переводчика как языкового по­ средника главным движущим мотивом является передача извлеченных из иноязычного сообщения (текста) знаний адресату перевода (при зтом пере­ водчик как языковая личность может быть зачастую не заинтересован в са­ мом содержании текста и/или передавать знания, не содержащиеся непо­ средственно в тексте), то для субъекта переводческой деятельности в режиме когнитивного перевода основная цель - это извлечение знаний, обогащение индивидуального тезауруса Несомненно, что изменение, расширение индивидуального тезау­ руса происходит и при коммуникативном переводе, тем более, когда пе­ реводчик стоит перед необходимостью правильно понять описываемую в тексте ситуацию и/или выбрать адекватные средства выражения ино­ язычного содержания, т.е. испытывает какие-либо когнитивно­ коммуникативные затруднения и обращается за помощью к каким-либо источникам дополнительной информации (будь-то специалист в опреде­ ленной предметной области или справочник, словарь и т.д.). С другой стороны, возможна ситуация, когда знания, извлеченные посредством когнитивного перевода («для себя»), передаются впоследствии в той или иной форме другому субъекту, т.е. коммуницируются. Можно даже со­ гласиться с тем, что коммуницируемость знаний - это и свойство когни­ тивного перевода, однако в этом случае это потенциальная, отсроченная коммуницируемость .

Иными словами, границы между когнитивным и коммуникативным переводом являются довольно зыбкими, подвижными: когнитивный пе­ ревод может рассматриваться и как необходимый этап коммуникативного перевода, а коммуникативный перевод, в свою очередь, - как возможный этап когнитивного перевода, однако, как нам представляется, различие между двумя вариантами перевода как видами переводческой деятельно­ сти с разными первоочередными задачами, является достаточно очевид­ ным .

Существуют определенные различия и в сфере применения двух вариантов перевода: если коммуникативный перевод функционирует практически во всех сферах человеческого общения, то когнитивный пе­ ревод как отдельный вид межъязыковой деятельности ограничен по суЩфггву сферой специального знания. Что же касается субъектов перево­ дческой деятельности, то положение скорее обратное: если коммуника­ тивный перевод (особенно в таких разновидностях как синхронный, хуложественный, поэтический и т.д.) - это прерогатива профессионалов, то когнитивный перевод - это поле деятельности многомиллионной армии билингвов, принадлежащих в зависимости от соотношения филологического и специального образования к различным категориям (специалистов-нелингвистов, неспециалистов-лингвистов, специалистовлингвистов и нелингвистов-неспециалистов)., В последнее время теория перевода в целом все чаще обращ ает внимание непосредственно н а субъектов переводческой д еятел ьн о ­ сти (хотя общ ая ориентированность исследований на текст оригин ала или текст перевода является по-преж нем у дом инирую щ ей), однако при изучении субъектов переводческой д еятельн ости наблю дается своего рода «ведом ственное» разм еж евание: в поле внимания общ ей т о р и и перевода вклю чаю тся, как правило, специалисты -лингвисты (т .


е., в основном ф илологи, писатели и т.п., О сущ ествляю щ ие худо­ ж ественны й перевод), в исследовательское пространство ин ф орм а­ тивного перевода - неспециалисты -лингвисты и (в меньш ей степ ени)

- специалисты -нелингвисты. П оследняя же по порядку излож ения группа субъектов переводческой деятельности - неспециалисты нелингвисты (к которой можно отнести и студентов младш их курсов переводческих ф акультетов или о тделени й) практически игнори рует­ ся как общ ей теорией перевода, так и специальны м и теориям и пере­ вода, но в той или иной степени оказы вается объектом исследований учебного перевода. М ежду тем, это сам ая м ногочисленная и н аи бо­ лее нуж даю щ аяся в лингводидактическом (как теорети ч еском, т ак и практическом, м етодическом ) обесп ечени и категория субъектов пе* реводческой деятельности .

Представляется, что формирование когнитивно­ коммуникативной концепции перевода, в центре внимания которой оказывается субъект переводческой деятельности любой из назван­ ных выше категорий и любого статуса (профессиональный перево­ дчик/непрофессиональный переводчик и т.д.), позволяет сконцен­ трировать усилия не столько на проблеме соответствия текста пере­ вода тексту оригинала и т.п., сколько на проблеме расхождения со­ вокупности знания у языковых личностей, вовлеченных в межъязы­ ковую коммуникацию и путях преодоления возникающих у перево­ дчика когнитивных и коммуникативных проблем .

Другими словами, на первый план выступает проблема тезау­ руса переводчика, но в отличие от тех работ, где эта проблема так или иначе затрагивается, в предлагаемой концепции перевода ис­ пользуется комплексный подход, т.е. такой специфический метод ис­ следования, «особенность которого заключается в том, что в процесII се научной деятельности учитывается не только характер самого изу­ чаемого объекта, но и сложность внешних его взаимодействий»1 .

Особенно наглядно целостное представление об особенностях когнитивно-коммуникативной концепции перевода дает разработанная в названной выше диссертации структурно-деятельностная модель пе­ реводческой деятельности, где переводческий тезаурус воспроизведен в системе всех его взаимосвязей и опосредований и даже чисто визу­ ально (см. схему) отражен (невольно) в центре модели .

Указанная модель в определенной степени близка к известной си­ туативной модели перевода, рассматривающей процесс перевода как процесс описания при помощи языка перевода той же ситуации, которая описана на языке оригинала, поскольку правильное, адекватное отраже­ ние описываемого фрагмента действительности - это, на наш взгляд, главная задача любого перевода (в любой форме - когнитивной и /или коммуникативной). Особенно остро эта проблема стоит в сфере инфор­ мативного перевода, где субъекты переводческой деятельности обладают разной степенью языковой и когнитивной готовности к такой деятельно­ сти имеют разные цели и задачи («прагматиконы»). Принципиальным же отличием предложенной модели от ситуативной (равно как и трансфор­ мационно-семантической, психолингвистической и т.п.) является то зна­ чение, которое придается в ней языковой личности субъекта переводче­ ской деятельности (обладающей двумя ассоциативно-вербальными сетя­ ми при едином тезаурусе и - в процессе перевода - двумя прагматиконами), взаимодействующей не только с текстом оригинала (и через него идентифицирующей описываемую ситуацию), но и с языковыми лично­ стями автора оригинала и адресата перевода, что в ряде случаев требует определенного проникновения через эксплицированную в тексте ассо­ циативно-вербальную сеть автора и с опорой на собственный тезаурус и/или дополнительные источники информации в тезаурус (и прагматикон) создателя текста оригинала ("фактор автора"). Одновременно (в си­ туации коммуникативного перевода) необходимо со стороны языковой личности переводчика осуществлять прогнозирование возможностей ас­ социативно-вербальной сети и тезауруса адресата перевода, выбор адек­ ватных средств языкового выражения, извлеченных из текста оригинала (но не только из него) знаний ("фактор адресата") .

Существенно отметить, что тезаурусы личностей, вовлеченных в межъязыковую коммуникацию, в определенной степени принадлежат и представителям тех коллективных тезаурусов, которыми обладают носи­ тели определенного языка и культуры, представители определенных коммуникативных социумов, поэтому многие когнитивные и коммуникаСм.: Наливайко Н.В. Гносеологические я методологические основы научной деятельности. - Новоси­ бирск Наука. 1990 - С. 89. где эксплицируется различие между близкими и нередко спешивающими пончтиячги «системность и комплексность»

тивные затруднения, испытываемые субъектами переводческой деятельности в сфере специального знания, объясняются тем обстоятельством, что тот идеал, который нередко формулируется в качестве аксиомы о не­ обходимости соответствия индивидуального тезауруса переводчика те­ заурусам одноязычных коммуникантов, вступает в противоречие с реаль­ ной практикой и спецификой переводческой деятельности .

Переводчик является лишь получателем (реципиентом) оригинала, но не его адресатом (не случайно в ряде работ по теории перевода субъ­ екта переводческой деятельности уподобляют подслушивающему уст­ ройству или, более точно - некому агенту, разведчику, контрразведчику и т.п.). Если же пользоваться образами, то переводчик в сфере информа­ тивного перевода, должен быть не столько агентом, сколько дилетантом в хорошем смысле слова, т.е. человеком, знающем понемногу, но обо всем .

Ибо без правильного извлечения знаний из текста оригинала, невозможна их адекватная передача иноязычному субъекту, т.е. выполнение пере­ водчиком второй своей роли - роли автора текста на языке перевода .

В предлагаемом практикуме по информативному переводу, состав­ ленному сотрудниками НИЦ МКП при КазУМОиМЯ им. Абылай хана, методически реализуются многие из высказанных выше положений ког­ нитивно-коммуникативной концепции перевода .

Прежде всего учитывается, что субъектами переводческой деятель­ ности в сфере информативного перевода могут быть различные катего­ рии билингвов - от нелик.'вистов-неспециапистов до лингвистовспсциалистов, обладающих различными уровнями когнитивной и комму­ никативной готовности к осуществлению нехудожественного перевода .

Отсюда различная степень сложности представленных в практикуме тек­ стов и упражнений. И, хотя практикум ориентирован в наибольшей сте­ пени на самую многочисленную и наиболее нуждающуюся в лингводи­ дактическом обеспечении группу субъектов переводческой деятельности

- нелингвистов-неспециалистов (студентов неязыковых вузов и студен­ тов переводческих факультетов и отделений университетов, колледжей и т.д.), т.е. на учебный перевод, предлагаемый материал может эффективно использоваться и другими категориями субъектов переводческой дея­ тельности. Так, лингвисты-неспециалисты (преподаватели языковых и/или переводческих дисциплин) могут использовать его для обогащения собственного тезауруса в определенной предметной области, а нелингвисты-специалисты (например, медики, работники нефтегазовой облас­ ти) - для развития своих ассоциативно-вербальных сетей (ABC) на анг­ лийском языке. Иными словами, данный практикум предоставляет воз­ можности для осуществления как когнитивного, так и коммуникативного перевода .

Исходя из реальной практики информативного перевода, где один и тот же субъект переводческой деятельности осуществляет перевод, как правило, не в одной определенной предметной области, а как минимум в двух-трех и более, составители практикума вполне обоснованно вклю­ чили в него материалы по нескольким предметным областям одновре­ менно: архитектуре и строительству, металлургической и нефтегазовой промышленности, международному праву и медицине. Студенты пере­ водческих факультетов и отделений тем самым имеют возможность приблизиться к идеалу переводчика в сфере специального знания - би­ лингву, обладающему пусть ограниченными, но разносторонними зна­ ниями по многим предметным областям. Кроме того, сам выбор пред­ метных областей, представленных в пособии, представляется нам весьма удачным, ибо для Республики Казахстан именно эти области являются наиболее актуальными на современном этапе развития. Именно в этих областях осуществляется сейчас широкое международное сотрудничест­ во и. как следствие, именно они занимают значительное место в общем потоке информативного перевода .

Составители пособия по информативному переводу учитывают и такую тенденцию развития переводческой деятельности в сфере специ­ ального знания, как выход субъектов переводческой деятельности за рамки продуцирования «собственно переводов», т.е. полных текстов пе­ ревода, сохраняющих неизменно план содержания. Принимая во внима­ ние, что в сфере информативного перевода широко распространены в ка­ честве продуктов переводческой деятельности различные виды выбороч­ ного перевода, авторы пособия включают в него краткие сведения о со­ ставлении аннотаций и рефератов для обогащения тезауруса будущего профессионального переводчика в сфере информативного перевода и, главное, достаточно объемные и разнообразные тексты, позволяющие осуществлять под руководством преподавателя различные виды адапти­ рованного и выборочного (сокращенного, сегментного и т.п.) перевода .

Важной как в теоретическом, так и в методическом плане, является и та часть пособия, где представлены аутентичные материалы Британ­ ской Ассоциации научно-технического перевода. Будущим переводчи­ кам, преподавателям перевода и даже профессиональным переводчикам следует обратить внимание на те критерии, которые предъявляются в за­ рубежном переводоведении к научно-техническим (или - шире - к ин­ формативным) переводам, а теоретикам перевода - на широко принятое в переводческой практике Запада разграничение переводов по их предна­ значению: «для Информации» и «для опубликования». Под первыми по­ нимаются так называемые «рабочие» (или «черновые») переводы, где ка- чество оформления продукта переводческой деятельности и степень его литературной (стилистической и прочей) обработки могут быть доста­ точно низкими, однако это не мешает им функционировать в качестве распространенных вариантов перевода. Главное же требование, предъяв­ ляемое к переводам информативного типа, остается неизменным. И «ра­ u бочие» п о в о д ы, и переводы «для опубликования» не могут искажать информацию, представленную в тексте оригинала, тогда как формы ее обработки и представления могут варьировать в самых широких преде­ лах .

Отсюда следует существенный в методическом плане вывод о не­ обходимости скрупулезного отражения в тексте перевода представлен­ ных в тексте оригинала конкретных фактов, сведений и так называемых прецизионных слов (имен собственных, числительных и т.п.) - с одной стороны, и о возможности проявления со стороны преподавателей пере­ вода определенной лояльности к степени литературной обработанное™ продуктов переводческой деятельности в сфере информативного перево­ д а Иными словами, менее допустимыми должны считаться ошибки на уровне тезауруса переводчика, чем ошибки на уровне его ассоциативно­ вербальных сетей иностранного и родного (базового) языка. Кроме того, с учетом различий прагматиконов субъектов переводческой деятельно­ сти, следует значительное внимание уделять варьированию поставленных перед начинающими переводчиками целей и задач, как реципиентов тек­ ста оригинала, так и авторов, создателей текста перевода .

Посвящая разработку данного практикума по информативному пе­ реводу 60-летию со дня образования КазУМОиМЯ им. Абылай хана и выражая надежду, что его опубликование Алматинским институтом язы­ ка и перевода будет содействовать лингводидактическому обеспечению переводческой деятельности в Республике Казахстан, его авторы пони­ мают, что первый труд подобного типа не может быть свободен от не­ достатков. Авторы предлагаемого пособия будут благодарны за предло­ жения, поправки и замечания, которые можно направлять по адресу: Ал­ маты, 470072, ул. Муратбаева 200, к. 204, НИЦ МКП КазУМОиМЯ (тел .

92-|7-00) или по электронной почте: transcenter @honmail. com Директор НИЦ по проблемам межкультурной коммуникации и перевода, доктор филол. наук, профессор Р.З. Загидуллин

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Company aim The aim o f the company is to produce translations o f a professional, and there­ fore merchantable standard. A translation o f merchantable standard is one which is supplied according to the client’s requirements in terms o f Quality Price - Delivery .

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C ontract Review

1. Purpose o f translation: information/publication .

2. Delivery .

3. Layout, typeface, diagrams, figures .

4. Disk/conversion .

5. Fax/modem/post/special delivery/courier .

6. Other special instructions.__________________

b) Objective criteria:

The elements o f the translation are either right or wrong (understanding and interpretation o f the source text, names, numbers, grammar, spelling, com­ pleteness). ' These elements can be controlled.!Q0% .

c) Subjective criteria:

The translation is either liked or disliked (individual style o f the translator, his or her use o f language, choice o f termi­ nology) .

These elements cannot be controlled 100%, but experience has shown that mis­ takes of the type mentioned in a) often lead to criticism connected with b) .

It is and must be possible to control the objective elements of the translation (a) 100% and thereby relieve some critical pressure on the subjective elements b) .

However, ultimately, it is the skill and care of the individual translator that will determine whether a translation is not only “right” but is also “liked” and

therefore accepted. (“The customer has to be pleased as well as informed”:

Peter Newmark) The process of producing a translation is a complex one. It has been divided into five stages in the tonn of a checklist. If it is used correctly, the translation

produced will satisfy criteria a) and b) and the company will achieve its aim:

TO PRODUCE TRANSLATIONS OF A PROFESSIONAL AND THERE­

FORE MERCHANTABLE STANDARD .

TRANSLATION METHOD

Definiiion of the word “translate Turn (word, sentence, book etc.) itom one language to another, express sense of it in another form of words. Infer or declare the significance of, interprete .

Convey, introduce (idea, principle, design) from one art into another .

Definition o f the word “linguist”:

Person skilled in foreign languages .

“Any fool can learn a foreign language; it takes intelligence to translate” (Peter Newmark) Some translators cannot see the meaning for the words!

The written word is not an end in itself: its role is to convey information, to express and give form to opinions and ideas. The reader is able to assimilate the message provided that it is communicated in a way which conforms to the basic laws of logic and language. Ideally, the logic and language should coin­ cide: the text should mean what it says and say what it means. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. And the wider the divergence between the logic and language, the harder the translator has to work. If the translator translates the source text at “face value" only, i.e. purely linguistically and at the expense of context and meaning, he will not be in a position to make a choice, or decision, in tom s o f interpretation and terminology, resulting in inconsistencies, contra­ dictions and meaningless statements in tr^fftatron. Bn-the oth«L hand, he mpy grasp the meaning of the source text, bat lack tKB. sfciOpi? S «rncage - to ex­ r c e ss it naturally in his own language. Tfje trans&ttpnis iinacctptabl^on both counts: the meaning or message is not -corretAjy trapsfjsrred, fton^ the source text to the translation, or it is correctly transferred, but the language is so un­ natural that it is difficult to read .

The job of the translator is to ‘hack down’ the message in the source text, us­ ing all the clues it contains, and to transfer it intact and undistorted to the target text using the natural vocabulary, style and structure (equivalences or conven­ tions) of his own language .

Therefore, the skills which the translator needs to develop are:

- the ability to establish the context and find the meaning or logic of the source text (backed by common sense, general knowledge - and above all

persistence):

- the ability to detach himself from the language, structure and form o f the original text whilst adhering to the meaning;

- the ability to use equivalences (conventions) in his own in terms of vo­ cabulary, sentence structure and punctuation .

Dictionaries are no substitute for intelligent thinking. They should be used for guidance and confirmation. Newspapers, advertisements, technical journals are a vital source of terminology and knowledge .

Translation Checklist Stage 1: Preparation I. Check Instructions Information Publication Delivery

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If more than one translator is involved with the same translation, liaise re­ garding the interpretation of the source text, which official names have to be translated and any other parts of the text where necessary to ensure uniformity of.interpretation/presentation. The layout and typeface of the translation must be as close to the original document as possible. Otherwise, use Times for gen­ eral text, Helvetica for scientific and technical texts .

u Stage 2: Basic translation

1. Input the translation. Establish the context Translation is a cumulative pro­ cess: as you progressively extract the meaning, carry it forward and build on it as you work through the text At the end of this stage, you should ha­ ve a complete picture of the information which the writer wishes to impart to the reader .

2. Based on this information, revise the translation to eliminate any misunder­ standings, contradictions, meaningless statements and inconsistencies so that the information that you are now imparting on the writer’s behalf is correct and accurate .

Stage 3: Final translation

1. Place the source text on one side .

2. Read your (mother tongue) translation critically and objectively as a piece of your own original writing which will be read and assessed by someone else .

3. Look at your use of language, style, fluency, syntax, punctuation .

IS THIS THE WAY YOU WOULD NORMALLY WRITE?

The time spent on this stage - and the number of times it is done - depends on the intended use of the translation (information/publication) .

Stage 4: Detail/Check* I 1. Check dates, names, numbers, Titles. If there is an index, make sure it | matches the dtles in the text

2. Check that the translation is complete .

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II. Reading through translation:syntax, spelling, editing

III. Checking translation against original:

understanding, correct interpretation, terminology, syntax IV. Proofreading: typographical errors

3. Amend as necessary Stage 5: A dm inistration

1. Print out the translation. Check that the printout is complete .

2. If a disk is required, check that the text is on the disk .

3. Despatch Summary

Stage 1:

Intended use of translation and presentation established .

Stage 2:

The basic translation should be a correct interpretation o f the meaning and context of the original text. It should be logical and coherent. The terminology should be appropriate for the subject area. It should be consistent .

Stage 3:

The final translation should read as an original text in the target language using a style and punctuation typical o f that language .

Stage 4:

The details must be correct, the translation must be complete. Any correction from the checking stage must be incorporated .

Stage 5:

Printout complete. Text on disk .

DESPATCH

(1 )Into English for information The information contained in the source text is more important than the source language per se. (Often indifferent anyway). The translation (target language) must express the information contained in the source text in an accurate, readable form .

(2) Into English for publication The same standards apply as for English for information. However, the translation is an intermediate product for final copywriting. It may be slightly more literal to allow more scope for the copywriter, but it must be accurate .

