««Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины» Т. М. ПОЗНЯКОВА, В. В. КЛИМЕНКО ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА (THE USE OF TENSES) ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ по теме ...»
Министерство образования Республики Беларусь
«Гомельский государственный университет
имени Франциска Скорины»
Т. М. ПОЗНЯКОВА, В. В. КЛИМЕНКО
(THE USE OF TENSES)
по теме «Времена глагола»
для слушателей специальности 1- 02 03 71
«Иностранный язык (английский)»
ИПК и ПК Гомель УО «ГГУ им. Ф. Скорины»
УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.411.2 – 923.2 П 472
Л. И. Богатикова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, кафедры теории и практики английского языка учреждения образования «Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины»
Рекомендовано к изданию научно-методическим советом учреждения образования «Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины»
Познякова, Т. М .
П 472 Практическая грамматика английского языка (THE USE OF TENSES) : практическое пособие по теме «Времена глагола» для слушателей специальности 1-02 03 71 «Иностранный язык (английский)» ИПК и ПК / Т. М. Познякова, В. В. Клименко; М-во образования, ГГУ им. Ф. Скорины. – Гомель, ГГУ им. Ф. Скорины, 2009 – 91 с .
Практическое пособие направлено на обучение грамматическим навыкам устной и письменной речи по теме «Времена глагола». Оно адресовано слушателям специального факультета ИПК и ПК специальности 1-02 03 71 «Иностранный язык (английский)» и может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и самостоятельной работы слушателей .
УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.411.2 – 923.2 © Познякова Т. М., Клименко В. В., 2009 © УО «Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины», 2009 Содержание Введение ………………………………………………………... 4 Unit 1 Present Tenses (Present Simple and Present Continuous) 5 Unit 2 Present Perfect Tenses ………………………………………... 16 Unit 3 Past Tenses ……………………………………………... 25 Unit 4 Past and Present Tenses Compared …………………….. 37 Unit 5 Future Tenses …………………………………………... 51 Unit 6 Passive Forms ………………………………………….. 64 Unit 7 Revision ………………………………………………... 80 Keys …………………………………………………………….. 88 Литература ……………………………………………………... 91 Введение Практическое пособие по грамматике английского языка предназначено для слушателей ИПК и ПК специальности 1-02 03 71 «Иностранный язык (английский)» при изучении темы «Времена английского глагола .
Пособие разработано в соответствии с основным принципом коммуникативного подхода к обучению иноязычному общению. Его целью является обучение грамматическим навыкам устной и письменной речи. Пособие предлагает систему разноуровневых заданий и упражнений. Материал представлен блоками, которые отражают основные пункты рабочей программы. Каждый из блоков имеет одинаковую структуру: это краткая справка по использованию тех или иных форм глагола, комплекс упражнений на развитие грамматических навыков и раздел Use your English, который направлен на активизацию изученных грамматических явлений в речи, что способствует развитию навыков монологической и диалогической речи. Все упражнения внутри разделов располагаются по принципу возрастающей сложности.Раздел Revision представляет собой разнообразные упражнения для самоконтроля и подготовки слушателей к контрольной работе. Эти упражнения снабжены ключами (раздел Keys) .
При составлении данного пособия авторы использовали материалы из современных учебных пособий, изданных в последние годы в странах СНГ и за рубежом .
В пособии учтена специфика подготовки преподавателей английского языка в учреждениях переподготовки и повышения квалификации кадров, а также современные тенденции в развитии языка .
Unit 1 Present Tenses (Present Simple and Present Continuous) Grammar reference
We use the Present Simple:
1 when the fact or event is always true:
People drive on the right in most European countries. Water freezes at 0° Centigrade .
2 to talk about regular or repeated actions or events:
He usually arrives at school at 8.00 a.m .
3 with future meaning for timetables:
The train for London leaves at 6.26 from Platform 8 .