WAIVER Attachment to Translation R ef.______ _________________________

Translation into English fo r Publication The attached document is a faithful translation o f the original you have supplied. However, we wish to emphasise that translation is no substitute for copywriting, if it is intended to use the translation for publicity and ad­ vertising matter, we recommend that it is copywritten first .

for

TECHNICAL TRANSLATION ASSOCIATES LTD .

Date:

(3)Into English back translation It is necessary to adhere to the translated text and translate it back into En­ glish literally. There must be no attempt at interpretation if the translation is not clear because o f the language and terminology used, nor at styling if the general style/syntax is poor .

WAIVER Attachment to Translation R ef._____________________________

The attached translation has been prepared as a 'back translation’ for you to check compliance between the original text and the translated text It is completely literal it is completely literal translation; no attempt has been made at interpretation if the translation is not clear or at styling if the gen­ eral style/syntax is poor .

For

TECHNICAL TRANSLATION ASSOCIATES LTD .

Date:

(4)Into English - authoritative/leeai It is necessary to adhere closely to the structure o f the source text; the lan­ guage has been carefully chosen and is essential to the meaning. The trans­ lation must not provide any scope for arbitrary (subjective) interpretation by the reader .

WAIVER Attachment to Translation R ef._____________________________

AUTHORITATIVE TEXTS

(Legal documents - Govemment/EC publications) The language used to convey information in standard technical and com­ mercial documents is not particularly precise, so the translator has scope to rewrite the information contained in an accurate but readable form .

However, in the case of authoritative documents, the language used to con­ vey the information is deliberately precise in order to ensure that such texts say exactly what they mean and mean exactly what they say .

Therefore, it is the policy o f this company to translate authoritative texts lit­ erally, also adhering to the original syntax and punctuation, in order to ex­ clude any latitude of interpretation in terms o f content and style .

(5) From English (publication) There are different levels, from internal distribution, mailing shots, simple leaflets to four colour glossy brochures. For lower levels, a good translation is sufficient in itself and follows the rules for translation into English (cor­ rect information/good style). In the case o f high level publicity, the transla­ tion becomes an intermediate product which is then copywritten (see into English for publicity). Proofreading is very important and may have to be done several times .

WAIVER Attachment to Translation R ef.______________________________

Translation from Englishfor Publication The attached document is a faithful translation o f your English. How­ ever, we wish to emphasise that translation is no substitute for copywriting and, for best results, we recommend that all publicity and advertising matter is cross-checked/copywritten in the country in which it is to be used .

Where translated materials we have supplied is subsequently, it is es­ sential that we receive, and sign off printers’ proofs .

For

TECHNICAL TRANSLATION ASSOCIATES LTD .

Date:

(6) Proofreading extraneous translations Sometimes, clients ask us to proofread translation from other sources (other translation companies, own agents) .

WAIVER Attachment to Job R ef._____________________________________

The attached typesetting has been prepared from, and proofread against translations supplied by others and is submitted on the understanding that Technical Translation Associates Ltd. has no responsibility whatsoever for the quality or suitability of the original translation .

For

TECHNICAL TRANSLATION ASSOCIATES LTD .

Date:

Составление аннотации и реферата New Energy Old Sources (Automobile Engineer, vol. 82, № 5, 1973, New York)

1. The resources of fossil (ископаемое) fuel which made the indus­ trial revolution possible and' have added to the comfort and convenience of modem life were formed over a period of 600-million years. We will consume I them in a few hundred years at current rates. Certain steps should be taken to find solutions of energy problems .

2. The current energy problem is the result of many complex and inter related factors, including a world-wide demand for energy; inadequate efforts during the recent past to develop new energy resources; delays in the construc­ tion of nuclear power plants (ядерные электростанции), automobile changes that increase gasoline consumption .

Demand must, of necessity, be moderated, and intensive efforts must be made to expand the overall energy supply .

3. But energy is available to use in practically unlimited quantities from other sources. Large amounts of energy can be received from ocean tides (приливы) and currents, from huge underground steam deposits, from the power of wind and from the heat of the Sun. Here comes the Sun .

The idea of heating houses with the warmth of the Sun has become po­ pular in the last few years. Since the U.S. News and World Report first told [ about solar heated homes near Washington some years ago, many similar proj­ ects have appeared around the country. In many places schools are using solar units to provide classroom heat .

4. Most solar-heating systems coming on the market use a black sur­ face to absorb the Sun’s heat Engineers cover the surface with glass which lets in the rays, but holds heat. The heat is transferred to water that runs through small pipes. The hot water is then circulated through the house .

It is estimated that 40 million new buildings will be heated by solar energy by the year 2000 .

The solar cell (батарея) is another way to produce power from the Sun .

It converts sunlight directly into electricity. These cells are used with great success in the space program, but remain far too expensive for wide-spread application .

In the meantime, solar homes are being built and lived in from Califor­ nia to Connecticut. The next step is mass production of homes, office buildings and schools-all heated by the Sun .

5. Putting the wind to work researchers are showing great interest in the age-old windmill (мельница). Several big companies are now studying windmills. These companies are to analyse windmills ranging from 100 to 2,000 kilowatts. The smallest would provide sufficient electricity to power several homes, the largest could provide electricity to a small village .

2J Аннотация Аннотация специальной статьи или книги - это краткая характери­ стика оригинала, излагающая его содержание в виде перечня основных ] вопросов и иногда дающая критическую оценку .

Объем аннотации обычно не превышает 500 печатных знаков .

При составлении аннотации на статью или книгу на иностранном i языке нужно проделать следующие операции:

а) выписать название статьи (книги), фамилию и инициалы автора на иностранном языке;

б) дать перевод названия статьи или книги;

в) дать выходные данные журнала на иностранном языке, номер, год издания, место издания, том, серию выпуска, количество страниц ан­ нотируемой статьи (от - до), количество рисунков, таблиц, библиографи­ ческих названий и т.д.;

г) дать очень краткое изложение содержания статьи .

Образец аннотации текста Аннотация New Energy from Old Sources (Новые ресурсы энергии из старых источников) .

Automobile Engineer, vol. 82 № 5, 1973, New York В этой статье рассматриваются вопросы получения энергии от таких ис­ точников, как солнце и ветер .

Реферат Реферат - это конспективное изложение содержания статьи или книги, передающее ее основной смысл. Реферат содержит в обобщенном виде все основные положения оригинала .

Объем реферата определяется степенью важности реферируемого материала, хотя практически средний объем реферата не превышает 2000 I печатных знаков .

Рефераты должны составляться по определенной схеме:

1. Автор, название работы (на иностранном языке); перевод названия .

2. Выходные данные (см. схему составления аннотаций) .

3. Краткое содержание работы .

4. Выводы или резюме составителя реферата .

–  –  –

“ни. Вследствие того, что залежи полезных ископаемых, являющихся в на­ стоящее время основным источником энергии, истощаются, необходимо разрабатывать способы получения энергии из других источников. В каче­ стве таковых автор предлагает использовать тепловую энергию солнца, ветер, приливные течения и подземные запасы пара .

В статье приводятся данные о возможности отопления жилых домов за счет солнечного тепла и снабжения электроэнергией небольших поселков от ветряных мельниц .

Упомянутые в статье источники смогут дать в будущем неограни­ ченные возможности получения энергии .

Part II. Architecture (Compiled by Associate Professor L.N. Yerokhina) Unit I

1. Find in the text “Egyptian Architecture” words very close to Russian and copy them Египет ('i:d3ipt]; арки; пирамиды; колонна; капитель; карниз; египетский;

обелиск; пилон [pailan]; символический; лотос(овый) [loutas]; рель­ ефный) [rl'li:f]; камера; мумия [m/vmi]; фараон [fearou]; Джосер ['zousa];

некрополь [naknpalis]; Саккара [saskara]; Имхотеп [I'mhoutapJ; ступень(чатый); пирамидальный; мастаба ['mcrstaba]; династии; гигантский;

Сесострис [sesastris]; Лишт; саркофаг [sa:'iofagas]; весить [wel]; тонна;

Хатшепсут [ hast/ apsat]; колоннады [lo la 'n e ld z ]; Карнак [ ka:nak]; ко­ лоссальный [ka'bsl]; гипостиль(ный) [haipousta.il]; Аменхотеп [a'menhoutap]; Муг; Луксор [Uksa:]; сфинксы [sflgkslz], Птолемей [ tallinlz], Александр (Македонский) [sllg'za:nda]; трон; традиционный;

манера, Гор [houras], Филе ['fili:]

–  –  –

I 3. Translate the text orally and in quick tempo .

Iw TEXT: Egyptian Architecture

1. The architecture o f Egypt developed from the 3 millennium B.C .

I to the Roman period. Its most outstanding achievements are its massive firnerI ary monuments and temples built o f stone for permanence, featuring only postI and-lintel construction, corbel vaults without arches or vaulting. This archiI tecture gave the world the earliest buildings in dressed stone, invented the colI umn, capital and с I omice. Features peculiar to (= characteristic of) the ancient Egyptian architecI tore also include the obelisk, the steeply battered pylon, the symbolical lotus Vcolumn, and incised relief decoration without any structural relevance .

2. The pyramids o f the Old Kingdom, 2700-2300 B.C., majesticalI ly planted on the desert edge, are the most spectacular o f all funerary works .

I They were built to contain the burial chamber and the mummy o f the phaiaoh .

[ The world’s first large-scale monument in stone is Zoser’s necropolis at SakI kara (= Saqqara), built c. —2760 B.C. by Imhotep, the earliest named architect .

| The six great steps of the Step Pyramid indicate how the pyramidal form I evolved as a brilliant inspiration from the simple mastabas, or (= that is) recI tangular tombs of the earliest Egyptian dynasties .

3. In the Middle Kingdom, 2134-16S0 B.C., the gigantic pyramid gaI ve place to smaller-scale pyramid tombs. Earlier styles were slightly simplil fied and less durable materials were used (as in the pyramid o f Sesostris 1 at I Lisht). But the sarcophagus in the tomb chamber assumed vast dimensions and I might weight as much as I SO tons .

4. Great buildings began to be erected once again in the New Kingdom, с. 1570-1085 B.C. The most notable monuments are the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut (the only woman-pharaoh) at Deir el Bahari (c. 1480 B.C.), with its pillared halls, colonnades, and gigantic ramps connecting the different levels; the magnificent Great Temple at Kamak devoted to Amon as the universal god o f Egypt. The main glory o f the Great Temple is the colossal hypostyle hall, started by Amenhotep III. This temple was linked with the Temple o f Mut and the large Temple o f Amum at Luxor by processional ways flanked by sphinxes .

5. The final revival took place under the rule o f the Ptolem ies, whom Alexander the Great had established on the Egyptian throne. Numerous temples survive from this period (323-30 B.C.), still built in the traditional manner but slightly more elegant and less cnishingly inhuman; e.g. (= for ex­ ample) the temple o f Horns at Edfu and the temples on the island o f Philae .

4. Make edited written translation o f the text and explain your translating decisions .

5. Change the words in italics (a) with their synonyms (b) .

a) 1. The most outstanding achievements o f Egyptian architecture are its massive fu n e ra ry monuments and temples. 2. The architecture o f An­ cient Egypt featured only post-and-lintel construction, corbel vaults w ithout arches and vaulting. 3. The pyramids were built to contain the b urial cham ­ ber and the mummy o f the pharaoh. 4. The composition o f the Stepped Pyra­ mid o f Zoser indicates how this type evolved from the simple m astahas. 5. In the Middle Kingdom the gigantic pyramid gave place to sm aller-scale py ra­ mid tombs. 6. Typically Egyptian architecture also includes the obelisk, the steeply battered pylon, the lotus column, and the incised relief decoration .

b) remarkable, notable, prominent, distinguished; attainm ents, results;

impressive, colossal, gigantic, huge; mortuary, burial; landmarks, memorials; as well as, both... and; was characterized by, was marked by; column-and-beam, post-and-beam, pillar-and-beam; with neither... nor, free from, not having;

constructed, erected, put up, created; for containing, to house, for housing;

room, compartment; arrangement, design; shows, demonstrates, displays; such a; sort, model, form; developed, resulted, originated, grew, emerged; primitive, ordinary, unpretentious; was replaced/substituted by; sepulchres; characteristi­ cally; comprises, includes, incorporates; carved; ornamentation); too

6. On the basis of “Great Pyramid" and uGreat Sphinx" make a dia­ logue using extra materialfrom reference books concerning Egyptian archi­ tecture .

G reat Pyram id. The largest o f three pyramids at El Gizeh (= Giza) near Cairo, which were built as tombs for royalty (= pharaohs). The square base av­ erages 230.4 m on a side; it rose2 in 201 steps to a height o f 146.6 m; more tan 2,S00,000 blocks o f granite and limestone were used in its construction, elieved to have been built for King Khufvi (= Cheops) o f the IV dynasty. The illy one o f the Seven Wonders o f the world still in existence .

G reat Sphinx. The most celebrated4 example o f a sphinx, near the treat Pyramid o f Giza, hewn5 from a single sandstone6 knoll ( - hill), with the xum bent (= lying) body o f a lion and a man’s head; 74.4 m long, 20.1 m igh, and 4.2 m broad at its widest point; the head is 8.7 m high from chin to rown. At one time a small temple stood between the forepaws .

. равняется в среднем; 2. поднималась, возвышалась; 3. известняк; 4. знаменн­ ый; 5. выдолбленный, вырубленный; 6, песчаник(овый); 7. подбородок; 8. пеедние лапы

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2. Find English equivalents from the text “Ancient Greek Architecture and

Town Planning” and memorize them:

грек, греческий; акрополь [s'knpalis]; Афины [ асОэп/.]; пропорция; клас­ сически идеальная архитектура; факт; копировались; Парфенон j [pa:0inan]; цивилизация; план; Крит; Микены [ma'isi:ni:]; форма колонн:

Ассирия; полис; компактный; элементы; типичный; Плутарх [plu:ta:k]:

вал; агора [ аедэгэ]; культурный; религиозный; гавань [ heivn]; порт; ор­ ганизация; Приена [р п ш ]; эллинистический [, heli'nistik]; фонтаны; теат­ ры; гимнасии; Александрия; Коринф [-1опп8]; орнаментированный I \Make presentation o f your written translation of the text and discuss the (3 .

peculiarities o f ancient Greek Architecture .

TEXT: A ncient G reek A rchitecture and Town Planning The subject of my talk is ancient Greek Architecture and Town Planning .

My introduction is going to be very little. I’ll give you one or.two sentences. It is of interest to note that, commenting on the buildings on the Acropolis at Athens .

Plutarch remarked: “They were created in a short time for all time. Each in its fineness was even then at once age-old; but in the freshness of its vigour it is, even to the present day, recent and newly wrought (= worked, = made)”. In my view no better description o f the aims and achievements o f Greek architecture has ever been given.... Have I made my point clear?.. .

It is no exaggeration to say that the ambition o f the ancient Greek archi­ tects was to discover eternally valid rules o f form and proportion; to erect buildings human in scale yet suited to the divinity o f their gods; to create, in other words, a classically ideal architecture. It should (also) be said that their success may be measured by the fact that their woiks have been copied on and off for some 2,500 years and have never been superseded. I dare say, though severely damaged, the Parthenon remains the nearly perfect building ever ere­ cted. I have forgotten to say that the Greeks derived much from other Mediter­ ranean civilizations - the plan o f the temple from Crete by way o f Mycenae, the columnar form from Egypt, the capital from Assyria .

I’m coming on now to speak about Greek cities. The polis was the ur­ ban nucleus o f the city state. I think the Greek city with its clearly defined li­ mits, compact urban form and integrated social life, often represents unparal­ leled achievement to modem planners. The following is terribly informable .

The basic elements o f the typical Greek city plan comprise the acropolis, the enclosing city wall, the agora or market-place, residential districts, one or mo­ re leisure and cultural areas, a religious precinct (if separate from the acropo­ lis), the harbour and port, and possibly an industrial district. I am convinced that the organization o f these parts - with the exception o f the last two - into a city is best exemplified by Priene. To all this must be added that Hellenistic (after 323 BC) cities contained public fountains and theatres; specially devised | council chambers; gymnasia, schools and libraries; even public baths and laI vatories. It is worth mentioning that cities like Alexandria and Corinth had a I limited form o f street lighting .

In conclusion... I’m going to sum up what been said. The main great I achievements o f Greek architecture are its perfectly designed and ornamented i trabeated temples and its conception o f the city itself as a work o f art. I’d betI ter stop here. We’ve told a lot today .

| Thank you very much for your kind attention .

1 4. Translate next sentences in the written form .

I Г. Древние греки создали (to create; to produce) классическую идеальI ную архитектуру. 2. Работы древнегреческих зодчих копировались (to I гору, to imitate) везде и всюду в течение 2,5 тысяч лет. 3. Много зданий в I мировой архитектуре было навеяно (to inform, to suggest) Парфеноном. 4 .

IK VI в. до и. э. греческие города достигли (to attain, to reach, to rise) высоких уровней цивилизации. S. Градостроители-эллины заимствовали (to I derive, to borrow, to import) гридерон из близлежащих стран к V в. до н. э .

1 6. Храмы Акрополя в Афинах сильно разрушены (to ruin, to destroy, to damage) временем. 7. Мы сделали зарисовки (to sketch, to draw) знамениI гых античных построек. 8. Творения зодчих Древней Греции никогда не I Зыли превзойдены (to supersede, to surpass) .

1 5. Read the following mini-texis and make a Dialogue explaining the diference and similarity in Greek and Roman theatres .

G reek Theatre, an open-air theatre constructed by the ancient Greeks;

| jsually built on a hillside, with no outside facade. The orchestra, on which the I actors and chorus performed, was a full circle; behind it was the skene, a temi эогагу or permanent building for the actors’ use. In the classic theatre, the I seating area (around and facing the orchestra) usually occupied approximately I -hree-fifth o f a circle .

Roman T heatre, an open-air theatre constructed by the ancient Ro­ mans; sometimes built on a hillside, but more often on level2 ground - usually 1 with a richly decorated outer fafade, with a colonnade gallery and vaulted enI ranees for the public. The orchestra usually was a half-circle; behind it was a I stage3 having richly decorated proscenium and stage background4 .

11. временный; 2. равнинный; 3. сцена; 4. задник (сцены) 11 Translatefrom English into Russian orally and pay special attention to

t the words below the text:

G reek House. The ancient Greek house varied in design according to tiie period and the wealth o f the ow ner, but there were common features. The po u se was divided into two parts: the men’s apartments (andron) and the women's apartments (gynaeceum or gynaekonitis). The entrance door of the hou- i se opened into a vestibule (prothyron): on both sides of the vestibule, in the in-1 tenor, were the doorkeeper’s and shops for business and work. The vestibule f led to an open court (aula) which was surrounded on three sides by columns, in | the middle of which was the altar of Zeus Herkeios, the patron deity5 of do- I mestic life. Large houses usually had a second court entirely ( - wholly, = com- | pletely ) surrounded bv columns. At the sides6 of the aula were rooms for eating, I sleeping, and storage, as well as cells8 for the slaves9. On the sides of die court i opposite the vestibule there were no columns, but two pilasters which marked I the entrance to an open room or vestibule called the prostas or para-stas. On one i side of the parastas was the sleeping room of the master1 and mistress1 of the j house (thalamos). Some houses had an upper story, usually smaller in area than \ the lower story. The roof2 of the Greek house was flat13. The rooms usually !

were lighted (= illuminated) throughMdoors which opened into a court .

I. богатство, материальные ценности; 2. владелец, собственник^, мастерские; I

4. двор; 5. бог-покровитель; 6. стороны, бока; 7. хранение, склад; 8. маленькие I помещения; 9. рабы; 10. хозяин; 11. хозяйка; 12. крыша, кровля; 13. плоский; 14 .

через, при помощи

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2. Find in the text given below English equivalents to the following words:

ордер; база; антаблемент [en'taeblat/э]; колонна; дорический; ионический; коринфский [ka'nnOian]; тосканский [’t/vskan]; композитный; архи­ трав ['a;kitreiv]; фриз; карниз; центр; оптическая иллюзия; диаметр; эллиптический; интерколумний ['intdksldmni'ei/n]; дважды; спираль(ный); во­ I люты [va'lju:ts]; акант(овый) [э'каелвэ5];энтазис [’entasis]; дентикулы (зубчики, сухарики) ['dentilz]; диагональный); пьедестал; модильоны [nu'diljanz]; мутулы; капитель; характеризуется; пилястры (Т )Г ranslate “Orders o f Architecture” in the written form and supply your translation with graphical materialfrom extra architectural sources .

TEXT: Orders of Architecture

1. The orders are the highest accomplishment of the pillar and beam construction. In classical architecture, the order is a column with base (usually), shaft, and capital, and entablature, decorated and proportioned according to one of the accepted modes. The Greeks developed the Doric, Ionic, and Co­ rinthian orders. The Romans added the Tuscan and Composite .

The entablature is the upper part of a classical order, between columns i and pediment, consisting of architrave (the lowermost part), frieze (in the midr die), and comice (the uppennost part) .

The columns have entasis or the slight swelling towards their centres. Its ! object is to correct the optical illusion that the column is thinner in the middle ] if its sides were straight or parallel .

2. The Doric is the oldest order subdivided into Greek Doric and Ro­ man Doric. The former is the simplest and the most massive, it has no base, as on the Parthenon. Its stylobate usually has three high steps. The columns are about five and a half diameters high. They have 20 elliptical flutes, separated only by sharp edges. The intercclumniation or clear space between the col­ umns is about one diameter and a third. The height of the entablature is rather more than twice the diameter of the column. Roman Doric was like Greek Do­ ric; but it did have a base, and was less massive .

3. The Ionic order originated in Asia Minor in the mid 6 century B.C .

It is characterized by a moulded base; tall, slim column shafts with 24 semi­ circular flutes separated by flat fillets. The columns are between eight and ni­ ne diameters high and a little more than two diameters apart. Its capitals have large volutes, or spiral scrolls. Its fascinating entablature has continuous frie­ ze, usually dentils in the cornice. It was less heavy than the Doric and less ela­ borate than the Corinthian .

4. The Corinthian order was an Athenian invention o f the 5lh century B.C. It is the slenderest and most ornate of the three Greek orders. In its gen­ eral proportions it is very like the Ionic. It is characterized by a high base, so­ metimes a pedestal; slim, fluted column shaft with fillets; bell-shaped capital with 8 volutes and two rows of acanthus leaves. It has an elaborate cornice. At first it was used for interiors only. Generally speaking, there are very few Greek examples. It was much used by the Romans for its showiness. The Ro­ man abacus was sometimes enriched with egg-and-dart, as were also parts o f the architrave. The Roman comice was very richly treated and often has modi 1lions carved with acanthus .

5. The Tuscan order is a simplified version o f the Roman Doric, hav­ ing a plain frieze and no mutules in the comice. The columns are unfluted. The mouldings are fewer and bolder .

6. The Composite order is a late Roman combination of elements from the Ionic and Corinthian order. This order is really a variety o f the Corinthian .

Its abacus has the plan of the Corinthian abacus - a square with convex sides .

Under the projecting angles there are large volutes placed diagonally and, in some cases, springing from behind the band of egg-and-dart borrowed from the Ionic .

7. Any order whose columns or pilasters rise through two or more sto­ reys o f a building is called the Colossal order. Sometimes it is also named the Giant or Grand order. Its opposite is the Miniature or Dwarf order. The Ro­ mans applied it to windows or tabernacles (= decorative niches often topped by canopies and housing statues) .

4. Think over not less than 3 variants more o f the presented Dialogue .

Translate it into English .

А.: Давай обсудим архитектурные ордера .

Б.: Не возражаю. Мне хотелось бы узнать что-нибудь о дорическом ордере .

А.: Насколько мне известно, он довольно-таки мощный1 по своим пропорциям. Дорическая колонна имеет подушкообразную2 капитель, то есть эхин, и квадратную плиту4, называемую абакой .

Б.: Что ты знаешь о дорическом антаблементе?

А.: Он имеет фриз с чередующимися триглифами6 и метопами7, а в карнизе имеются* мутулы, усеянные9 гуттами1 и каплями11 .

Б.: Какой памятник является самым характерным примером доричес­ кого стиля?

А.: Это Парфенон12 .

Б.: Разве это так?

А.: Я в этом не сомневаюсь. Парфенон - самый древний сохранив­ шийся пример дорического ордера .

Б.: Интересно отметить, что дорический, тосканский, ионический и коринфский ордеры были описаны1 Витрувием1 (46-30 гг. до н. э.) в его десяти книгах “De Architecture”. Это единственный полный1 трактат1, который сохранился1 с античности .

А.: Большое спасибо за информацию .

Б.: Не стоит благодарности .

I. sturdy; 2. cushion-like; 3. echinus [e'kainas]; 4. tablet; 5. alternating; 6. trigliphs;

7. metopes; 8. there are; 9. studded with; 10. guttae; 11. drops; Parthenon [равтэп]; 13. described; 14. Vitruvius [vi'tru:vjas]; IS. complete; 16. treatise;

17.Юsurvive/that survived

5. Using dictionaries translate mini-texts orally and expand the basic text with this material Erechtheion, Erechtheum, a temple on the Acropolis in Athens (421S B.C.); the most important monument of the Ionic style, including a fine example of a porch of caryatides .

Monument of Lysicrates, a choragic monument in Athens to the vic­ tory in the contests won by Lysicrates in 334 B.C. when he was leader of the chorus. From a slender square base rises a small round temple; six engaged Corinthian columns surround its circular wall and support the entablature, on the frieze of which there is a representation of a scene in the legend of Diony­ sus; over the entablature is a flat dome made of a single block of marble and from the center of the roof rises a finial of acanthus leaves, formerly crowned by the tripod which was the prize of victory. It is the earliest known instance of the Corinthian order used on the exterior .

6. Findprinted matters about Kazakhstani architecture and make a review in

English. Discuss several points:

a) Architecture and design of modern Kazakhstani dwellings;

b) Architecture of industrial enterprises,

c) Landscape Kazakhstani architecture .

–  –  –

2. Find English equivalentsfor the given words in the text: "Roman Archi­ tecture” and using these English words make a presentation about Al­ maty architecture .

Тектонический; логичный; горизонтали; вертикали; пластичный; ар­ ка; (имеют) тенденцию; декоративный элемент, псевдопериптерапьный;

орнаментация; домус; инсула; вилла; сгруппированы; симметрично; ат­ риум; атрий; перистиль(ный); декрет (закон); традиционный; фер­ м е р с к и й ); экстерьеры; портики; солнце; церковь; христианский; ви­ зантийский; утилитарный; тема

3. Translate the text in the written form. Compare your translation to your classmates'. Explain the translating modifications you've made TEXT: Roman A rchitecture

1. Whereas Greek architecture is tectonic, built up from logical series of horizontals and verticals, Roman architecture is plastic with much use of rounded forms (arch, vault, and dome), so that buildings tend to look as if they had been made of concrete poured into a mould. In Greek and Hellenistic ar­ chitecture the column was the most important member; in Rome the column was often degraded to merely decorative uses, while the wall became the essential element. Hence the Roman predilection for pseudo-peripteral temple, and for elaborately carved entablatures and other ornamentation. But the true greatness o f the Romans lay in the creation of interior space .

2. In domestic architecture three types were developed; the domus or town-house; the insula or multi-storey apartment house or tenement block, and the villa or suburban or country house. The domus derived from the Greek and Hellenistic house and was usually o f one storey only and inward-looking, the rooms being grouped axially and symmetrically around the atrium (a quadran­ gular court) and one or more peristyle courts .

The street facade was plain and defenestrated. The insula had several identical but separate floors and was of­ ten vaulted throughout with concrete construction. A decree o f Augustus limi­ ted their height in Rome to 75 ft. The villa was derived from the traditional farm-house and was more casual and straggling in plan than the domus. Their exteriors were enlivened with porticos and colonnades, rooms were designed to catch the view, or the sun in winter or the shade in summer .

3. The final phase o f Roman architecture from the 4th to the 6th centu­ ries, primarily in church building, is called Early Christian architecture. It gave rise to Byzantine architecture .

4. A purely utilitarian theme in Roman architecture, which produced quantities o f houses, apartment buildings, factories, roads, bridges - all those amenities which have returned to the world of architecture only in recent times gives the Roman a claim to be the only true precursors of the modem architect 4 Agree or disagree with thefollowing statements. Enlarge your statements .

1. The Greek architects preferred rounded forms such as arch, vault, and dome. 2. The Romans had a predilection for elaborately carved entablatures. 3 .

In Greece the column was the most important member. 4. Roman architecture developed a purely utilitarian theme. S. The Romans derived little from do­ mestic architecture o f other civilizations. 6. The final phase of Roman art of building is called Early Christian architecture .

5. Translate the text without a dictionary. Find the information you would like to insert into the text “Roman Architecture” .

Roman architecture reached its apogee in the Pantheon, Rome (c. AD 100-25, with a dome 141 ft in diameter). It is based on a sphere, the height of its walls being equal to the radius of the dome. Comparison of the Pantheon with the Parthenon reveals the contrast between the tectonic and extrovert na­ ture o f Greek architecture and the plastic, introvert nature of Roman architec­ ture. This is equally evident in the most typically Roman of all buildings, the basilica, which with its interior colonnades, is like a Greek temple turned out­ side in. Other typically Roman buildings are: themiae, with their rich decora­ tion and complicated spatial play; amphitheaters, of which the Colosseum, J7 Rome (AD 69-79) is the largest; triumphal arches, a purely decorative type of f building, always of the Corinthian or Composite order .

6. Give consecutive translation o f the text:

Roman house. The ancient Roman dwelling1consisted o f a quadrangular2 court (atrium) which was entered by the door o f the house and which served as j the common meeting place for the family. An opening1 (compluvium) to the sky provided light and served as a chimney4 and as an inlet5 for rain which fell into the impluvium, a tank sunk6 in the floor beneath7. The tablinum served as the master's office. In some homes a garden surrounded by side buildings and covered colonnades was added at the back o f the house; it was called the peristylum and usually was entered through corridors (fauces) located near the tablinum. Great houses had a kind o f entrance hall ( - vestibulum) raised above the street and approached by stairs9. In the ordinary house, there was only an j indication 0 o f one (=vestibulum); the door led directly into the ostium ", which opened directly into the atrium. In later Roman houses, a second storey became usual. As the dining room was generally in the upper storey, all the rooms in the upper storey were called coenacuia1. There were three-storey houses in Rome as early as the end of the republic .

1. жилище; 2. четырехугольный; 3. проем; 4. дымоход (ср. камин); 5. входное отверстие; 6. погруженный, зарытый; 7. ниже; 8. позади; 9. лестница; 10. зд .

намек; 11. прихожая; коридор; 12. обеденные комнаты .

7. Present your Dialogues:

1. Ancient Roman Art o f Building .

2. Ancient Greek and Roman Architecture Compared .

3. Roman Domestic Architecture .

4. Ancient Greek and Roman Dwelling Compared .

–  –  –

2. Find English equivalents for the given words in the text “Byzantine Art o f Building” .

Византия; империя; кульминация; Константинополь; турки; арки;

декоративные элементы; стиль; император Ю стиниан; акведуки; св. Со­ фия; Константин; Анфимий из Тралл; Исидор из Милета; типично; нартекс; крест, экседры; Равенна; мозаика; мавзолей Галлы Плацидии; базиликальный; Собор св. Марка в Венеции; апсиды; Христос; апостолы; Ва­ силий; фантастический; внутренний; восьмиугольный; представлять (ср .

репрезентация); вклад (ср. контрибуция); многочисленный; цвет (ср. ко­ лер); коренной; основной (ср. радикальный); цитадель, крепость (ср .

форт); приблизительно (ср. аппроксимация); главный; больница; опреде­ лять (ср. дефиниция) .

3. Give written translation of the following text and discuss ways o f trans­ lation you used .

TEXT: Byzantine A rt of Building

1. The architecture of Byzantium, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the culmination o f Early Christian architecture. This style developed after 330 B.C., spread widely, and lasted throughout the Middle Ages until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in I4S3. Byzantine architecture is characterized by large pendentive-supported domes (pendentives being the chief contribution o f the Byzantine style to the architecture o f the world), round arches and elabo­ rate columns, richness in decorztive elements, and colour .

2. The Byzantine style reached its climax in the reign o f the Emperor Justinian (527-6S). He built and rebuilt 26 churches, many hospitals, bridges, aqueducts, and fortresses .

3. The outstanding masterpiece of Byzantine church architecture is Hagia or Saint Sophia in Constantinople (now Istanbul). Originally built as a church by Emperor Constantine in AD 360; rebuilt in 532-7 by Anthemius Tralles (asisted by Isidore o f Miletus) and then again in 563 in a form very ne­ arly as it is today; became a mosque in 1453 with the Turkish conquest of the city. Its plan may be defined as a Greek cross inscribed in a square (typically Byzantine), with a n art hex at the west end. The chief feature is the huge dome, approximately 32.6 m in diameter, rising 56 m above the floor. It is carried on pendentives. There are half-domes at two ends which are, in turn, carried by smaller semidomed exedrae. The interior surface of the edifice is richly deco­ rated .

4. As early as the 5lh century the Byzantine style began to influence architecture in Italy, especially Ravenna, city of mosaics (St. Giovanni Batti­ sta, St. Croce and the so-called Mausoleum of Galla Placidia). The basilican St. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna (c. 536-50), and the octagonal S t Vitale, Ra­ venna (c. 526-47), are among the greatest and least altered of all Byzantine buildings. Later, Western buildings began to show more radical departures from Byzantine precedents - e.g. St. Marco, Venice, with its very rich marbleclad exterior .

5. The first phase o f Russian architecture was Russo-Byzantine style from the 11th to the 16lh centuries. It was derived from the Byzantine ar­ chitecture o f Greece. It is represented mainly by stone churches characterized by cruciform plans and multiple bulbous domes. Kiev was Russia’s first Christian centre. The domed Cathedral of St. Sophia, begun 1037, was the country’s first great Byzantine church. This brick-domed basilica had 5 aisles, terminating at the east end in semicircular apses, with open arcading around the other three sides. A striking Russian feature was the construction and ar­ rangement o f the 13 domes, representing Christ and the 12 Apostles. In Mos­ cow the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, in Red Square, is as fantastic in form as in decoration. It represents the culmination of the Russian Byzantine style .

4. Change the words in italics (a)for their contextual synonyms (b):

a) Byzantine architecture was the culmination of Early Christian architecture. 2. It is characterized by large pendentive-supported domes, round arches and elaborate columns. 3. The Byzantine style began to influence ar­ chitecture in Italy. 4. The interior surface of the edifice is richly decorated. 5 .

The outstanding masterpiece of Byzantine church architecture is Hagia Sophia .

b) the art of building, style; represented, featured; climax, apogee, peak, acme; features, exemplified marked; huge, giant; carried; cupolas; circular;

as well as, plus; carefully treated; pillars; started; affect, have an impact on, exert influence on; inner, internal; building, structure; sumptuously, luxuri­ ously; ornamented, embellished, adorned; famous, remarkable, spectacular;

chef-d’oeuvre; temple, ecclesiastical, religious; Saint-Santa, Holy or Divine Wisdom .

5. Give oral translation of the text and discuss different styles of architec­

ture:

Medieval Architecture is the summary term for the European Middle Ages from the 5* to the lSlh centuries, in particular the Byzantine, pre-Romanesque, Romanesque and Gothic .

Carolingian Style was the pre Romanesque architecture of the late 8й 1 and 9th centuries in France and Germany. So called after the emperor Charle­ magne (768-814). The Cathedral of Aachen is its best-known example .

Anglo-Saxon Architecture is the pre-Romanesque style of England fore the Norman Conquest (1066), which survived for a short time thereafter .

Characterized by massive walls and round arches .

Ottonian Style was the pre-Romanesque round-arched architecture of Germany during the rule of the Ottonian emperors in the second half o f the 10th century .

Ottoman Architecture was the later phase of Turkish Muslim architecture, from the 14th century onward, much influenced by Byzantine forms .

6. Give at sight translation of the text"The Romanesque Style" TEXT: The Romanesque Style

1.The Romanesque style was a compound1 of many influences - Ro­ man, Byzantine, Carolingian, Ottoman, Viking, Celtik, and Muslim. The principal countries in which Romanesque architecture flourished2 were Fra­ nce, England, Italy, Germany and Spain. This style must have appeared first in Italy, in Lombardy, late in the 9th century. Architecturally, it was an age of unceasing3 experiment, so that, despite4 affinities^ detail, few buildings of this period resemble6 one another very closely as a whole .

2. The Romanesque is characterized by clear easily comprehended7 schemes of planning and elevation, the plan with staggered9 apses at the east end of churches, the plan with an ambulatory and radiating chapels, plans (mainly in Germany) with square bayslu in nave, transepts, and chancel, and square bays in the aisles one quarter the area. The composition of the walls al­ so stress' clearly marked compartments1. 2

3. The early Romanesque had not yet the skill to vault major spans13 .

After I0S0 various systems were developed which differentiate regional gro­ ups: tunnel1 vaults in France, often pointed1 (Burgundy, Provence), and also in Spain; groin”’ vaults in Germany; domes in the South-West of France; rib1 7 vaults at Durham and in Italy .

4. In the exteriors the two-tower'* fa?ade plus a tower over the crossing is most typical of England and Normandy, whereas screen1 facade with no towers are characteristic of the South of France, and a multitude of towers over the west as well as the cast parts is typical of Germany .

5. The Norman style was a development of Romanesque architecture that came to England from Lombardy and France in the 10th century., It was widely adopted until the end of the 12th century; characterized at first by plain surfaces, massive circular pillars, round-headed arches and s i almost complete lack (= absence) of ornamentation. It later became less ponderous ( less massive), and mouldings were enriched by such decorative devices as the firer', chevron22, and lozenge*. The Romanesque lasted until the advent (= coming) of Gothic architecture in the middle of the 12th century .

1. соединение; 2 процветала: 3. беспрерывный; 4. вопреки, несмотря на; 5 .

близость, сходство; 6. похожи, имеют сходство; 7. понимаемый; 8. фа­ сад; вид сбоку; вертикальная проекция; 9. расположенный уступами; 10 .

пространственные ячейки; 11. подчеркивают; 12. помещения; 13. проле­ ты; 14. бочарный, полуцилиндрический; 15. стрельчатый; 16. крестовый;

17. ребристый; 18. (двух)башенный; 19. экран; 20. заимствован, усвоен, зд. распространен; 21. орнамент в виде переплетающихся валиков; узор из переплетающихся линий; резное или лепное украшение; 22. шеврон;

орнамент в виде красивых зигзагов; 23. ромб .

Unit VI

1. Learn thefollowing words:

–  –  –

2. Work out skills and habits o f consecutive translation while translating the

text:

TEXT. The Gothic Style Let us consider Gothic architecture. This style represented the High Middle Ages in Western Europe. It is generally said that it emerged from Ro­ manesque and Byzantine forms in France during the later 12th century. 1 have nothing to say to this. To all this must be added that its great works are cathed­ rals, characterized by the pointed arch, the rib vault, the development of the exterior flying buttress, and the gradual reduction of the walls to a system of richly decorated fenestration. It should also be said that Gothic cathedrals de­ pended for their enrichment chiefly upon sculpture and stained glass. The fol­ lowing is badly needed. Gothic architecture lasted until the 16th century, when it was succeeded by the classical forms of the Renaissance .

,1 want to reinforce the following. In France and Germany one speaks of the Early, High, and Late Gothic. The French middle phase is referred to as Rayonnant, the late phase as Flamboyant. It is of interest to note that in English architecture the usual divisions are Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular....If there’s anything you don’t understand, please ask me... .

No questions!... O.K.. .

I Now I come to Early English Gothic that developed from с. 1180 to c .

1280. It was based on Norman and French antecedents. An old term for it was Lancet architecture. Early English Gothic was often characterized by lancet I windows without tracery. Among its most important buildings are Wells, Lincoln, and Salisbury Cathedrals, Westminster Abbey, and the east transept of Durham Cathedral .

I’m coming on now to speak about the Decorated style, which develo­ ped from 1280 to after 1350. Its earliest development is called Geometric and 4} its later development - Curvilinear. This style - I mean the Decorated style was characterized by rich decoration and tracery. There were multiple liemes, and often ogee arches. The Curvilinear style evolved in the 2nd half of the 14A century and represented the richer period of the Decorated style. It is interesting to note that an old term for the later phases of the English [Decorated and the French Flamboyant style was Flowing style.J dare say that the principal works of the Decorated style are.the east parts -of.Bristol Cathedral and Wells Cathedral, the Lady Chapel at Ely .

Now we may pass to the next item. The Perpendicular, or Rectilinear, style was the last and longest phase of English Gothic architecture. It was developing in c. 1350-1550, and was characterized by vertical emphasis in structure, and frequently by elaborate fan vaults. I want to draw your attention to the following. The most important works of the Perpendicular style are the chancel of Glouster Cathedral, the naves of Canterbwyumd'of Winchester. I have forgotten to say that here also come St. George’s Chapel at Windsor, King's College Chapel at Cambridge, and Chapel of Henry VII at Westminster Abbey .