4 to describe the plot of a book or film:
Mr. Darcy eventually proposes to Elizabeth, and she accepts .
5 when the speaker is commentating on a sporting event:
... and Hingis serves. Davenport returns the ball with ease.. .
6 for newspaper headlines (when the event is in the past):
President arrives in China. (When the event is in the future, we usually use the infinitive: President to visit China next month.)
We use the Present Continuous:
1 to describe an action happening at the moment of speaking:
She can't come to the phone; she's having a shower .
2 to talk about temporary situations:
She normally lives in London, but at the moment she's living in Athens .
3 to talk about developing situations:
Prices are rising every year .
4 to talk about annoying/amusing habits + always/constantly:
He's always complaining about something .
The following verbs are not usually used in the continuous form:
a) denoting mental activity – to know, to believe, to doubt, to imagine, to suppose, to forget, to remember etc;
relations – to seem, to appear, to have, to belong, to consist of, to own, to possess, to lack etc;
c) denoting sense perception – to see, to hear etc;
d) denoting wish and feeling – to want, to wish, to love, to like, to hate, to prefer etc;
e denoting physical properties of objects – to taste (have a flavour), to smell (give out a smell), to weigh (have weight) etc .
Some verbs have different meanings in the Present Simple and Present Continuous:
I'm thinking about it. – I'm considering it (denoting a process of thought) .
I think it's wrong. – It is my opinion .
I'm seeing him on Thursday. – I am meeting him .
Every morning, I see the children on their way to school. – I notice, look at them .
You don't look very well. – You don't seem well .
What are you looking at? – What can you see?
Grammar practice Ex. 1 Replace the subject of the sentence by the pronoun in the third person singular or by the noun in the singular and make the necessary changes .
1. They wish to speak to you. 2. Buses pass my house every hour. 3 .
They help their father. 4. We change planes at Heathrow. 5. You watch too much TV. 6. They worry too much. 7. I cash a cheque every month. 8. I always carry an umbrella. 9. They wash the floor every week. 10. His sons go to the local school. 11. These hens lay brown eggs. 12. Rubber balls bounce. 13. These figures astonish me. 14. Do you like boiled eggs? 15 .
These seats cost $10. 16. They fish in the lake. 17. Elephants never forget .
18. They usually catch the 8.10 bus. 19. They sometimes miss the bus. 20 .
I mix the ingredients together. 21. The rivers freeze in winter. 22. They realize the danger. 23. I use a computer. 24. What do they do on their days off? - They do nothing. They lie in bed all day. 25. The boys hurry home after school. 26. They push the door open. 27. They kiss their mother. 28 .
They do sports in the gymnasium. 29. They dress well. 30. Your children rely on you .
Ex. 2 Read the following in the negative and in the interrogative .
1. Their neighbours often complain. 2. Tom enjoys driving at night .
3. He engages new staff every Spring. 4. Tom looks very well. 5. He has breakfast at 8 o’clock. 6. They sell fresh grape juice here. 7. He charges more than other photographers. 8. She looks like her father. 9. They pick the apples in October. 10. She has a cooked breakfast. 11. The last train leaves at midnight. 12. He relaxes at weekends .
Ex. 3 Find and correct fifteen mistakes in the spelling of the following present participles .
copiing, putting, translateing, telling, closing, sitting, seing, giving, meetting, being, forgeting, lieing, getting, filing, swimming, betting, quiting, spreadding, eatting, begining, paing, openning, cutting, forbiding, laying, splitting, winning, dying, stoping Ex. 4 Put the verb in the correct form, Present Continuous or Present Simple. Explain your choice .
1. Let's go out. It (not/rain) now.2. Julia is very good at languages. She (speak) four languages very well. 3. Hurry up! Everybody (wait) for you .