Here we can say that Gothic architecture flourished in France, England, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, as well as in Spain, Sweden, Czechia, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania... There was also the growth of towns in the Middle Ages .

The last part of my talk will be devoted to Gothic Survival It should be kept in mind that Gothic Survival connotes the survival of Gothic forms, parti­ cularly in provincial traditional building, after the advent of the Renaissance and into die 17th century, as distinct from Gothic Revival that originated in die 18th and culminated in the 19th century .

I’d better stop here. Thanks much for your attention .

3. Display your knowledge answering questions and giving extra information .

1. In British medieval towns streets were unlit, dirty and insanitary. (Ка­ кими? Где?). 2. Defence was a vital question for towns, and they were surrounded by city walls, or ramparts, and, in larger instances by a moat, or canal, also (Чем?). 3. English towns founded in the Middle Ages were often more symmetrical than the earlier ones, with wider main street intersecting at right angles (Какими?). 4. The pointed arch was being developed in the Middle East and Europe in the twelfth century (Где? Когда?). 5. Gothic designers experimented with new spatial forms and lighting (С чем?). 6. The pointed arch is particularly suited to the stone vaulting of a church because of its flexibility of design (Где? Почему?)

4. Insert English words fo r Russian variant and present simultaneous trans­ lation while working at the Dialogue .

А: (Давай обсудим) the Gothic style .

В: (Это хорошая мысль) Primarily this was the architecture of the pointed arch, the rib vault and the flying buttress, the stained glass windows.. .

А: (Прости, что ты сказал?) What is meant by the flying buttress?

B: This is an arch or half-arch transmitting the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part o f wall to an outer support or buttress .

А: (Понятно). (И интересно отметить, что) the walls were reduced to a minimum by spacious arcades, by gallery or triforium, and by spacious clerestory windows .

В: (Ко всему этому следует добавить, что) these are not isolated motifs. They act together and represent a system o f skeletal structure, with active, slender, resilient members and membranethin infilling .

A: But there may be no infilling at all. (Я правильно думаю, что) these motifs are not in themselves Gothic inventions?

В: (В этом нет сомнения). Pointed arches existed in Romanesque Burgundy, Southern France,.. .

А: (Если я не ошибаюсь) rib vaults had existed at Durham .

В: (Конечно). And the principle of flying buttress as halftunnel vaults under the roofs of aisles or galleries above aisles is also found in French and English Romanesque .

А: (На мой взгляд) the verticalism of Gothic churches is only rarely more pronounced than that of, say, St. Semin at Toulouse or Ely (both Romanesque churches) .

В: (А сейчас было бы лучше обсудить) castles .

А: (Не возражаю). (Вот пара слов о) keeps. The keep is a tower or donjon spacious enough to act as living quarters in time of war for lord or governor and the garrison .

В: (Но ты не сказал, что) it is for strength, not beauty, that the castles were designed. (Я собираюсь сказать тебе, что) England built some hallkeeps, i.e., keeps wider than they are high (for example, Tower of London) .

А: (Понятно. Болыпое-пребольшое спасибо) .

В: (Не стоит благодарности). See you soon!

5. Translate the titles o f the follow in g books and write them down in the alphabetical order .

I. Johnson P. British Cathedrals. L.: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980, 280 p.: ill. M 3

1. Cowen P. Rose windows. L.: Thames, 1979. 144 p. M 2

2. Simon H. The heart of medieval cities. Sketches of European town centres. Essen Bacht, 1975.199 p. M 2

3. Fletcher B. A history of architecture. 18th ed. L.: Athlone press, 1975. 1390 p.: ill. M 3; M 119; T 3

4. The world atlas of architecture/Forew.; JJ. Norwich. L.: Beazley, 1084. 408 p.: ill. М3

5. Benevolo L. The history of the city. Cambr.: Mass.: MIT. 1980 .

ION p.: ill. 10017011

6. Grodecky L. Gothic architecture. N.Y.: Abrams, 1975.442 p.: ill (History of World Architecture) M 3; M 52; 226Г107Х, 22613501. 233I721X,

7. Glifton-Taylor A. The cathedrals of England. L.: Thames a. Hudson, 1976. 288 p. 10017011

–  –  –

2. Give translation at sight .

TEXT: Oriental Architecture: Islam

1. Islamic, Muslim or Moslem architecture is the architecture of the peoples of Islamic faith. Its development from the 7th to the 16th centuries is also called Mohammedan, Muhammadan, Mahometan, or Saracenic architec­ ture. Muslim architecture expanded throughout world and as far as China and India, this taking place in the wake of Muhammadan conquests of Syria and Egypt, Mesopotamia and Iran, North Africa and Spain, Central Asia and India .

From those countries Saracenic architecture absorbed in turn elements o f art and architecture, producing a variety of great regional works and local deco­ rative styles .

2. A new building type was developed from the Christian basilica - the multi-aisled, arcaded, columnar, or pillared mosque. With the 12lh century from the vaulted, centrally organized Byzantine and Sassanian structures came the development of medresa (= madrasah), or teaching mosque. At first it was associated with the Seljuks in Anatolia (= Ancient Turkey) and Persia, and with the Ayyubids in Egypt. The medresa and the mausoleum often formed a single and imposing mausoleum medresa complex .

3. Moslem architecture uses many variations of basic architectural elements: pointed, round, horseshoe, “Persian”, multifoil, and interlacing arched;

bulbous, ribbed, conical, and melon domes; tunnel, cross-rib, and stalactite vaults; a wide variety o f crenelations. Surfaces are covered by abundant geo­ metric ornament (geometric because of the ban on human and animal repre­ sentation), rich floral and calligraphic decorations executed in stone, brick, stucco, wood, and multicolored glazed tile .

3. Translate the text in the writtenform .

TEXT: Oriental Architecture: India The architecture o f the Indian subcontinent was originally o f timber and mud-brick1 o f which nothing survives. Early Buddhist monuments, chaitya halls, stupa3 rails and to ranas4 clearly imitate wood construction, and timber buildings appear on relief representations. AH surviving architecture is of stone, using exclusively a structural system of post and lintel, brackets, and corbels. The basically simple Indian architectural forms are generally ob­ scured6 and overwhelmed7 by a rhythmical multiplication o f pilasters, cornices, mol-dings, aediculae8, roofs, and finials, and an exuberant' and sensuous1 0 overgrowth" o f sculptural decoration .

1. гяияннцй кирпич, сырец; 2. святилище, усыпальница, культовое сооруже­ ние; 3. буддийский священный насыпной курган, помещенный на платформу, окруженный внешней крытой галереей с каменным парапетом и четырьмя входными воротами; увенчанный навесом от солнечных лучей; 4. монумен­ тальные и богато украшенные входные ворота, входы, проемы внутри буддий­ ской ступы; S. поясок, выступ; ниша: 6. испорчены, искажены; 7. перегружены;

8. ниши со статуями божеств; 9. роскошный; избыточный; 10. чувственный; эс­ тетический; 11. разрастание; гипертрофия

4. Translate into English in the written form .

1. Существует много названий магометанской архитектуры. 2. В сарацинском зодчестве никогда не было изображений человека и живот­ ных. Там всегда был богатый геометрический орнамент. 3 В мусульман­ ской архитектуре наблюдается большое разнообразие зубчатых построек .

4. Рядом с мечетью всегда располагаются минареты. S. В наших средне­ азиатских республиках есть примеры айванов, т.е. навесов на деревянных резных колоннах. 6. В исламской архитектуре существовали не только подковообразные и круглые арки, но и стрельчатые, многолепестковые, переплетающиеся. 7. В странах, где была развита магометанская архитек­ тура, имеется много впечатляющих ансамблей из медресе и мавзолеев. 8 .

Уже за 3000 лет до и. э. в Египте существовали декоративные сады и парJ7 ки. 9. В Японии есть сады, состоящие лишь из камней и песка. 10. Здесг § должна разместиться главная площадь .

5. Look through the text and speak about Chinese biuldlhg materials, roofs, s types o f buildings .

TEXT: Oriental Architecture: China This highly homogeneous traditional architecture repeated throughout i the centuries established types of simple rectangular, lowsilhouetted buildings constructed according to canons of proportions and construction methods I which varied each dynasty and period and varied with from one region to an­ other. Stone and brick were used for structures demanding strength and perma­ nence, such as fortifications, enclosure walls, tombs, pagodas, and bridges .

Otherwise buildings were mostly constructed in a wooden framework of col­ umns and beams supported by a platform, with non-bearing curtain or screen walls'. The most prominent feature of the Chinese house was the tile-covered gabled" roof, high-pitched and upward-curving with widely overhanging eaves resting on multiple brackets. Separate roofs over porches surrounding the main buildings or, in the case of pagodas, articulating each floor created a distinctive rhythmical horizontal effect .

1. ненесущие стены между колоннами каркаса; 2. имеющий щипцовую крышу,

3. с крутыми скатами; 4. свесы крыши

6. Insert the necessary English material, work at the Dialogue in pairs, give consecutive translation .

TEXT: Oriental Architecture: Japan А: (Ты не против обсудить) traditional Japanese architecture?

В: (He против). Recently I’ve looked through many interesting Soviet and foreign books on it .

A: So have I. (Мне хотелось бы) to compare my observations and yours .

B: Japanese architecture is of timber construction exclusively. It devel­ oped under the strong influence of China, didn't it?

А: (Я абсолютно в этом уверен). By the way, there are pavilionlike structures, consisting of a wooden framework of uprights1 and tie beams4.. .

В: (Разумеется), they are supported by a platform, with non-bearing plaster5 or wood walls and sliding6 partitions7 .

A: Doors and windows are of lightweight material - often paper*. Pro­ portions of floor dimensions9, height and length of walls follow fixed stan­ dards .

В: (Ко всему этому надо добавить, что) the principle o f the truss1 0 was never exploited in Japan and thus the width of buildings was controlled by the length of timber available .

А: (Но ты не упомянул) when Japanese architecture originated. This was in the 5Л century AD. (Вот пара слов о) die tiled, hipped1 roofs which '1 I are widely projecting and upward-turning. They are on elaborate bracket sys­ tems. (Интересно... что ты знаешь о) Japanese architectural beauty?

В: It has been basically the beauty o f nonomamentation from the very beginning. (Если я не ошибаюсь) the ancient Japanese did not value1 sym­ 4 metry as much as other nations did .

А: (Да, в самом деле). And great emphasis was put on the integration. of buildings with their surroundings, the verandahs providing the transition .

В: (Рассказал бы ты мне о) such styles as Shinden style, Nagare style, Shoin style or Shimmei style?

А: (Понятия не имею). (Давай обсудим) Katsura .

В: (Давай). It was a detached1 palace for imperial princes of Japan, lo­ cated in Kyoto. The grounds contain numerous1 buildings .

A: In one of them there is a famous tea room noted1 for its unusually good lighting. Its magnificent1 gardens and the buildings are superbly1 inter­ related20 .

В: (Понятно. Большое спасибо) .

А: (Меня не надо благодарить) .

В: See you soon!2 1 A: Till next time22 .

I. наблюдения; 2. между прочим; 3. стойки; колонны; 4. поперечная связь; по­ перечина; анкерная балка; 5. штукатурный гипс; штукатурка; 6. раздвижной, скользяший; 7. перегород-ки; 8 бумага; 9. размеры, габариты, 10. (решетчатая) ферма; связка; II таким образом; 12. доступный, имеющийся в наличии; 13 .

четырехскатная (крыша); 14. ценить, дорожить; 13. отдельный, обособленный;

стоящий особняком: 16. многочисленный; 17. известный; 18. великолепный;

пышный; 19. великолепно, отлично; 20. взаимосвязаны; 21. до скорого (до сви­ дания!); 22. до встречи

–  –  –

2. Translate from English into Russian in the written form. Prepare the presentation about the Renaissance using extra material .

TEXT: The Renaissance

1. This architectural style developed in early 15* century Italy during the rebirth (or rinascimento) of classical art and learning. It succeeded die Gothic as the style dominant in all of Europe after the mid 16* century, and evolved through' the Mannerist phase into Baroque and in the early century into classi­ cism. Initially it was characterized by the use of die classical orders, round arches, and symmetrical composition .

2. In countries other than Italy the Renaissance started with the adoption of Italian Renaissance motifs, but the resulting styles (in Belgium, Czecho­ slovakia, Holland, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, partly in England) have little in common with die qualities of die Italian Renais­ sance .

3. Churches, palace, gardens, and well-organized open, urban spaces are the architectural works most often associated with this time. Great skill was exer­ cised in ordering the interior of buildings, ftequendy using the same motifs as had been traditionally associated with the exterior .

4. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) is said to have created die Renais­ sance and he was the first to work out and demonstrate the Renaissance system of perspective. His basic vocabulary - fluted pilasters carrying entablatures, columns supporting arches, unribbed vaults which are portions of the surface of a sphere appears in the Ospedale degli Innocenti (Florence), the first Renaissance building .

5. The austere Tuscan Doric fa9 of Donato Bramante’s (1444-1514) ade Tempietto San Pietro signalled the beginning of the early (б* century High Ren­ aissance or Cinquecento in Rome. The Italian Renaissance is assumed to have achieved the highest degree of perfection at that time .

6. In Rome Old St. Peter’s was demolished to build St. Peter's Cathe­ dral, the work of many architects, beginning with Bramante, whose ground plan was later changed from a Greek cross to a Latin cross. It is the largest church in the Christian World; has 29 altars in addition to the high altar; interior length, 187 m; width at front, 26.5 m; length of transept, 137 m. The dome (diameter, 42 m;

height, 123 m to the top of the lantern) built by Michelangelo, looks down on the wide expanse of St. Peter's Square (the Baroque masterpiece), laid out by Bemini and flanked by the Vatican, for which Bramante designed the main courtyards .

7. The Renaissance came to Russia remarkably early. On Kremlin Hill in ) j * Cathedral of the Assumption (1475) an Italian, Fioravanti. combined in a fiveomed cube the traditional Russian style with Italian Renaissance decoration and opstruction methods. The Cathedral of the Michael was designed in 1505 by J tlevisio Novi, another Italian. Within the Kremlin walls is the Faceted Palace, its a^ades incrusted with diamond studding or prismatic rustication, built с. 1490 .

8. In the 1620s it was Inigo Jones who brought the Italian Renaissance о Britain. His Queen’s House (its foundations were laid in 1616, but the elevaions and interior date from 1632-5) at Greenwich is an Italian villa sympathetif ally reinterpreted. The upper-floor loggia is very Palladian, as is also the twoirmed, curved open staircase to the terrace. The proportions, though, have been slightly altered and the general effect is long and low and very un-Italian. Inside, ' Jie hall is a perfect cube and symmetry prevails throughout. The Banqueting Hall '1619-22) in Whitehall is Jones’s masterpiece. His work set a pattern which proI vided the basis for the creations of Christopher Wren and the golden age of 19th Icentury British classicism .

3. Give definitions o f the italicized words and make your summary starting your utterance with the phase o f generalization,

1. Cinquecento; 2. Greek cross; 3. Latin cross; 4. loggia; 5. lantern; 6 .

arabesque; 7. Mannerism; 8. Trecento; 9. Quattrocento

a) Transition from Renaissance to Baroque (16th cent) characterized by unconventional use of classical elements, b) A cross with four equal arms,

c) The High Renaissance of the 16* century, d) A cross with three short arms and a long arm. e) The 14thcentury transitional style in Italy, characterized by intricate tracery, formalised foliage, interlacing and rounded arches, f) A windowed super­ structure crowing a roof or dome, g) Italian Renaissance art and ornament of the 15 century, h) Overall decorative pattern of acanthus leaves or scrolls, swags (= garlands), candelabrum shafts, animal or human forms, on panels or pilasters in Roman and Renaissance architecture, i) An arcaded or colonnaded gallery open on one or more sides, attached to a larger structure .

–  –  –

2. The Baroque style is characterized by spatially complex compositi­ ons. interpenetration of oval spaces, curved surfaces, and conspicuous use of I decoration (broken pediments, paired or coupled columns or pilasters), sculp­ ture and colour. There was an exuberant profusion' of motifs - festoons of flow- S ers and fruits, masks, scrolls, wreaths6, and trophies of weapons7. Baroque ar- !

chitects exploited effects of illusionism and made one art imitate the methods of the other. Sculptors introduced colour into their works in the spirit of a painter, architects used sculpture to support the members of a building and painters decorated the walls and vaults of churches with false architectural perspectives .

The Baroque culminated in the churches, monasteries and palaces of southern Germany and Austria in the early 18 century. The style prevailing in the re­

strained8 architectural climate of England can be called Baroque classicism, :

since the swelling forms of Baroque plans and elevations were never favoured in England .

3. The Rococo is assumed to have been the late phase of the Baroque, primarily French in origin. This style was first inspired by the shell-encrusted9 \ artificial fountainsand grottoes at Versailles, which were imitated in parks and .

gardens in the early 18,h century. The Rococo is represented by profuse, asym­ metrical, often semi-

Abstract

ornamentation and lightness of colour and weight, as opposed to Baroque grandeur. One can find an exuberant intermingling of t shells, C- and S-scrolls, rocks, seaweed", ribbons1, and carving and irregular acanthus foliation. The fashion of employing Chinese ornamentation in the 18* i ] century Rococo design was called Chinoiserie1. The Rococo spread throughout Europe and reached England in the mid 18th century, though some art historians think that England has no Rococo apart from occasional interiors. In Russia the then Italian style brilliantly adapted by Barto-lommeo Rastrelli to the needs of the nobility and the Orthodox Church may be termed Russian Baroque .

I. жемчуг; 2. взаимопроникновение; 3. бросающийся в глаза; впечатляющий: 4 .

разорванные фронтоны; S. изобилие, богатство; б. венки; 7. оружие; 8 .

сдержанный; 9. инкрустированный ракушками; 10. соединение; переплетение;

II. морские водоросли; 12. ленты; 13. [Ji:nwaz’ri:] «кигайщина»; 14. аристократия, знать, (высшее) дворянство

5. Point the m ost suitable places in the previous text which may be enriched

by the follow in g sentences:

I. In France the Baroque had been dark and ponderous. 2. The architec who created the Baroque in Rome were Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), Fran­ cesco Borromini (1599-1667) and Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669). 3. The Rococo shared certain features with the Baroque - complexity of forma, fusion of the arts and illusionism. 4. Rastrelli’s masterpieces are the Great Palace, Tsarskoye Selo (1749-56), and the Winter Palace, St Petersburg (1754-62), both with immensely long facades, and both painted turquoiseblue, with white trim .

P a r t III. C ivil E ngineering (Compiled by Associate Professor L.N.Yerokhina) I Unit I

I 1. Present oral translation o f the text:

The Development of the House The first houses in different countries of the world were made of wood .

At that time greater part of our planet was covered with thick forests. Even in those days men found ways of using wood as a building material. In some places they tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with hides (skins) of animals. In other places they covered them with leaves or grass .

The primitive people’s first houses were tents or huts. Primitive building required no tools. The invention o f tools permitted the cutting o f stones and timber. Stone was the most convenient building material3 in countries where ; there was not much wood but plenty o f stone .

People began to use stone widely to build their houses many centuries ago. With the development of stone cutting finer tools appeared .

The column has played an important part in the history of building. Most of the building of old times was based upon the column and beam method4 of construction .

About 4,000 years before our era Egyptian possessed great construc­ tional know-how (ability)*. They built simple houses by present standards .

They used bricks which in their most primitive form were not burned, but were hardened7 by being dried in the sun. Since the middle ages, brickwork has been in constant use everywhere, in every sort of construction and in every architectural style. They made flat roofs because there was very little rain in Egypt. Their buildings were simple in construction but very beautiful. We still admire their monuments, sphinxes and palaces .

Greek builders learned much from Egyptian builders. They built their houses with slanting roofs9 because the climate of these two countries differs greatly. Soon Greek builders became second to none1 in column making. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings .

The use of precast" concrete, a very advanced construction technique, has many advantages over other building materials. Precast building units can be assembled at the site all the year round in any weather. The precast concrete technique which is constantly being improved in our country, plays a great role in our extensive building program .

–  –  –

5. know-how (ability) - умение

6. to burn - обжигать

7. to harden - придавать твердость, прочность

8. since the middle ages - начиная со средних веков

9. slanting r o o f - покатая крыша IO.to be second to none - не иметь себе равных II.precast —сборный Hov a Small Brick House is Built

2. Look up the unknown words in the dictionary. Read the text, study it and then write и precis (конспект, краткое изложение). Find in the text ex­

amples to illustrate the effective use o f the connectives:

Houses are more than just bricks and mortar. Before any bricks are laid a lot of thinking and planning has to be done. The plot of land has to be chosen, and it is then decided what kind of house is to be built. Quite a lot of people all work together to make the house .