4. ' (you/listen) to the radio?' 'No, you can turn it off.' 5. ' (you/listen) to the radio every day?' 'No, just occasionally.' 6. The River Nile (flow) into the Mediterranean. 7. Look at the river. It (flow) very fast today - much faster than usual. 8. We usually (grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we (not/grow) any. 9. 'How is your English?' 'Not bad. It (improve) slowly.' 10. Ron is in London at the moment. He (stay) at the Park Hotel .
He (always/stay) there when he's in London. 11. Can we stop walking soon? I (start) to feel tired. 12. 'Can you drive?' 'I (learn). My father (teach) me.' 13. Normally I (finish) work at 5.00, but this week I (work) until 6.00 to earn a bit more money. 14. My parents (live) in Bristol. They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. Where (your parents/live)? 15 .
Sonia (look) for a place to live. She (stay) with her sister until she finds somewhere. 16. 'What (your father/do)?' 'He's an architect but he (not/work) at the moment.' 17. (at a party) Usually I (enjoy) parties but I (not/enjoy) this one very much. 18. The train is never late. It (always/leave) on time. 19. Jim is very untidy. He (always/leave) his things all over the place. 20. Jill is interested in politics but she (not/belong) to a political party. 21. Don't put the dictionary away. I (use) it. 22. Don't put the dictionary away. I (need) it. 23. Who is that man? What (he/want)? 24. Who is that man? Why (he/look) at us? 25. George says he's 80 years old but nobody (believe) him. 26. She told me her name but I (not/remember) it now. 27. I (think) of selling my car. Would you be interested in buying it? 28. I (think) you should sell your car. You (not/use) it very often. 29. I used to drink a lot of coffee but these days I (prefer) tea. 30. Air (consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen .
Ex. 5 Match two parts of the sentence and explain the use of tenses
1. I can't help you right now because
2. I usually sleep late on Saturday mornings, but in the afternoon
3. The weather's great, all the family's here, so
4. Whenever the weather's good
5. John's living in London, but
6. Fred lives in London and
7. We often get stuck in our houses in the winter because
8. We can't drive the car today because
Ex. 6 Use the Present Simple or the Present Continuous of the verbs in brackets .
1. Why you (to wear) an engagement ring? You are not engaged .
2. One shouldn't drink when one (to drive) .
3. What you (to do) when you are by yourself?
4. "I (to start) work next week." "And we all (to look) forward very much to having you in the office. You (to join) us at an interesting time."
5. "What you (to do) tonight?" "I don't know yet. I (to get) used to being at home every night."
6. You never (to open) your lips while you (to paint) .
7. He (to be) silly today .
8. Magnet (to attract) iron .
9. She (to suffer) from a very unusual form of kidney disease .
10. My son is very busy. He (to get) ready for his final exams .
11. The sun ever (to shine) .
12. "Mr Desert in?" "No, Sir. Mr. Desert has just left for the East. His ship (to sail) tomorrow." "Oh," said Michael blankly: "Where from?" "Plymouth, Sir. His train (to leave) Paddington at midnight. You may catch him yet."
13. "Yes, how time (to fly)" observed Lily .
14. "You must let me out here. Now I can easily walk to the railway station." "What train you (to take)!" "The next to Montreal." "Then you (to leave) Canada." "Yes." "Just a holiday?" "No. I (to return) to England."
15. Philip looked down at his son. "You are a little beggar," he said .
"You always (to want) something."
16. I (to see) him tomorrow .
17. “I’m sorry,” I said, “I (to be) clumsy .
18. I’ll say good night to you, Mr Brown, now, if you’ll excuse me. I (to feel) kind of exhausted this evening .
Ex. 7 Put the verb in the correct form, Present Continuous or Pre-sent Simple .
1. How much you (owe) him? – I (owe) him ? – You (intend) to pay him?
2. You (belong) to your local library? – Yes, I do. – You (read) a lot? Yes, quite a lot. – How often you (change) your books? – I (change) one every week .
3. Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able to learn modern Greek .
4. I always (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything .
5. You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday tomorrow .
6. I won't tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. – I (promise) .
7. You always (write) with your left hand?
8. You (love) him? – No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him .
9. You (dream) at night? – Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have) nightmares .
10. The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time?
11. These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain) .
12. We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is broken .
13. He always (say) that he will mend the window but he never (do) it .
14. You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up?
15. You (write) to him tonight? – Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (want) to send any message?
16. Tom and Mr Pitt (have) a long conversation. I (wonder) what they (talk) about .
17. You (believe) all that the newspapers say? – No, I (not believe) any of it. - Then why you (read) newspapers?
18. This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right? – Oh, that noise (not matter). It always (make) a noise like that .
19. The fire (smoke) horribly. I can't see across the room. – I (expect) that birds (build) a nest in the chimney. - Why you (not put) wire across the tops of your chimneys? – Tom (do) that sometimes but it (not seem) to make any difference .
20. How Peter (get) on at school? –Very well. He (seem) to like the life .
21. Why Mrs. Pitt (look) so angry? – Mr. Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on the carpet .
22. This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and (look) for it .
He (find) the snake who (recognize) its old friend and (coil) round him affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boaconstrictor and its embrace (kill) the poor boy .
The snake (feel) sorry about this? – I (not know). The story (end) there .
23. How you (end) a letter that (begin), 'Dear Sir'? – I always (put), 'Yours truly', but Tom (prefer) 'Yours faithfully' .
24. What the word 'catastrophe' (mean)? – It (mean) 'disaster' .
25. What you (wait) for? – I (wait) for the shop to open. – But it (not open) till 9.00. – I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today .
26. Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. – I (smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed with oil (remove) heat stains from wood .
27. Who (own) this umbrella? – I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own) it .
28. You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? – That (depend) on the question. – It (concern) your brother. – I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother .
Ex. 8 Put the verb in the correct present form .
1. What (happen) in your class? The teacher (give) lectures every day? – No. He (give) one lecture a week .
2. A bus conductor (get) more exercise than a bus driver. The driver just (sit) in his cab but the conductor (stand) and (walk) about and (run) up and down the stairs .
3. Why that man (stand) in the middle of the road? –He (try) to get across. He (wait) for a gap in the traffic. –Why he (not use) the subway? – Lots of people (not bother) to use the subway. They (prefer) to risk their lives crossing here .
4. You (wear) a new coat, aren't you? –Yes. You (like) it? –The colour (suit) you but it (not fit) you very well. It's much too big .
5. All the guides here (speak) at least three foreign languages, because a lot of foreign visitors (come) every summer .
6. Paul (take) a party of French tourists round now and tomorrow an American party (come) .
7. Englishmen very seldom (talk) on the Underground. They (prefer) to read their newspapers. –Those two men in the corner (talk). - But they (not talk) in English .
8. Jones and Co. (have) a sale at the moment. Shall we look in on our way home? –I'd love to but I'm afraid I won't have time. I (meet) Tom at 5.30. –You (go) out with Tom often?
9. I usually (go) by train, but this weekend I (go) by bus. It (take) longer but it (cost) less .
10. Ann (on telephone): You (do) anything at the moment, Sally?
Sally: Yes. I (pack); I (catch) a plane to New York in three hours' time .
Ann: Lucky girl! How long you (stay) in New York?
11. Peter: You (go) out tonight, Paul?
Paul: No, I (stay) at home. The neighbours (come) in to watch TV .
Peter: You (invite) the neighbours often?
Paul: No, but they (invite) themselves whenever there is a good programme .
12. Jack: I just (go) out to get an evening paper .
Ann: But it (pour)! Why you (not wait) till the rain (stop)? (I advise you to wait.) 13 Lucy: Tom (get) up very early but he (wash) and (shave) and (get) his breakfast so quietly that I (not hear) a thing. But I (hear) him driving away from the house because his car (make) a lot of noise .