A surveyor measures the plot of land or site and makes a plan of it. An architect draws pictures of what the house will look when it is built He draws plans to show the size of the house, the shape of the rooms and where all the fittings must go in the house .

The plan of the house is drawn on to the plan of the site, ready for the builder. Copies of the plan are made and are given to the builder. He gives a copy to the men in charge of the different work that will have to be done. The builder then marks out the shape of the house on the site. He does this with wooden pegs and tape. Everything is now ready for the workmen to start. They dig away the top-soil and cut trenches about two or three metres deep along the tapes. The workmen mix cement, sand, pebbles and water in a cement mixer to make 'concrete. They use the concrete to fill in the bottoms of the trenches .

This is called laying the foundations. The walls of the house will be built on the concrete foundations .

The space between the foundations walls are filled with concrete. This is sometimes used as a base for the floor of the building .

The man who builds walls is called a bricklayer. The bricks are stuck to­ gether with mortar. To make the walls stronger the bricks must overlap each other. This is called bonding .

When the walls are just above the ground a layer of waterproof felt or slate is laid. This is called a damp-proof course and stops damp in the ground passing to the rest of the house. As the bricklayer works he often looks at the plans. Then he will know where to build in the doors, windows and ventilators .

A carpenter now begins to work. He is the man who does the rough woodwork of the house. When the walls are at the level of the first floor he puts in the wooden floor joists. These are strong wooden beams which will carry the upstairs floors and hold up the ceilings in the downstairs rooms. Then the joiner fixes the windows-ledges and when the walls are plastered he fixes the doors and other woodwork. .

Nearly all the woodwork in a house used to be done by carpenters and joiners on the building site. This took quite a lot of time. Today most of the woodwork is made at a joinery works. At the joinery works, machines plane the wood smooth and cut it to the right size. Machines also make the joints ready for the men to fit the pieces together .

Doors, window frames and even the stairs all come to the building site on lorries. They are ready to be fixed in the houses .

When the wails of the house are too high for the bricklayer to reach, the first scaffold is made. A scaffold is a platform of planks for the workmen to stand on. This is usually held up by a frame of steel tubes. Extra scaffolds are put up as the workmen need them. As soon as the men get on to the scaffold all the things they need have to be lifted up to them. Men used to carry bricks and mortar up ladders. Now there are many different ways of getting these things up to the scaffold. Some builders use elevators. These are like moving staircases. A man at the bottom puts the materials on, and a man on the scaffold platform takes them off. On tall buildings the builder may use a lift which can be moved to different places. All these thing help the workmen to build houses more quickly .

A lot of strong timber which we cannot see is used to make a roof. The highest beam is called the ridge. The sloping beams are called rafters. When the roof is on, many different workmen can come and finish off the house .

Plumbers work on all the water pipes of the house. They lay pipes to carry clean water into the house from the water main. Plumbers also lay pipes to carry waste water away to the sewers .

Glaziers put glass in the window frames to keep out the wind and the rain. When all the wires and pipes are in place the house is ready for the plas­ terers. They are the men who make the ceilings and walls nice and smooth .

The joiners finish all the woodwork in the house, and leave it ready for the painters and the decorators .

J^Look up all the unknown words in a dictionary. Write them down. Read The text and give it a title. Divide the text into several logical units. Express

the main idea o f each unit in the written form and give it a suitable title:

Houses are built of wood, brick, stone and concrete. Many new types of individual houses are made from reed slabs, rolled gypsum concrete panels or wooden sheets. A lot of houses are built of prefabricated blocks (prefabs). All the parts of such houses are produced on an industrial scale in factories and as­ sembled on the spot. The building process takes place under the supervision of formen and engineers. The structure is put up by bricklayers, carpenters, plumbers, painters, locksmiths, glass-cutters, etc. In the construction of a house the first step is to make a careful survey of the site and to examine the soil in order to find its bearing power. Next, the building lines are staked out After this, the foundations are built. The excavation is dug for the basement and then followed by the actual building of the foundadon walls below ground level .

Then the foundation work is finished by providing anchoring sills. That is the case o f a wooden building. In the case of a brick $fructure, the building o f the walls may be directly proceeded with. Foundations are to keep the floors and walls from contact with the soil, to act against the action of die frost and to prevent from settlement. The part upon which the stability of the structure de­ pends is the framework. It carries the loads which are imposed on it. To do this work properly and safely the floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the con­ struction must be correctly designed and proportioned. The designer deter­ mines the size of the walls, the floor joists, the beams, the girders and the parts which make up the framework. He also decides how they are to be spaced and arranged. The building of a wall consists in laying down courses of bricks and bonding them together with mortar. The instrument used by the bricklayer is called a trowel. In order to shape the brick to the necessary size or to chip it, the brick chisel and the hammer are used. Walls are constructed to enclose ar­ eas and to support the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid and hollow. Besides brick, stone, concrete and other natural and artificial materials are used for the construction of walls. When doors or windows are to be made, a lintel is usually inserted in the wall above the opening. The entrance leading into the house from the street is called the front door, from the yard - the back door. The sashes are placed in position only later and so, of course, are the windows panes. The panes are fastened in with the help of glazier’s putty. Sto­ reys are separated by several successive layers: the firestop joists and rough flooring. The regular flooring is placed upon the rough floor, being supported by stringers and girders. The staircase leads to the upper floors. The staircase consists of stairs (steps). When we ascend or descend from step we hold on to the banisters (handrails). The steps between two landings are called a flight o f stairs. Floor boards are laid in several different ways. Of these the more usual are: plain jointed, when the boards are simply laid side by said, a nail is being driven in through the boards into each joist. Tongued and grooved, one board can first be nailed and the other board, upon being slipped into it, will be kept down by the form of the joint. Thus the nails are prevented from appearing on the surface of the floor. Walls may be either covered with wall-paper or only plastered. In both cases, lath work is first made which is subsequently covered with plaster. The chief instruments used by the plasterer are the trowel and the float. The whole structure is crowned by the roof which covers the building and protects it from exposure to the weather. It ties the walls and gives strength to the structure. A complete roof consists of covering, sheathing, rafters, pur­ lins and roof trusses. The covering is the outer or weather-resisting coating of the roof. The materials mostly used for the covering are shingles, slate, tiles and iron. The sheathing is the layer o f boards or other material to which the covering is attached. The rafters are the inclined beams which support the sheathing. The purlins support the rafters. The roof trusses are the frames which support the roof and transmit its weight to the walls or columns of a building. The wall-plates are plates which are laid on top of the wall to distrib­ ute the weight transmitted by the trusses. The ridge is the highest horizontal line o f the roof. After the building o f the house proper is completed there will be need to make a number of connections: sewer and water pipes with faucets (taps). This particular part of the work is undertaken by plumbers, while elec­ trical, gas, and other connections are made by the electricians, etc. Architects have worked out the details o f a few types o f comfortable and inexpensive in­ dividual houses - summer cottages. These houses are so simple that anyone with a knack for building can assemble one of them himself .

4. Translate from Russian into English:

I. Кладка наружных стен дома идет быстро, так как их собирают из готовых блоков и панелей. 2. Несколько лет тому назад перегородки, от­ деляющие в квартире одну комнату от другой, сооружали вручную, по­ том штукатурили и красили. 3. Теперь перегородки прокатывают из гип­ са, песка и опилок. 4. Затем их поднимают краном и устанавливают в квартире. S. В настоящее время прокатывают железобетонные стены до­ мов, которые в S раз легче и в 1,5 раза дешевле кирпичных .

5. Study the Dialogues and point out which of the Dialogues contain the most important importation .

Dialogue I A: What are the three materials most widely used in construction?

B: I’m quite sure they are lime, gypsum and cement. Right?

A: Right! Now tell me for what purpose these materials are used?

B: They are used for the purpose o f binding together masonry units .

A: What kind of masonry units do you mean?

В: I mean stone and brick. Don’t you agree with me?

A: Are those three materials used as constituents of wall plasters?

B: They are, yes. All of them are used as constituents of wall plaster .

Dialogue 2 A: What building materials are at present considered to be the most im­ portant ones?

B: It goes without saying that structural steel and concrete are!

A: May we consider concrete to be an artificial conglomerate?

B: Yes, we may. But remember that it’s an artificial conglomerate of crushed stone, gravel or similar inert material with a mortar .

Dialogue J A: Can you tell me what the most accurate method of measuring pro­ portions is?

В: I can. yes! It is to weigh the required quantities of each material .

A: And how do you think this may be done?

B: Well, you see, this may be done if the proportions are based on vol­ umes or weights .

A: I'm sure this method is being extensively used. But where?

B: In a lot o f central mixing and in central proportioning plants .

A: Where else is this method being used?

B: It is also very widely used in large building construction .

Dialogue 4 A: The chief control tests made on concrete are workability and strength, aren’t they?

B: Quite true! That is what a building engineer should always bear in mind .

Dialogue 5 A: Why do you think such profound changes have taken place in the nature o f city development?

B: They have taken place under the influence of changing social sys­ tems, and also the progress of the productive forces .

A: And I should add to what you’ve said, “the scientific and technical revolution” .

B: You’ve taken the words out o f my mouth!

A: The percentage o f the people living in towns and cities continues to grow from year to year .

B: Now mind you, the number o f big cities is also growing fast A: Did you know that our planet already has over 300 cities with popu­ lations greater than a million?

В: I didn’t know the exact number of such cities, but I did know that there were plenty o f them .

Dialogue 6 A: The other day I read an article which said that by the year 2000 there will be about 3,500 cities with populations greater than a million .

B: So that means all those people will need homes to live in .

A: Yes, that’s true. As many as 600 million families will need new homes .

B: What measures do you must think be taken to keep urbanization in check?

A: These problem have been causes o f concern to city fathers, town planners and the public for a long time now .

В: I know that. But what measures do you think must be taken?

A: Frankly, I really don’t know .

B: Neither do I .

I nit II

I. Read the text carefully and then render it in Russian:

Types of Buildings The majority of building codes divide buildings into classes based upon the manner1of their consuuction, use, or occupancy2 .

The following division into classes applies to the maimer of construc­

tion:

1. Frame construction3 .

2. Nonfireproof constructions:

(a) Ordinary construction;

(b) Slow-burning construction .

3. Fireproof construction .

Frame construction embraces all buildings with exterior walls of wooden framework sheathed4 with wood shingles or siding; veneered5 with brick, stone, or terra cotta; or covered with stucco6 or sheet7 metal. Such buildings naturally have floors and partitions of wood and are considered as comprising the most inflammable type of construction .

Nonfireproof construction includes all buildings with exterior walls of masonry but with wood floor construction and partitions. Slow-buming con­ struction designates heavy timber framing designed as far as possible to be fire resistant, the heavy beams and girders of large dimension proving far less inflammable than the slender joists of ordinary construction .

Fireproof construction includes all buildings constructed of incombus­ tible material throughout, with floors of iron, steel, or reinforced concrete beams, filled in between with terra cotta or other masonry arches or with con­ crete slabs. Wood may be used only for under and upper floors, window and door frames, sash, doors, and interior finish. In buildings of great height the flooring must be of incombustible material and the sash, doors, frames, and interior finish of metal. Wire glass is used in the windows, and all structural and reinforced steel must be surrounded with fireproof material, such as hol­ low terra cotta and gypsum tile to protect the steel from the weakening effect of great heat Notes

1. manner - способ

2. occupancy - занятость; заселенность

3. frame construction - каркасная конструкция

4. to sheathe - обшивать

5. to veneer - облицовывать

6. stucco - штукатурка

7. sheet - лист(овой)

8. masonry - каменный

2. Read the text, translate in the written form:

Bearing Wall and Skeleton Frame From the point of view of method of construction buildings may divided

into the following groups:

1. Bearing1wall construction;

2. Skeleton frame construction .

Bearing wall construction has been the method o f structural design em­ ployed from the earliest days. By this method the loaded floor and roof beams rest upon the exterior and interior walls, which in turn transmit the loads to the foundation. It is evident that the walls must be o f sufficient thickness to carry the loads as well as their own weight; consequently, as the height o f buildings increased the required thickness of the walls and the weights brought upon the foundations became excessive and uneconomical .

Skeleton frame construction has been made possible by the develop­ ment of structural steel and later of reinforced concrete. According to this method the loaded floor and roof beams rest upon girders5running between the columns. The columns are placed along the building line and are known as exterior or wall columns; they also occur at required intervals within die body of the building, in which case they are called interior columns. A framework6 is thereby formed, the walls being carried upon die wall giiders at each storey level. The walls are consequently mere enclosures bearing no weight and are of the same thickness on all stories. The columns transmit the loads to the foundations .

Notes

1. bearing - несущий

2. skeleton - каркас

3. sufficient - достаточный

4. excessive - чрезмерный

5. girder - прогон

6. framework - ферма

3. Translate the texts at sight:

a) Floor Loads Before calculating the required sizes of beams, girders, or columns to support the weights upon them it is necessary first to determine the weights or loads supported by the structure. These consist of the dead loads and the live loads. By dead load is meant the weight of the construction itself, the walls, floors, ceilings, and permanent partitions. By live load is meant the weight o f the furniture, equipment, occupants, stored material, snow on the roof, and movable partitions. The live loads should include all except the dead loads .

Wind pressure, really a lateral load, is often classed as a live load but may be considered as producing a separate stress .

The various building codes specify the weights per square or cubic foot of wood, stone, steel, concrete plaster, terra cotta, and other structural materials comprising the dead loads. They likewise regulate the live load per square foot, which depends on the use or occupancy of the building and which must be em­ ployed in calculating the weights upon the structural members .

–  –  –

Unit Ш. Building Material С1лМаке written translation o f the text. Compare your variants. Find the I I most precise variant o f translation .

The Properties of Building Materialls Materials that are used for structural purpose should meet several re­ quirements. In most cases it is important that they should be hard, durable, fireresistant and easily fastened together .

The most commonly used materials are steel, concrete, stone, wood and brick. They differ in hardness, durability and fire-resistance .

Wood is the most ancient structural material. It is light, cheap and easy to work. But wood has certain disadvantages: it bums and decays .

Stone belongs to one of the oldest building materials used by man. It is i characteristic of many properties. They are mechanical strength, compactness, porosity, sound and heat insulation and fire-resistance .

Brick were known many thousands of years ago. They are the examples of artificial building materials .

Concrete is referred to as one of the most important building materials .

Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, crushed stone and water .

Steel has come into general use with development o f industry. Its manu­ facture requires special equipment and skilled labour .

Plastics combine all the fine characteristics of a building material with good insulating properties. It is no wonder that the architects and engineers have turned to them to add beauty to modem homes and offices .

All building materials are divided into three main groups: 1) Main building material such as rock and artificial stones, timber and metals. 2) Binding materials such as lime, gypsum and cement. 3) Secondary or auxiliary materials which are used for the interior parts of the buildings .

We use many building materials for bearing structures. Binding materi­ als are used for making artificial stone and for joining different planes. For the interior finish of the building we use secondary materials .

Natural building materials are: stone, sand, lime and timber. Cement, clay product and concrete are examples of artificial building materials .

2. Translate orally this text into English. Confirm your decision and choice of words .

Пластмассы к ак материал для строительных конструкций Пластмассы - это материал, который состоит из полимеров или их сочетаний. Большая легкость, значительная прочность, водостойкость яв­ ляются основными достоинствами большинства пластмасс. Эти свойства пластмасс позволяют создавать легкие, прочные, красивые, экономически выгодные конструкции .

Основными компонентами пластмасс являются синтетические смо­ лы. Эти смолы представляют собой высокомолекулярные соединения, полученные путем синтеза из низкомолекулярных соединений. Уголь, торф, нефть являются основным сырьем для смол. Смолы - это полиме­ ры. Полимеры - это гигантские молекулы, которые состоят из тысяч ма­ лых молекул - мономеров .

3. Study the texts and then translate them orally using a dictionary:

T im b er Timber is the most ancient structural material. In comparison with steel timber is lighter, cheaper, easier to work and its mechanical properties are good. On the other hand, timber has certain disadvantages. First, it bums and is therefore unsuitable for fireproof buildings. Second, it decays .

At present an enormous amount o f timber is employed for a vast number o f purposes. In building timber is used too .

Timber is a name applied to the cut material derived from trees. Timber used for building purposes is divided into two groups: softwoods and hardwoods. Hardwoods are chiefly used for decorative purposes, as for panelling, veneering in furniture, and some of them are selected for structural use because of their high strength and durability. In modem construction timber is often used for windows and door frames, flooring, fences and gates, wallplates, for temporary buildings and unpainted internal woodwork .

Timber cannot be used for either carpenters’ or joiners’ work immediately it has been felled because of the large amount of sap which it contains .

Most of this moisture must be removed, otherwise the timber will shrink ex­ cessively, causing defects in the work and a tendency to decay. Elimination of | moisture increases the strength, durability and resilience of timber .

Stone Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest days. Al­ most all famous buildings o f classic times, o f the medieval and Renaissance periods and o f the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were erected of stone. The art of making any structure in stone is called stone masonry. In some places stone was used because of the scarcity o f timber, but in other places stone was preferred because o f its durability .

The stones which are usually used for masonry work are as follows: 1 .

Granite. Granite is very hard, strong and durable. It is used particularly for basements, base courses, columns and steps and for the entire fa9ades. Its colour may be gray, yellow, pink or deep red. 2. Sandstone. Sandstone is com­ [ posed of grains of sand or quarts cemented together. Sandstones form one o f the most valuable materials. The durability of sandstones depends very largely upon the cementing material. Thus there are different kinds of sandstones .

Many sandstones are exceptionally hard and are selected for steps, sills, etc. It is an excellent material for concrete aggregate. 3. Marble. Marble is a crystal­ line stone chiefly used for decorative purposes. White and black marbles are used for ornamental decoration where the beauty o f the marble is shown to its best advantage .

4. Translate the text in the written form:

Существует три условия долговечности камней в постройках:

1) добывание их в карьерах невзрывным способом с обработкой инструментами без разрушения структуры; 2) отбор камней с более замк­ нутой системой пор и с преобладанием макропор над микропорами; 3) ограждение каменных элементов на фасадах зданий от пыли, грязи путем сглаживания поверхности или покрытия их специальными защитными средствами .

Кроме перечисленных причин коррозии наблюдается разрушение камня в результате покрытия фасадов зданий плотными штукатурками и I покраской. Отмечается особенно вредное влияние цементных штукатурок из-за их незначительной воздухо- и паропроницаемости. В настоящее время установлено, что известковые растворы для кирпичных стен обла- ;

дают преимуществами перед всеми другими, которые употребляются для кладок, штукатурок, расшивок швов и облицовок .

ULqit IV ' /. Translate orally passage after passage .

Metals and Concrete All metals are divided into ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals. Fer­ rous metals include iron, steel and its alloys. Nonferrous metals are metals and alloys the main component of which is not iron but some other element. Met­ als. in general, and especially ferrous metals are of good importance in varia­ tions .

Metals possess the following properties: 1) All metals have specific metallic lustre. 2) They can be forged. 3) Metals can be pulled. 4) All metals, except mercury, are hard substances. S) They can be melted. 6) In general, metals are good conductors of electricity .

These characteristics are possessed by all metals but the metals them­ selves differ from one another. Steel and cast iron are referred to the group of feiirous metals. Cast iron is the cheapest of the ferrous metals. It is chiefly used in building for compressed members of construction, as the supporting mem­ bers .

When an engineer designs a steelwork he must carefully consider that the steel frame and every part of it should safely carry all the loads imposed upon it. The steel framework must be carefully hidden in walls, floors and par­ titions. It is steel and metal that is employed as reinforcement in modern ferro­ concrete structures .

Steel. There are different kinds o f steel. Alloyed steel (or special steel) is corrosion-resistant steel. This kind of steel is widely used in building. Stain­ less steel is also corrosion-resistant steel. It is used for cutlery, furnace parts, chemical plant equipment, valves, ball-bearings, etc .

Non-Ferrous Metals. Non-ferrous metals have the following character­ istics: high electric and heat conductivity, high corrosion resistance, non­ magnetic qualities, light weight .

Aluminium. This is the oldest and best known light metal. It is used in aircraft, automobile, chemical and some other industries .

Copper. Copper is the best conductor of electricity. There are different alloys with copper. An alloy of copper and tin is called bronze. This metal is often used for making various ornaments .

2. Answer thefollowing questions:

1. What do ferrous metals include? 2. Is iron the main component of non-ferrous metals? 3. What properties do metals possess? 4. Do the metals themselves differ from one another? 5. Is cast the cheapest of the ferrous met­ als? 6. What must an engineer carefully consider when he designs a steelwork?

7. Where must the steel framework be carefully hidden? 8. Is alloyed steel cor­ rosion-resistant steel? 9. What is it used for? 10. Is aluminium the oldest and best known light metal? 11. Do you know that the best conductor of electricity copper is? 12. An alloy of copper and tin is called bronze, isn’t it?

3. Translate the text in the written form paying attention to Infinitive and Participial Constructions .

Aluminium in Structures Aluminium is not a new material. Probably the first example of largescale structural use of aluminium was in 1933 when the floor steel-work of a targe road bridge in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, was replaced with aluminium and the resulting saving in dead weight - about 1 ton\ft run - enabled the bridge to carry with greater safety the increased loads of modern traffic. Apart from the construction of aircraft, aluminium has thus a structural history of about only half a century. Extensive use of aluminium in buildings such as aircraft hang­ ers did not occur until about 30 years ago .

in many ways aluminium has been slow in making progress, mainly be­ cause of its cost: it is produced by electrolytic means which requires cheap hy­ dro-electric power. About 10 units of electricity are required to make 1 lb .

New reduction plants of large capacity have been coming into service in many parts of the world and these provide increased production with improved effi­ ciency. The use of aluminium in structures may well expand in corresponding manner as simultaneous advances are being made with the development of im­ proved aluminium materials and products .

The principal virtues of aluminium are lightness combined with strength and freedom from corrosion. The extent to which the latter two properties are developed depends on the alloy concerned .

The advantage of lightness - one-third the density of mild steel with nearly the same strength - is particularly of value where weight saving is of importance - in lift bridges, long span roofs, dome roofs, crane jibs and in a wide range of moving and portable structures .

H7)Head the following sentences and then make a short report in Russian

uoout aluminium:

1. Aluminium alloys can possess the strength of steel, though only a third the weight. 2. Cows give more milk when there are cool, heat-reflecting aluminium roofs on their dairy bams. 3. Aluminium offers a bright hope for energy conservation. 4. In direct contact with a heat source, aluminium is an excellent conductor. S. World’s lightweight champion in the long-distance transport of electricity, aluminium has virtually replaced heavier copper in tugh-voltage power lines. 6. Nearly indestructible, aluminium can be remelted over and over. 7. Aluminium is alloyed with small amounts of other metals .

и

8. Copper adds strength; magnesium imparts additional marine-corrosion re­ sistance. 9. Unlike copper or iron, aluminium does not occur naturally in me­ tallic form. 10. Aluminium exists only in combination with other elements, primarily oxygen, with which it forms ал extremely hard oxide known as alu­ mina. When tinted by traces of other elements, alumina can take the form of gems such as rubies and sapphires. 11. Constituting 8 per cent of the earth’s, crust, aluminium is the most abundant of metals, as well as one of the hardest to produce. 12. Even fly ash from coalbuming furnaces could become a source of aluminium. 13. Subduing the waves, aluminium alloys not only combine lightness with strength but stoutly resist salt water’s corroding effect .

14. When we recycle aluminium, we save 95 per cent of the energy needed to make new metal from bauxite. 15. Once you make aluminium it becomes an energy bank that you can tap over and over again. 16. The uses of aluminium are almost illimitable. 17. Aluminium panels sheathe the World Trade Center in New York. 18. Builders can use aluminium nails, screws, and bolts to install aluminium storm doors, screens, flashing, gutters downspouts, shingles, awn­ ings, and Venetian blinds - some 200 building products in all. jl9) In 1884, when aluminium was still as valuable as silver, a hundred-ounce tip o f the metal was chosen by architects to finish the 555 ft high Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., USA .

7nd the key sentences in all passages o f the text:

Concrete It is difficult to imagine modem structure without concrete. Concrete is the very building material which led to great structural innovations. The most important quality of concrete is its property to be formed into large and strong monolithic units. The basic materials for making concrete are cement, aggre­ gate and water. Cement is the most essential material and die most important one for making concrete of high quality. Cement is made of limestone and clay. It is burnt (calcined) at high temperature and ground up into powder. De­ pending on the kind and composition of the raw materials different types of cement are obtained. Portland cement, blast furnace cement are suitable for putting up marine structures .

Concrete is made by mixing cement, water, sand and gravel in the right amount. As soon as it thoroughly mixed it is poured into forms that hold it in place until it hardens. The crystals forming in the process of making concrete stick together in a very, hard artificial stone. Cement starts hardening one hour after the water has been added and the process of hardening lasts for about twenty-eight days. The process is called concrete curing .

The characteristics of concrete depend upon the quality of the materials used, grading of the aggregates, proportioning and amount of water. The most important requirements for concrete are: it should he hard, strong, durable, fire-resistant and economical. Concrete can be divided into two classes: mass or plain concrete and reinforced concrete I ferro-concrete) where it is necessary to introduce steel. Plain or mass concrete can be used for almost all building purposes. Ferroconcrete is used in building bridges and arches, dams and dockwalls, for structures under water, for foundations, columns, girders, beams .

The use o f concrete and ferro-concrete is almost universal .

Builders now produce two types of new building materials: alkali-slag concrete and silica concrete. In alkali-slag concrete cement is replaced by a mixture of granulated blast-furnace slags and sodium and potassium com­ pounds. The fillers can be sand or sandy loams containing various amounts o f clay, which usually cannot be used with conventional cement. The new mate­ rial has been tested successfully and is now being used for irrigation systems, roads, pavements and other structures. Silica concrete is light, fire-resistant and acid-proof. It contains no cement whatever. Silica concrete is widely used in aviation and in under water constructions .

'horten the text by omitting what is unessential:

Concrete The term “concrete” is used to describe a dense material composed of cement and aggregate mixed with water. The density o f such a material, and therefore many o f its properties, depend upon the density o f the aggregate .

Therefore there is a broad division o f concrete types into:

a) Dense concretes —composed of heavy aggregates .

b) Light-weight concretes - composed of light aggregates .

The aggregates are graded in size from fine to coarse in order to reduce the amount o f void space to be filled by cement .

There are “cellular” concretes made by using materials which foam or form gas during the mixing o f the concrete. These give a product o f very light weight, because after setting it contains a large number o f small voids .

The reduction in weight is accompanied by a considerable decrease in strength. Another type o f light weight concrete is made by “entraining” air bubbles in the mix to which a substance has been added to keep the bubbles stable during setting .

'Review. Render thefollowing into English:

1. Прочность хорош его кирпича, стали, природных камней со временем не меняется. 2. Бетон в течение длительного времени спо­ собен становиться прочнее. 3. Если принять прочность бетона за 100 процентов, то через 1 1\2 года она будет - 150, через 2 года - 200, а через 5 лет - 225%. 4. Плотный бетон морозостоек. 5. Прочность, во­ достойкость, плотность, морозостойкость делают бетон очень хорошим строительным материалом, пригодным для возведения гидротехнических со­ оружений. Бетон хорошо защищает от ударной волны и светового излучения .

6. Официальной датой появления железобетона считают 1867 год, когда французский садовник Ж. Монье получил первый патент на железобетон как строительный материал. 7. Ж. Монье делал из бетона цветочные горшки и кадки, небольшие бассейны для воды и другие изделия. 8. Первый железобе­ тонный мост был построен в 1875 году. 9. Русские инженеры оказали боль­ шое влияние на развитие железобетонного строительства. Русские инженеры использовали железобетон как прекрасный строительный материал в Ленин­ граде, Новороссийске и других городах. 10. Несколько промышленных и гражданских зданий, выполненных частично из железобетона, сохранились и по сей день. 11. В 1904 году недалеко от Николаева был построен первый в мире железобетонный маяк. 12. С конца XIX века в строительстве получили широкое распространение бетонные конструкции, внедрение которых было тесно связано с промышленным изготовлением портландцемента. 13. Желе­ зобетонные изделия и сооружения появились после успешного использова­ ния стальной арматуры. 14. Железобетон как строительный материал очень молод 8./Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Легкие бетоны изготовляют на пористых естественных или искусс венных заполнителях. 2. Легкие бетоны на пористых заполнителях приме­ няют для изготовления панелей для стен, плит перекрытий и конструкций каркаса. 3. Конструкции из легких бетонов следует применять при отсутст­ вии агрессивных воздействий. 4. Когда конструкции находятся в агрессивной среде (наличие агрессивных газов, паров, кислот и тл), мелкие трещины растянутой зоны бетона способствуют активному развитию коррозии арма­ туры. 5. Это приводит к снижению несущей способности конструкций. 6 .

Для борьбы с коррозией бетонных и железобетонных конструкций приме­ няют плотные бетоны, кислотостойкие бетоны, полимербетоны. 7. Каменные работы выполняются при возведении фундаментов, стен, столбов, арок, сво­ дов и других конструкций зданий и сооружений из естественных и искусст­ венных материалов. 8. Расширение области применения гипса и легких бето­ нов позволило возводить каменные конструкции из гипсобетонных, пенобе­ тонных и др. легкобетонных камней и плит. 9. Из асбестоцемента можно приготовить сборные панели для наружных стен, подоконники, облицовоч­ ные листы для внутренней и наружной отделки зданий и т.п .

9. Complete the sentences using the English equivalents fo r the Russian

words in brackets:

1. All metals are divided into (черные и цветные). 2. Ferrous metals in­ clude (железо, сталь и их сплавы). 3. Copper, aluminium and some other metals are referred to as (цветные металлы). 4. Metals in general, and espe­ cially ferrous metals are of (большое значение в строительстве). 5. All met­ als have specific metallic (блеск). 6. All metals, except mercury, are (твердые вещества). 7. All metals are good conductors o f (электричества). 8. (Сталь и чугун) are referred to the group o f ferrous metals. 9. (Чугун) is the cheapest оt the ferrous metals .

10. Retell the following in conversational Russian:

A rapid-hardening cem ent has been developed at the Zdolbunov Cem ent and T ile Factory. Its form ula includes sand and m inerals w hich contain oxides o f alum inium, iron calcium and m agnesium, the m ix being fired in kilns to clinker .

T h e new cem ent ow es m uch o f its quality to the com bination o f the con­ stituent minerals and the m anufacturing process. T he setting time o f the new cement is about 40 m inutes. In the case o f repair o f a foundation, for example, the structure is ready inside 40 hours. Furtherm ore, the new cem ent makes it possible to fabricate reinforced concrete products o f high strength in field con­ ditions .

T h e new material w ill effect a considerable saving in materials. At least 200 lb less cement w ill go to m ake every cubic yard o f stiff concrete. As a re­ sult reinforced concrete products will become lighter. The new cement will have many structural applications and will soon be available on a commercial scale .

In the following two texts explain the meaning o f the words and wordcombinations given in bold type. Render the texts in English or in Russian:

General Properties o f Cem ent All types o f cement shrink during setting. In a normal concrete the amount of this shrinkage will depend both on the proportion o f cement in the mix and the quantity o f mixing water employed. Provided enough water is present to enable the chemical action o f setting to take place, then the smaller the amount o f water the less shrinkage there will be. The type o f aggregate used has an appreciable ef­ fect upon both the amount o f water and the amount o f aggregate that can be mixed with given quantity o f cem ent Strength and durability o f concrete are linked properties in that they are both associated with the low w ater-cem ent ration. In addition to the proportion o f cement and the water cement ratio o f a cement prod­ uct the method of curing will also affect the amount o f shrinkage. Normally, the slower the drying the less shrinkage there will be. All cement products are liable to a considerable shrinkage during setting and hardening .

–  –  –

Ч2. Write a summary of thefollowing in English:

Мелкий заполнитель - песок - может быть речным или карьерным .

И каждый раз у него свой цвет. Цемент также бывает разных цветов .

Наиболее известен серый цвет. В декоративных бетонах применяют бе­ лые цементы и цветные (с добавкой красителя). Все конструкции из бе­ тона и железобетона по способу выполнения можно разделить на моно­ литные, сборные и сборно-монолитные .

Сборные железобетонные конструкции изготовляют на специальных заводах, затем доставляют на строительную площадку и здесь монтируют .

Монолитные конструкции бетонируют непосредственно на месте строительства. Арматуру и бетон укладывают в заранее установленную опалубку .

Ii. Render thefollowing into English and give the title:

^ По запасам древесины наша страна является самой богатой в мире .

Особенно велики запасы хвойного леса, которые используются в строи­ тельстве. Древесина обладает прочностью, имеет небольшую массу и ма­ лый коэффициент теплопроводности. Как строительный материал древе­ сина имеет ряд существенных недостатков: легкая возгораемость, гние­ ние, коробление и пр .

Полимеры - синтетические искусственные и природные смолы .

Исходным сырьем для получения стекла служат кварцевые пески, суль­ фат натрия, известняк и др. вещества .

Новым строительным материалом являются ситаллы и щпакоситаллы (силикат-кристалл) .

Бетон хорошо работает на сжатие и плохо на растяжение. Поэтому бетонные конструкции при небольших растягивающих усилиях разру­ шаются. Введение в бетон стальной арматуры позволило получить строи­ тельный материал - железобетон, в котором выгодно сочетается совмест­ ная работа бетона и стали .

Основными показателями механических свойств стали являются прочность, упругость и пластичность .

Ueit V

7.Translate the text from English into Russian. Check the meaning o f unlutown words using the technical terminology dictionary .

Gas Concrete Lime and silica are ground together to very fine limits. The silicious material can vary considerably in its composition. Much use is made o f such waste materials as fly ash from power-stations, blast furnace slag, as well as natural pozzolanas, pumice, etc. The degree o f foaming in the gas concrete, and thus its specific gravity, is determined by the amount o f aluminium pow­ der or other agent added. The practical limits o f the final density are between 13 and 90 lb. per cu. ft. If the gas concrete is allowed to harden on its own, it usually takes about three weeks before the final strength is achieved. It is more customary to accelerate the setting o f the gas concrete by steam hardening it in autoclaves with superheated steam at about 140 lb. per sq. in. The steam hard­ ening process takes about 15-20 hr. Air-cured gas concrete can be used for the m a n u f a c tu r e o f special components for the refrigeration industry. Such blocks are cast to special dimensions .

Gas concrete can be cast horizontally to form roomsized outer wall units .

It is possible to incorporate electric conduit pipes, piping for the cold and hot water systems and also drainage pipes. The units usually include windows and doors, and are reinforced by embedding steel mesh in the mix .

Gas concrete can be used as thermally insulating floor screeds or as an additional thermally insulating layer on top of a concrete roof .

Cast gas concrete is often used as the thermally insulating layer in “sandwich wall” units .

Gas concrete is often used as a thermally insulating layer when casting buildings by a continuous casting technique .

\2.\Find in the text key-sentences and render it into Russian .

Steam T reatm ent Process to Produce Therm oplastic M aterials and Hydraulic Cements This invention relates to the manufacture o f thermoplastic materials and hydraulic cements from certain glass compositions. More particularly, this in­ vention relates to the manufacture of such products through the steam treat­ ment o f glass powders in the alkali metal silicate composition field .

A thermoplastic material is one having the property of softening when heated and of hardening and becoming rigid again when cooled. Hence, such a material is normally hard at room temperature but will soften and become moldable, adhesive, and cohesive when heated to some higher temperature .

This property of thermoplasticity is well-recognized in such organic materials as cellulose acetate, polyethylene, and vinyl polymers and in glasses at tem­ peratures around and somewhat above the softening points thereof. The value o f this property is apparent in the forming of articles through molding, pressing, extrusion, rolling, etc., and in forming composite structures, laminates, and the like .

A hydraulic cement is one that is capable o f hardening under the influ­ ence of water. Hence, such a material, when mixed with water and allowed to stand, gradually sets up as a hard, massive solid structure. Portland cement is probably the best known material commercially o f this type .

Translate at sight:

Бетон как строительный материал применялся еще в глубокой древности (in ancient times). С XIX столетия после изобретения новых гидравлических вяжущих (binding agents) в первую очередь портландце­ мента (Portland cement), бетон снова стал широко применяться для строи­ тельства различных интересных сооружений .

Русские ученые уже с конца XIX века уделяли большое внимание созданию плотного бетона (paid great attention to consolidated concrete de­ velopment). Наибольшее развитие технология бетона получила после Ве­ ликой Октябрьской социалистической революции, начиная с 1924 года со времени первого крупного гидротехнического строительства - Волховстроя (since hydrotechnical construction site - Volkhovstroy) .

Вопросам общей технологии и теории бетонов, исследования физико­ механических свойств, защиты бетонов от коррозии и повышения долговеч­ ности (increasing durability) посвящены работы ученых: А.Е. Десова, СА .

Миронова, В.В. Михайлова, Н.В. Михайлова, М.В. Москвина и др .

Бетон - один из важнейших строительных материалов во всех об­ ластях строительства (one o f the most important building materials in all the fields of construction) .

Для гидротехнических сооружений большинство изделий делают из бетона марки 300 и выше. Это балки и балочные плиты (beam slabs) перекрытий, пролетов (spans) более 6 м между быками. Некоторые сбор­ ные (precast) гидротехнические сооружения изготовляют из бетона марки

200. К бетону для гидротехнических сооружений предъявляются высокие требования (high requirements) .

4. Study the Dialogues and write down sentences containing interesting in­ formation .

Dialogue / A: There’s something I want to ask you. May I?

B: Sure, you may! Why not? Go ahead!

A: What is the most important component of concrete?

B: Do you mean to say that you don’t know?

A: Honestly, I don’t! Tell me, please!

B: OK, listen. The most important component of concrete is cement .

Dialogue 2 A: M ay concrete be considered an artificial conglomerate stone?

B: Certainly, it may! Why not?

A: Y ou know how it’s made, don’t you?

B: Sure, I do. It's made by uniting cement and w ater into a paste .

A: W hat about sand? Isn’t sand used?

B: O f course, sand is used! How can you make concrete w ithout sand?

Dialogue 3 A: C oncrete has great compressive strength, doesn’t it?

B; Q uite true, it has enormous compressive strength!

A: D oes it have great ability to withstand tension?

B: Tension, you say? It has very little ability to withstand tension .

Dialogue 4 A: A re lime, gypsum and cement widely used in building construction?

B: It goes without saying that they are!

A: For w hat purpose are they so widely used?

B: They are used for the purpose o f binding together masonry units .

A: M asonry units? What kind o f masonry units?

B: D on’t you know? Masonry units such as stone, bricks and terra- cotta .

Dialogue 5 A: W hat qualities does a brick building possess?

B: A brick building is strong and durable .

A: Do you consider a brick building to be weather resistant too?

B: N aturally, I do! A brick building is weather resistant too .

5. Translate the given text orally and find exact Russian equivalents to the

terminology used:

Reinforced C oncrete Reinforced concrete is a combination o f two o f the strongest structural materials, concrete and steel .

This term is applied to a construction in which steel bars or heavy steel mesh are properly embeded in concrete. The steel is put in position and con­ crete is poured around and over it, then tamped in place so that the steel is completely embeded. When the concrete hardens and sets, the resulting mate­ rial gains great strength. This new structural concrete came into practical ap­ plication at the turn o f the 19thcentury. The first results o f the tests o f the rein­ forced concrete beams were published in 1887. Since that time the develop­ ment o f reinforced concrete work has made great progress. And the reasons o f this progress are quite evident. Concrete has poor elastic and tensional proper­ ties, but it is rigid, strong in compression, durable under and above ground and in the presence or absence o f air and water, it increases its strength with age, it is fireproof .

Steel has great tensional, compressive and elastic properties, but it is not durable being exposed to moisture, it loses its strength with age, o r being sub­ jected to high temperature. So. what is the effect o f the addition o f steel rein­ forcement to concrete?

Steel does not undergo shrinkage or drying but concrete does and there­ fore the steel act as a restraining medium in a reinforced concrete member .

Shrinkage causes tensile stresses in the concrete which are balanced by com­ pressive stresses in the steel. For getting the best from reinforced concrete the

following consideration should be kept in mind:

1. F or general use the most suitable proportions o f cem ent and ag ­ gregate are: 1 part cement, 2 parts sand and 4 parts o f gravel .

2. Only fresh water free from organic matter should be used for rein forced work. Sea water is not allowed .

3. Homogeneity o f the concrete is a very important requirement .

Steel constructions with reinforced concrete have become the m ost im­ portant building materials invented in centuries and they have given modem architecture its peculiar features .

6. What is the English for:

1. ячеистый бетон; 2. заливать бетон; 3. набирать прочность; 4 .

быть опубликованным; S. увеличивать, уменьшать прочность; 6. подвер­ гаться усадке; 7. вызывать растягивающие усилия; 8. использовать желе­ зобетон

7. Write a summary o f the text in English:

Бетон - это искусственный материал. Его получают в результате формирования и затвердевания правильно подобранной смеси (вяжуще­ го, заполнителей, воды и, в необходимых случаях, специальных добавок) .

Вяжущ ее в бетоне используют вместе с мелкими и крупными заполните­ лями .

В качестве заполнителей применяют самые различные сыпучие ма­ териалы (песок, шлак, щебень, гравий, керамзит). Чаще всего для полу­ чения бетона употребляют различный по величине заполнитель: от круп­ ных кусков щебня до песчинок. В этом случае пустоты между крупными кусками щебня заполняются частицами меньших размеров. Кроме того, мелкие частицы обеспечивают относительную подвижность крупных частиц, необходимую для лучшей укладываемости бетонной смеси .

О т плотности и объемной массы зерен заполнителя зависит объем­ ная масса бетона. В зависимости от этих показателей бетоны подразде­ ляются на особо тяжелые (обычные), легкие, особо легкие, теплоизоля­ ционные .

В особо тяжелых (предназначенных для биологической защиты от радиоактивных излучений на предприятиях атомной промышленности) бетонах применяют специальные виды заполнителей, которые имеют по­ вышенную объемную массу .

Особо тяжелые и тяжелые бетоны применяют как конструктивные материалы, например, при сооружении покрытий дорог и аэродромных полей. Конструктивные бетоны предназначены для восприятия нагрузки, возникающей в конструкциях в процессе эксплуатации сооружения .

Сейчас в строительстве ш ироко применяют ячеистые бетоны (пенои газобетон), которые изготовляются только из вяжущего и песка и со­ держат множество мелких замкнутых воздушных пор (ячеек). В ячеистых бетонах зерна заполнителей заменены воздушными ячейками, это дости­ гается или смешиванием бетонной массы (пенобетон), или применением газообразных веществ, которые вспучивают бетонную смесь (газобетон) .

Наличие этих пор уменьшает массу бетона и повыш ает его способность удерживать тепло .

Дерево, металл, пластмасса боятся воды, а бетон, набирая проч­ ность, способен твердеть под водой. Это свойство позволяет возводить из бетона на большой глубине такие сооружения, как фундаменты для мая­ ков, молы, доки, каналы, нефтяные вышки, бассейны, морские причалы .

В железобетонные коллекторы и трубы больших диаметров при необхо­ димости заключают целые реки. Многие годы уложенный бетон про­ должает набирать прочность .

Unit VI I. Expand the ideas o f the two texts (a and b) given below. Comment briefly on any aspect connected with concrete or with your research .

New Types o f Concrete

a) Not long ago a new building material was bom. Called alkali-slag concrete, most o f its components come literally from under foot. Cement is re­ placed by a mixture o f granulated blast-furnace slags and sodium and po­ tassium compounds. The filler can be sand or sandy loams containing various amounts o f clay, which usually cannot be used with conventional cement .

The new material has been tested successfully and is now being used for roads, pavements, irrigation systems and other structures. Specialists estimate that the use o f alkali-slag concrete will help save hundreds o f millions o f ru­ bles on the country’s construction projects .

b) Chemically resistant concrete (кислотоупорный) may be some­ times used in the construction o f structures attacked by chemically active me­ dia (среда), i.e. industrial, hydraulic and underground structures. It has been proposed to prepare a chemically resistant concrete using a binder (вяжущее), a vitreous sodium silicate (стекловидный силикат натрия). When such a vit­ reous silicate is dissolved in water, liquid (жидкий) glass is obtained. In order to assist in the solidification (затвердение) o f the liquid glass and increase its water resistance certain elements are added to the concrete composition. They serve to neutralize the alkali (щелочь) in the liquid glass and convert it into a water-insoluble (нерастворимый) compound. Thus, during the course of the neutralization of the alkali, free silica is evolved (выделяется кварц) from the liquid glass in the form of a gel (гель) which serves as a binder .

Chemically resistant concrete has not found wide application because it is completely permeable to aggressive, corrosive solutions. The Soviet scien­ tist V.P. Kirilishin decided to provide an improved alkalimetal-silicate based concrete. In accordance with his invention high-silica-alka-line glasses are practically insoluble in water even at elevated temperatures and are not suit­ able for production of liquid glass. However, when subjected to heat in the presence of finely divided quartz sand, the high silica alkaline glass does show some water solubility and has the ability to crystallize into quartz on the finely divided particles of the quartz sand .

In the present invention the silica binding agent is not present in the form of a gel that has the more thermodynamically and chemically stable crystalline form of free silica, namely quartz. This leads to good chemical, physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics for the binder and the chemi­ cally resistant concrete .

2.:

REVIEW 1. Translate into English

1. Железобетон —это вид бетона, полученного в результате соч ния бетона и стали. 2. Стальные стержни и стальная арматура укладыва­ ются в нужном положении и заливаются бетоном. 3. Бетон затвердевает, схватывается и приобретает большую прочность. 4. Сталь не подвергает­ ся усадке, она действует как сдерживающая среда в железобетонном эле­ менте .

REVIEW 2. Render thefollowing in English:

Проблема снабжения строительными материалами в пустыне чрез­ вычайно остра. Даже обычный гравий приходится везти сюда за сотни километров .

Ячеистый бетон представляет собой разновидность легкого бетона с равномерно распределенными по всей массе материала замкнутыми воздушными порами (85%) .

Пористая структура ячеистых бетонов достигается применением пено- или газообразователей .

По способу образования пористой структуры ячеистые бетоны подразделяются на пенобетоны и газобетоны .

Газобетон почти в два раза легче железобетона, из него удобно монтировать дома. Технология изготовления различных деталей проста и хорошо освоена. Уже действует первый завод по выпуску газобетона .

I J. Translute the text in the written form:

I _^ Concrete S tructures The world has suddenly become aware of the great resources o f ocean I and their potential for providing many o f man’s most pressing needs: energy, I food, transport, minerals and waste-disposal. However the seas present an extremely hostile environment, requiring cooperative efforts by many engineerI ing disciplines in order to achieve the necessary structures .

These structure must be strong, safe, durable and economical. ReinI forced prestressed concrete meets these criteria extremely well for many o f the I proposed structures, both fixed and floating. These include drilling, breakwaI ters, ocean pipelines, offshore nuclear power plants; ocean bridges and tunnels;

[ offshore airports and terminals; Arctic Ocean structures; barges, shops and I floating stable platforms; offshore expositions and even cities; sea floor chamI bers etc .

I 4. Translate the text at sight and comment on the history of skyscraper

f budding:

The First Concrete Skyscraper in the W orld The first reinforced concrete skyscraper in the world was built in 1902in Cincinnati, Ohio. The 16-storey structure demonstrated for the first time s the safety and economy o f reinforced concrete in fireproof construction .

Concrete was chosen as the structural material chiefly for economics; it offered the equivalent o f steel frames in load bearing capacity and other physi­ cal properties, yet was somewhat lower in c o st Engineers all over the world watched with great interest as construction proceeded smoothly along its 16storey route. Today this building is recognized by engineers as having revolutionized the building industry .

I 5. Render thefollowing in English and discuss the main points:

В настоящее время железобетон нашел широкое применение во. всех областях строительства и стал основным строительным материалом, i Из железобетона возводят промышленные сооружения, различные гражданские здания и жилые дома. Железобетон широко применяют в гидротехническом строительстве при постройке плотин, шлюзов, доков, набережных. Он является незаменимым материалом при строительстве под­ земных тоннелей и других сооружений, а также при горных разработках ' для крепления шахт. Железобетон используют при строительстве тепловых и атомных электростанций, аэродромов, шоссейных дорог, мостов и ' т.д .

На железобетонные конструкции расходуют примерно в два раза меньше стали, чем на металлические. В то же время железобетонные конструкции более огнестойки и долговечны .

Применение железобетона в строительстве дает возможность эко­ номить сотни тысяч тонн стали, поэтому замена металла железобетоном (там, где это экономические целесообразно) имеет большое народнохо­ зяйственное значение .

6. Translate the text at sight and then render it in English:

Concrete in the Oceans A compressive review o f the symposium on Concrete Sea Structures was held in September .

Papers covering a whole range o f concrete marine structures, such as barges, oil storage tanks, giant floating docks, and the related problems o f prestressing at sea, underwater placement o f situ concrete and foundation tech­ niques, new materials o f ferrocement and polymer concrete were widely pre­ sented at the symposium .

7. Read the text Point out in English in the written form what main themes

are dwelt upon:

Sand Concrete For many, many years nature has been destroying stone, changing it into sand. Now man is learning to do the opposite: he is using sand and cement to create materials which could compete with stone in strength and beauty .

At first the idea o f making concrete by using sand was completely re­ jected. It is common knowledge that concrete is made from gravel and cement, while a mixture o f sand cement is considered useful only to bind bricks. This idea has gripped the attention and minds o f scientists and engineers to such an extent that it is no easy task to cast doubt upon this universally accepted truth .

“Sand” concrete is made by putting the matrix under vibration which almost completely eliminates its weak points. Sand concrete has now become almost twice as strong as ordinary concrete with a course aggregate, and much cheaper as well. At present several varieties o f sand concrete have been devel­ oped .

8. Translate the text in the written form and comment on interpreters’ ways

and modifications you used while translating:

Dead and Live Loads. In designing a beam or column for a given posi­ tion in a structure, the first step is to estimate the greatest load it may be re­ quired to support. The total load is composed of the dead load, which com­ prises the materials o f construction (such as floor materials, partitions, col­ umns, and walls), and the live load, or that load due to human occupancy, fur­ niture, equipment, stored materials, snow, and movable partitions. The live load to be used in computations depends upon the use or occupancy of the building .

Building codes o f cities differ in their requirements for minimum live loads .

In certain classes of buildings, office buildings for example, there is al­ ways a possibility of the relocation of partitions. A general practice among de

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j iigners is to add 15 to 20 psf for movable partitions in tabulating the floor loads .

Unit V II /.

Translate the text at sight and in quick tempo:

Built-in Furniture Built-in components form a permanent, complete and integral part of the internal structure of a building. Therefore they are considered at the planning stage so as to be directly related in size and shape to the design and purpose of each room. They remain fixed units and are left behind as part of the structure if the ownership of the dwelling changes. Movable furniture, as we know, is usually taken away .

Built-in furniture, as a rule, always saves space1and materials. It is considered to be a valuable asset in small dwellings. Thus, a built-in wardrobe, planned to fit in where convenient, requires less space than a movable one o f similar ca­ pacity. This does not affect efficiency. It has the advantage of being fitted into an awkward com er, utilizing space which might otherwise been wasted .

Built-in furniture, especially the storage type, has always been preferred by many. But the tendency towards smaller dwellings has resulted in economy of space being achieved wherever possible. This has had an important effect on the development and use of built-in furniture .

Open planning, which has now been generally adopted, enables one room to serve purposes of several. The most practical method of defining the various areas are built-in units. Living and dining areas, for instance, can be separated by a low cupboard arrangement, designed as a bookcase and writing desk on one side, and a sideboard on the other .

Built-in furniture can be used to take the place of dividing walls, such as built-in wardrobes backing on to each other3 and separating two bedrooms .

Notes

1. to save space - экономить площадь

2. an aw kw ard - неудобный угол

3. backing on to each other - задними стенками друг к другу

2. Translate into English using the words of the text:

Встроенная мебель экономит место и материалы. Это особенно важно в небольших квартирах. В однокомнатных квартирах, в кухнях встроенная мебель имеет много преимуществ: одна комната может нести функцию нескольких. Встроенные элементы могут разделить одну комнату на не­ сколько частей. Так, встроенный книжный шкаф может отделить спаль­ ню от жилой комнаты, буфет - столовую от спальни и т.д. В кухне встро­ енные шкафы для хранения продуктов, также как и встроенные мойки и холодильники, очень удобны .

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1. Translate the text in the written form. Discuss the necessity o f the Study

Groupfoundation:

The International Lead and Zinc Study Group The Study Group was founded by the United Nations in 1959 and com­ prises lead and zinc producing and consuming countries aline from all over the globe. A strong participation from industry in its work is a particular feature of the Study Group .

Through an improved knowledge of the market and its probable devel­ opment and through consultations among the market participants the Study Group assists governments and their industries to make realistic decisions based on established facts. It thereby contributes to the smoothing and stabili­ zation of the market without imposing any restrictions on member govemso ments or business .

The Study Group provides opportunities for regular intergovernmental consultations on international trade in lead and zinc. It makes special studies of the world situation in lead and zinc. The Study Group considers possible solutions to any special problems or difficulties which are unlikely to be resolved in ordi­ nary development of world trade. Particular attention is given to providing con­ tinuous information on the supply and demand position and its probable devel­ opment. The Study Group does not interfere with national economic policies on lead and zinc nor does it impose any restrictions on member countries .

Membership of the Group is open to member countries o f the United Nations or of its specialized agencies which consider themselves interested in the production or consumption or trade in lead and zinc .

The member countries o f the Group represent about 90 percent of world production and world consumption o f both lead and zinc. The membership presently, comprises 32 countries. The Study Group makes an annual survey looking five years ahead of new mine and smelter projects or expansions planned throughout the world, in the field o f lead and zinc. Surveys are regu­ larly made o f principal uses, world trade and economic trends and their impact in lead and zinc. Periodic studies are made on joint production o f lead and zinc, trends in production and consumption, environmental and health control legislation and regulations worldwide .

The role o f the International Lead and Zinc Study Group will continue to grow. It will assist the new member countries and their industries to make ra­ tional decisions based on timely and reliable information and detailed analysis .

2. Translate the text in the written form and then analyze your translation

decision:

Study Group Activities Some examples of the Study Group work may illustrate its activities .

For instance, with a view to a better understanding of the driving forces behind the metal markets, a study was undertaken on the comparative development of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, magnesium and zinc .

During the 1960’s until the first oil crisis in 1973, ail of the six metals had high annual growth rates, aluminium even 10% and a traditional metal like lead still 4%. All of these metals were severely negatively affected by the first oil crisis in 1973-7S and consumption fell back steeply with zinc and alumin­ ium suffering most. Consumption recovered from 1976 to 1979 before being hot by the second oil shock when another decline in consumption followed 1982 metal demand has moved up again in market economics, but at a much lower growth rate than in the 1960’s .

An econometric analysis covering about three decades was conducted for the 16 major consuming countries in lead and zinc. This study revealed a close correlation between the development of industrial production and the consumption of lead and zinc. The first oil crisis resulted in a downward shift of consumption. Another downward shift has triggered by the second oils shock in 1979, reflecting the slowdown o f industrial production and high en­ ergy prices. From then consumption moved on lower levels than before but again in the same direction as industrial production. The development in in­ dustrialized countries was similar whereas some o f the newly industrializing countries like Korea hardly seemed to have been affected by the oil crisis in their demand for zinc metal .

As to the supply side, lead production has become more and more de­ pendant in secondary recovery which now accounts for over 50% o f the total lead production in market economics. This will probably have a dampening ef­ fect on the need for new lead mine capacities .

With regard to zinc the relative importance of secondary refined pro­ duction has remained almost unchangeable over the last 20 years. Besides us­ ing scrap to produce fully refined metal, the industry treats secondary zinc or lead containing materials for remelting or direct use .

3. Translate the text at sight:

Lead and Zinc Industries Perspectives Secondary materials will continue to be an important and increasing source o f supply for lead, mainly in view o f the rising number o f lead acid batteries and environmental regulations favouring recycling. With regard to zinc, environmental regulations, in particular those relating to the treatment o f steel plant flue dust, will also bring about an increased recovery o f refined zinc from secondary materials but from much lower levels than lead .

Overall lead and zinc metal demand will depend very much on the de­ velopment o f industrial production. A recession or slow down of growth would be felt very quickly in the metal using industries such as automobile, electrical and construction industries and others .

To some extent the trend towards lower intensity of use and continuation of competitive pressure from substitute metals and other materials will go on .

The Study Group has therefore stressed the need for industry to promote ac­ tively its metals in different applications and conduct research into new uses .

The studies have also shown that the consumption growth rates for lead and zinc and some other metals are higher in developing and newly industrial­ izing countries than in most of the industrialized countries. These countries may therefore merit particular attention .

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1. Translate the text passage after passage:

Zinc Consumption After three years o f healthy prices the world zinc industry in 1991 is again facing low prices, particularly in Europe. Since late 1990 low zinc prices together with low prices for the associated metals, lead and silver, have can caused a number o f mine cutbacks and closures in North and South America and in Europe and Australia. Looking beyond the economic showdown of 1990-1991, a resumption in the growth of zinc consumption is expected .

In the 1980’s Western World zinc consumption moved up to 2.3% per year despite the decline in zinc consumption caused by the serious 1962 reces­ sion and the lack o f growth since 1969. Beyond the economic slowdown of 1990-91, growth in the 1990’s is expected to be little over 2% per year with the fastest growing area continuing to be S.E. Asia at 5% per year .

Zinc dominant galvanizing market which accounts for 47% o f Western World consumption is expected to provide about three quarters o f the growth in zinc consumption. Capital spending for plant, equipment and infrastructure together with increasing use of galvanized steel by the world’s auto industry will underpin the growth of zinc for galvanizing .

The steel industry has responded in a dramatic fashion. The capacity of continuous galvanizing lines will increase by nearly one-third during the first half of the 1990’s. This will add about 500,000 metric tones per years o f zinc to Western World consumption by the mid I990’s .

The zinc industry has met the challenge of competing materials and will continue to do so in the future. The sharp rise in the use of galvanized sheet by the auto industry is due to advanced technology which allows galvanized sheet to be welded, formed and painted .

Zinc die-castings account for 15% o f Western World consumption. In the 1970’s zinc die-castings in the auto-industry were reduced substantially due to the energy crisis and the move to lighter weight vehicles. The zinc in­ dustry responded to this challenge by developing their wall zinc die-castings and improved plating processes. This has stemmed the decline in zinc diecastings and some modest growth is likely in the 1990’s .

In zinc market, zinc sheet for architectural applications the industry has responded to the challenge of competing materials by developing improved zinc sheet alloys and enhanced methods for roof installation. This activity has been largely confined to Europe where a significant growth jn zinc sheet has taken place due to the fine efforts o f Rheinzinc. This has been achieved by working with outside experts, roofers and architects who can relate to the users and their needs .

In the 1990’s we believe zinc will continue to meet the challenge of competing materials with innovative approaches to higher performance, lower cost zinc products .

2. Translate the text orally:

Zinc Mine and Metal Production To remain competitive in the global marketplace mining operations have forced to dramatically improve productivity with reduced work, forces and better methods and machines. As an example, in the late 1980’s mines in Aus­ tralia cut the work force in half and produced more ore .

In 1990 Cominco’s Sullivan mine was closed for ten months due to a la­ bour dispute. The mine commenced production in November 1990 with a new mining plan and enhanced productivity. This will allow the veteran Sullivan to operate at a profit in the 1990’s given reasonable metal prices, its last decade of an eighty year life .

In Canada, Brunswick Mining and Smelting had a ten month strike which ended in May 1991. Productivity at the mine, die Western World’s sec­ ond largest zinc mine, should significantly improve the situation, thus allowing this mine to be better and able to compete in the global marketplace .

These illustrations are indicative of management decisions being taken at many of the world’s zinc mines to reduce costs and improve competitive­ ness. This is a step towards reduced overall zinc costs which will tend to mod­ erate prices in the medium term .

The same is true for metal production with many zinc smelters now modernizing their tank rooms, installing pressure leaching, etc. and at the same time expanding to cut operating costs so as to be better able to compete glob­ ally .

In the first half of the 1990’s new zinc smelting capacity additions in the *4 Western World with total some 700,000 metric tons. Only three new greenfield I zinc plants, with two in India and one in Iran, are included representing 1500,000 metric tons of about 20% of the total increase. The remaining | 550,000 metric tons of additional capacity will come from expansions at existing zinc plants. Along With most of these expansions modernization pro­ grams are involved which further improve productivity and reduce operating I costs .

This additional mine and smelter capacity is needed to meet rising zinc i consumption to the mid 1990’s. We believe a long term zinc price above the | current level will be required to bring out enough production to satisfy the ini crease in consumption. At today’s prices about onethird of Western World zinc + production is in a less position. Consumers of zinc above all want a long term i stable supply of zinc metal at fair prices. These productivity improvements at I mines and smelters, together with added capacity, will do more than anything с else to ensure zinc remains competitive against substitute materials in the marketplace. The world zinc industry is responding with additional mine and ' smelting capacity but clearly prices above today’s level will required to trigger adequate new investment decisions .

s 3. Make summary in English and in Russian:

Recycling of Zinc Of the major metals, zinc has a relatively high recycle rate which is rising as increasing tonnages of steel plant flue just are treated to recover both zinc and iron units. For years secondary zinc has been recovered from the processing of old brass by brass mills, from auto shredders where the main zinc component is die-castings and from dresses and residues. These recycling activities will continue. Recycling for a cleaner environment will gain moi mentum in the 1990’s, including the recycling of zinc .

As an example, in the USA, recovery of zinc from steel plant flue dust | began in 1980. Currently close to 100,000 metric tons per year of zinc is reI covered, triple the amount recovered in 1988. We believe that recovery o f zinc | from steel plant flue dust in the big three in industrialized areas of Europe, i North America and Japan will be equivalent to an above ground mine equal to

i about one and a half Red Dog’s in a few years time, i.e. approaching /2 million

! metric tons per year of zinc .

When the environmentally conscious I990’s come to an end at the turn of the century materials which are easy recycle are expected to be uppermost in the needs of specification writers and design engineers. Zinc and its com­ panion metal, steel, have a decided advantage in that they are both easy to re­ cycle and non-toxic. As an example of this thinking, European auto companies are considering entering the business of recycling scrap vehicles. At the Octo­ ber 1990 International Lead and Zinc Study Group meeting in Geneva, a repre­ sentative of Mercedes Benz made the point that car companies must not design cars using the materials which are easy to recycle. Cars designed today are produced five years later in 1995 and. are scrapped ten years later in 2005 .

Steel is easy to recycle than in 1995. Model cars could have more metal than today despite the concern for weight reduction .

Some 60% of world refined zinc consumption is from secondary sources, with the balance from concentrates. In addition considerable amounts of secondary zinc are recycled directly into products such as zinc dust and zinc oxide and accordingly do not pass through the refined stage. A significant tonnage of zinc contained in scrap brass is reprocessed directly into brass semi­ finished products as brass mills. While figures on scrap zinc are loose, it is es­ timated that of the total zinc consumed, meaning refined plus unrefined, close to 30% originates from secondary sources, a high figure by the standards of most metals .

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I. Translate the text in the writtenform:

Lead Blast Furnace:

from Primary Metallurgy to Recycling Since its entry into industrial era more than a century ago, primary lead metallurgy has mainly used the blast furnace to produce lead .

Originally the ores were mainly rare galenas, therefore essentially con­ taining lead sulphur .

Metallurgists have always dreamed of oxidizing the sulphur directly by | recovering the lead and removing the sulphur in the form of dioxide which converts easily to sulphuric acid provided that it is not too diluted .

Unfortunately, chemical thermodynamics do not look at it like that and in order to oxidize the sulphur completely, it is necessary to allow partial oxi­ dation o f the lead at the same time .

It is then necessary to reduce the lead oxide by means of the carbon .

With the traditional process, 90% of the sulphur oxidation operation is per­ formed in a continuous circuit of the Dwight-Lloyd type in which the calories released by the oxidation process are used to sinter (or agglomerate) the ore in ? the form of sufficiently porous and strong pieces which can then be processed ' in the blast furnace. On leaving the furnace, the lead bullion obtained containes a certain number of metal, principally Cu, Sb, Ag, Au, which are extracted from the lead during refining and recovered for reprocessing .

Therefore, the complete diagram of a traditional installation is as fol­

lows:

Blast— p .

Storage___ ». Sintering____ Refining plant furnace plant Combustion of _______ Reduction of the sulphur the oxide In the last few years, new pyrometallurgical processes have emerged (KJVCET, QSL, ISASMELT, IBRC, OUTOKUMPU). These processes at­ tempt to perform the sintering and reduction operations in the same equipment if possible. In an industrial activity like lead metallurgy, the profitability of which is always precarious, the decision to use a new process is one likely to have many consequences, not least the level of investment required; a mistake always has serious consequences for the company and may even prove fatal .

The main criteria to be considered when making this choice are:

- the technical value of the process;

- the level of development;

• the capacity to respond to environmental constraints;

- flexibility in terms of supplies;

- profitability .

At the moment, the new processes are at different stages in their develop­ ment and although some of them are promising, none has yet reached a stage able to satisfy all the criteria listed above. However, this is nothing unusual, since the path leading to the true industrial stage of a new process often takes several years to overcome problems, even if they are only tech­ nological problems .

In such a context, and whilst keeping a very close eye on everything ’ КИВЦЕТ which happens in its technological environment, METALEUROP has en­ gaged upon a different route, namely to use the margin available for devel­ oping the traditional process and adapting continuously to new ecological demands and to ensure that it is, to the today’s jargon, “environmentally friendly” .

So what are these possibilities? The technological development of the

traditional process. Three aspects have to be studied:

- dust recovery

- the treatment of sulphur dioxide

- working conditions

2. Translate the text into Russian and then back into English adhering to the

original syntax andpunctuation:

Traditional Technological Process {. Dust Recovery .

In all installations where ores are processed, dust in die broadest sense

of the word has two sources:

- airborne dust produced during handling and storage operations;

- dust produced locally in connection with metallurgical operations .

With regard to the latter this dust is collected via filtration systems operating in die gaseous flows. It does not create a complicated problem, other than investments in expensive ventilation and filter systems and high operating costs. In particular, the installed power for filtration systems sometimes ex­ ceeds half the total power demand of the smelter plant On the other hand, the airborne dust, which affects all processes regard­ less, is more difficult to control. It requires specially adapted storage facilities and handling systems particularly perfectly sealed conveyors and pneumatic circuits .

2. Sulphur Dioxide .

The remainder of the sulphur is contained in the agglomerate which contains the lead in different oxidised forms and therefore has to be removed from the gases produced by the blast furnace treatment. This is where the main difficult) lies. In gases emitted at the top of the furnace are both cooled to de­ posit the dust in the bag filters and oxidised by the air brought in via the load­ ing devices. The latter has the effect of dilluting the sulphur dioxide contained and increasing the volume of gas to be processed .

It is obvious that processing gases dilluted to this extensions both tech­ nically more difficult and economically unviable .

To sum up, it is therefore necessary to perform the following operations:

- seal the top part of the furnace;

- remove CO by post combustion;

• remove dust;

- recover sulphur dioxide;

3. Working Conditions .

Since the beginning o f lead metallurgy, the risks o f contamination have lead to the introduction o f installations for protecting workplaces, in particular by the use o f controlled ventilation, in addition to the equipment for removing dust from gases. At the same time, the development o f automatic techniques has made it possible, in factories working round the clock to reduce the num­ ber o f workplaces situated in the middle o f the installation and to group the remaining places in perfectly insulated control rooms .

However, one sector remains difficult to deal with, removing the copper from the lead bullion from the blast furnace. In per causes dresses, the removal and handling of w hich creates carried out within the company, a new continu­ ous process for removing copper has been developed. A powder-type dross is obtained when the lead bullion is quenched which can be recovered and transported in a pneumatic circuit to the reprocessing furnace, thus avoiding any [ human intervention .

All the improvements which have just been discussed allow us to claim that the primary lead production process is environmentally friendly .

J. Translate the text at sight and try not to provide any scope for arbitrary

interpretation by your counterparts:

Traditional Process and Recycling Over the years lor reasons linked with the development of ores but also aimed at improving the profitability of the installations, foundaries have been obliged to process different ores and materials which have become more and more complex .

What does the word “complex” mean in this particular case? A few examples will explain this:

a. The fact that lead ores are now mainly a co-product of zinc ores means that the sulphur content is more variable, particularly through the possi­ ble presence of pyrite .

b. In the same way, apart from traditional gold and silver, the charges 4 contain more associated metals or in larger quantities which it is then neces­ sary to extract and process, such as Cu, Sb, As, Bi, In,.. .

In addition customers often demand purer metals or alloys whose elements are maintained within narrower content limits .

All these factors have meant that the lead smelter has not only adapted installations technologically, but also found out more about the operating pa­ rameters in order to model and automate the equipment. It is therefore in a position to produce a metal of constant quality even with fluctuating inputs. It has $ perfect control of the constraints linked with the presence of elements consid­ ered harmful in the raw material charge .

Thanks to its flexibility, the blast furnace is therefore well equipped for processing other categories of materials with variable characteristics and, in particular, waste, even if they are classified as “dangerous”. The range is very wide and includes, for example, apart from old batteries, catalysts containing vanadium peroxide, goethite from the electrolytic zinc founderies, etc .

Today the lead smelter has acquired such experience with the traditional process that the processing of waste falls quite naturally within the scope of its know-how .

–  –  –

I. Read, translate orally and make summary in English:

Lead Recycling in the 1990’s Lead recycling is a topic that is now receiving more publicity than ever .

In the first place it is necessary to establish roughly how much recycled lead is likely to be required in the 1990’s. The next step is to consider recycling rates, and this will lead us into the uncertain field of environmental legislation, costs or collection and production and new technology .

It is rather difficult to determine in detail the outlook for lead demand, but the dominance of the lead-acid battery in overall consumption is almost certain to increase in the coming years from 62-63 per cent in 1989, its mar­ ket share is likely to be above 65 per cent by 1995 and possibly beyond 70 per cent by the end o f century .

In the longer run this extreme dependence on one product may be a serious cause for concern, but in the shorter term the picture is mildly en­ couraging. The knotty issue of changing battery life and lead content aside, and dismissing the possibility of an alternative to the lead-acid battery, the replacement automobile battery market should closely track automobile population which continue to rise steadily. Similarly, the original equip­ ment market will broadly follow automobile production. This is a distinctly cyclical business but the long-term trend remains upward. The battery has done particular well in recent years and most o f the evidence points to con­ tinued relatively strong growth in the coming years. In sum, the projections appear to suggest overall demand growth of 1.5-2 per cent per annum to the middle o f the current decade with perhaps a slightly lower rate thereafter. If this proves the case, consumption in the old nonsocialist world could be about 5 million tpy (tonnes per year) by 1995 approximately 500,000 ton­ nes higher than in 1989-90 .

Potential Future Primary Production While considerable attention has been focussed on the range and size o f potential new zinc mine capacity, less notice has been taken o f the fact that in most o f the new projects, certainly among those to see the light o f day by 1995, lead grades are very low. No one is developing a major lead or leadsilver operation. In fact, following recent price weakness, some lead-zinc proj­ ects with better lead grades would appear to be among those in the process of being dropped. Finally, among the existing lead-zinc mines that are likely to close by the middle o f the decade are one or two particularly important lead producing operations .

It should be farther observed that the primary industry where traditional furnace technology continue to predominate is itself very far from invulner­ ability. Recent studies by the United States Bureau o f Mines shows that pri­ mary smelters still exist. But there is cause for alarm - one small primary smelter has already been forced to close permanently because o f excessive pollution .

In short, it is true that primary production o f lead could in the near term rise substantially from recent very poor levels simply through more ef­ fective utilization o f existing capacity. In the slightly term it is unlikely that absolute growth will watch that of consumption. Indeed, the industry may start a contraction. The gap, as in the past, have to be filled by the secon­ dary sector .

–  –  –

2. Analyze historical tendencies in Secondary Refined Production. Make a

Dialogue:

Historical Trends in Secondary Refrined Production The creditable growth has taken place in this sector - about 3 per cent per annum on average since 1970 while primary production of metal has been static at best. From 35 per cent of refined output in the early 1970’s sec­ ondary production had progressed to fully half o f the total by 1989 and a per­ haps slightly exceptional 53 per cent in 1990 .

Many o f lead-containing products are recycled at the end of their useful lives and indeed actual recovery rates are often high, but frequently simple remelting is sufficient. It is unlikely that much growth in secondary recovery can be expected in the 1990’s .

Industrial batteries have provided a reliable and growing source of lead for secondary smelters. It is likely that recycling rates have always been higher than for SLI batteries. It is probable too that the strong increase in de­ mand for traction batteries in recent years will result in a market rise in avail­ ability o f scrap during the 1990’s. With annual lead consumption for industrial batteries now well in excess of 500,000 tonnes this is an area o f recycling .

The secondary sector must continue to increase its market share and the secondary refined output will have to rise more strongly than overall demand .

In 1990 the non-socialist world’s secondary smelter refinery capacity totalled something close to 2.25 million tonnes, the bulk being designed prin­ cipally to treat scrapped batteries. This figure excludes a large number of very small specialized plants but, more importantly, also excludes the growing element of primary capacity that supplements concentrates with a range of scrap feed .

On the other hand, a significant and growing number of primary plants can and do treat secondary raw materials, including, for some of the newer technologies, battery scrap. This is just one of the factors which has lead to the gradual breaking down of the traditional division between primary and secon­ dary smelting. The two will thus no doubt compete with one another in the 1990’s .

One of the most critical factors is determining whether or not secondary smelters remain profitable in the 1990’s will of course be the direction o f en­ vironmental regulations and the extent o f its actual implementation .

Over the coming S years, and probably beyond, growth in refined lead consumption will continue to outstrip that of primary productive capacity. For the market to be balanced this implies that secondary smelters must go on in­ creasing market share. Their output will also have to rise more strongly than overall demand (at least 2 per cent per annum on average) .

Arisings o f scrap recoverable in smelter refineries will continue to grow by 3 per cent per annum or more. By the mid - 1990’s, for example, the an­ nual supply o f scrapped automobile batteries in the US alone may have reached 85 million units .

3. Present a faithful written translation of the text:

Zinc Recycling in Taiwan The recycling of zinc from non-ferrous shredder scrap invariably in­ volves distillation, even after extensive separation often culminating in hand sorting. Clean, sorted scrap is premelted in sweat furnaces or crucible furnaces to remove unmeltables, and zinc is reclaimed from the resulting alloy by vaporization in muffle furnaces. The resulting vapors are burned to produce oxide, or are condensed as zinc d u st Some recyclers use vertical retorts which permit the distillation o f purer grades o f zinc for a variety of uses. It is recognized throughout the industrialized world that only the pur­ est commercial form of zinc should be used in die-casting alloys .

Contrary to these well accepted norms (which are based on the proved need for low impurity levels in zinc-aluminium alloys) the bulk o f the diecasting industry in Taiwan accepts the use of zinc alloy reclaimed from shredder scrap by little more than hand sorting and remelting .

It is estimated that o f Taiwan’s zinc die-casting production o f about 100,000 metric tpy are produced from secondary alloy. This is significant quantity representing nearly 10% of Western World z|nc die-casting alloy consumption. In the vicinity of ninety percent of the output o f Taiwan’s diecasting industry is.expected to the USA, Europe and Japan .

Recycling of zinc metal from non-ferrous vehicle shredder scrap commenced in Taiwan around 1980, and, with government support, has ex­ panded rapidly peaking at over 75.000 tpy in 1989. The recycled product is used by the Taiwan die-casting industry. The Taiwan zinc scrap recycling industry uses simple techniques involving sweating and remelting of manu­ ally sorted scrap, making contamination by harmful impurities inevitable .

The source of feed for zinc recycling is old die-cast scrap imported in early years almost entirely from the US but more recently from a broader geographical base including Europe .

In September 1990, over ninety companies were listed by the China External Trade Development Council as importers of zinc scrap. New of these importers are large but mam are vertically intergated to a greater or

–  –  –

I. Find Russian equivalents:

problem, base, generator, membrane, cement, ecology, result, gas, per cent, classical, progressive, tendency, metal, fact, situation, type, line, metallic, concentrate, minimum, nature, regenerate, zinc, stage, organic, material, elec­ trolysis, metallurgy, battery, export, company, telephone, group, plus, speciali­ zation .

2. Translate word combinations into Russian:

progressive decrease, current problems, alternative processes, worldwide consumption, more that half this situation, practically stable, classical lead metallurgy, a clear tendency, environmental pressure, present market, both solids and liquids, high quality, classical treatment, a great content of impuri­ ties, the coming years, for this type of secondaries, the main problem, at the same time, to pass through the membrane, just a little more, due to the impor­ tance, for domestic and export markets, household object, among the other uses, zinc demand, the growth of secondary refined lead production, simulta­ neous recovery of zinc, production of non-polluting residues, low grade lead concentrate, the most feasible practical alternative, clean solution, pattern of consumption, the main use of lead, growing'importance of batteries, the

amount o f effluent .

3. “Track down” the message in the source text, using all the clues it con­ tains, and transfer it intack and undistorted to the target text using the natu­

ral vocabulary style and structure:

Hydrometailurgical Treatment of Lead Secondaries .

The Placid and Leddor Process Current problems with the treatment of lead secondaries and low grade concentrates, can be resolved by the use of Hydrometallurgy with two proc­ esses - PLACID and LEDCLOR. These are based respectively on leaching feed solids using acid or oxidizing with the acid or chlorine generated during lead electrowining in membrane cells .

The products obtained are high quality lead and silver cement, and the residues and effluent, both solid and liquid (gases do not exist) are minimal and ecologically treated .

The results of operations in pilot plants, and demonstration plants gave high recovery yields and low consumptions of reagents and utilities. Further­ more, the economic data obtained make these options more attractive .

Classical lead metallurgy is currently in a difficult situation, arising from

the following:

- Progressive decrease in lead grades in primary concentrates and con sequently a greater content o f impurities and difficulty in using classical treat­ ment .

- Treatment of high percentage (some 40%) of recycled lead and a clear tendency for this to increase even more, with an abundant production of residues and secondaries .

- Increase in environmental pressures and the present market for НгБО*, which mean that other, alternative, processes must be considered in which SO2 is not present .

Worldwide consumption o f this metal is practically stable and it is ex­ pected that the situation will continue over the coming years. This together with the fact that more than half of this situation is present everywhere. There are many searches for clean solutions that consider and treat these secondary residues and low grade lead concentrates .

Hydrometailurgical treatment for this type of concentrates and seconda­ ries stands out as the most feasible practical alternative, and along these lines the LEDCLOR (1) process for low grade lead concentrates and the PLACID (2) process for secondary residues also offer the advantage of .

a) Producing high quality electrolytic lead;

b) Concentrating at the same, and in the electrolytic all itself, the me­ tallic lead and leaching agent used during leaching: acid in the case o f secon­ daries and chlorine in that of sulphurated concentrates;

c) Obtaining a leach residue where the attached sulphur comes out as

I

elemental sulphur (3) (4), together with the rest of the pyritic-based gangue, thus eliminating the presence of SO2 and, with this, the main problem of con­ ventional pyrometallurgical treatment;

d) Minimizing the amount of effluent, solids (hydroxides) and liquids (solution of sodium and calcium chlorides), due to the cyclical nature of the treatment .

PLACID Process Leaching is carried out at 80°C with brine (about 250 g NaCl) containing the acid which, coming from the electrolysis of the water in the anodic com­ partment, passes through the membrane .

LEDCLOR Process Conceptually, the process is analogous to the above mentioned, but in this case leaching requires an oxidant, the ferric ion. that acts as an intermedi­ ary by being regenerated with the chlorine produced in electrowinning .

4. Translate at sight:

Coping with Zinc Secondary Materials the Modified Zincex Route A basic technology coping with a wide range of secondary zinc sources is being developed. The process combines an electrowinning stage, a solventextraction unit and a leaching procedure. The acidity generated in zinc elec­ trowinning, transferred by the organic solvent to the aqueous raffinate, is fi­ nally reused to leach the zinc secondary material. The route recovering of other valuable metals as copper, cadmium and lead associated with zinc is also de­ scribed. This non-ferrous metals recovery route is advisable either for ecologi­ cal and/or economical reasons .

The modified ZINCEX process is applied to secondary materials of im­ pure zinc, where zinc is easily soluble in dilluted acid and is in oxide, metallic, carbonate or silicate form .

Essentially, the process consists of a combination of the stages of leach­ ing, solvent extraction and electrolysis. Solvent extraction is the fundamental stage and is intended to purify the liquor and concentrate it in order to adapt it to classic electrolysis .

A process that recovers zinc by solvent extraction and electrolysis has been developed in Spain .

The ZINCEX process has been commercialized in two -industrial plants .

The first is located at Bilbao in Spain with a capacity of 8,000 фу and the sec­ ond is located at Lisbon, Portugal, with a capacity of 11,000 tpy .

The good results of these two solvent extraction plants has allowed the extension of this technology for treatment of the secondary zinc materials .

The modified ZINCEX process is not in competition with classic zinc hydrometallurgy, but rather complements it in certain aspect or under certain circumstances .

The raw materials to which the process can be applied are classified i 1 two large groups .

- Secondary raw materials rich in zinc - these are secondary zinc ma-, terials with a content of this metal more than 50%. Zinc particularly suitabl i ?

for those materials which have a high content o f chlorides, fluorides, magnesi i{ urn copper, etc. These impurities are difficult to eliminate with classic hydro ' metallurgy. The stage of solvent extraction in the modified ZINCEX proces;

totally eliminates them .



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