Alice: My brother (get) up very early too. But he (make) such a lot of noise that he (wake) everybody up. He (sing) in his bath and (bang) doors and (drop) things in the kitchen and (play) the radio very loudly .
Lucy: Why you (not ask) him to be a bit quieter?
Alice: I (mention) it every night but it (not do) any good. He (say) that he (not make) a sound, and I (think) he really (believe) it .
14. Tom: You (see) that man at the corner? He (keep) stopping people and asking them questions. You (think) he (ask) for directions?
Jack: No, I (expect) he (make) a survey .
Tom: How you (make) a survey?
Jack: You (stop) people and (ask) them questions and (write) the answers on a report sheet .
15. In most countries a child (start) school at six and (stay) for about five years in a primary school. Then he (move) to a secondary school. At 17 or 18 he (take) an exam; if he (do) well in this exam he can go on to a university if he (wish) .
16. What the word 'Establishment' (mean)? My dictionary (not give) an explanation. –It roughly (mean) the government and people who (have) power and authority .
If we (say) that Mr Brown (belong) to the Establishment we also (imply) that he (accept) the existing system. He (not try) to overthrow it. All rich men (belong) to the Establishment? - Middle-aged rich men probably (do) but rich young men like pop singers always (jeer) at the Establishment. The word (be used) chiefly in a pejorative sense .
17. The house opposite the college (be pulled) down. That's why we (use) the back entrance at present. If you (go) out by the front door you (get) covered with dust .
18. Tom: I (smell) something burning!
Jack: So do I. I (think) it (come) from the kitchen. Ann probably (iron) .
She usually (iron) and (watch) TV at the same time and if she (get) very interested in a programme she (forget) that she (press) a hot iron on to somebody's shirt. Mother (think) of selling the TV set .
19. Mrs Jones: What you (look) for, Tom?
Mr Jones: I (look) for the garage key. I always (look) for the garage key, because nobody ever (put) it back on its hook .
Mrs Jones: I always (put) it back on its hook. Why you (not try) your pockets? (I advise you to try your pockets) .
20. Imagine that you (travel) by train, in a crowded compartment. One of the passengers (read) a newspaper; another (do) a crossword puzzle; another (look out) of the window. Suddenly the train (stop) with a jerk and your suitcase (fall) off the rack on to somebody's toes .
21. This is a story about an invalid who (spend) most of the day in bed .
He has a powerful telescope and he (amuse) himself by watching the activities of the people in the opposite houses. One day when he (watch) No .
24, he (see) a murder being committed .
22. The cashier used to do the accounts and I used to check his figures, now the computer (do) it all. –And who (check) the computer? –No one .
The computer (not need) a second opinion. –And what (happen) if the computer (make) a mistake? –The computer never (make) a mistake .
Ex. 9 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given .
1. His usual habit is to get up late at weekends. (usually) He
2. I prefer not to travel by train. (want) I
3. It isn't necessary for you to write all the answers. (have) You
4. He calls me in the middle of the night, which is very annoying .
5. Whose dog is this? (belong) Who
6. What's on your mind? You seem upset. (about) What
7. Pollution causes many health problems. (blame) Pollution
8. It is unfair to give him such a low mark. (deserve) He
9. She must come home before 10 o'clock. (allow) Her parents
after 10 o'clock .
10. I almost never get to the bus stop on time. (miss) I
Ex. 10 Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong. Explain .
1. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius .
2. The water boils. Can you turn it off?
3. Look! That man tries to open the door of your car .
4. The car has broken down again. - That car is useless! It always break down!
5. Can you hear those people? What do they talk about?
6. The moon goes round the earth .
7. I must go now. It is getting late .
8. I am usually going to work by car .
9. 'Hurry up! It's time to leave.' 'OK, I come’ .
10. I hear you've got a new job. How do you get on?
11. Are you believing in God? - No I’m an atheist .
12. A: I'm afraid I've lost my key again .
B: Not again! You constantly lose your key!
13. This sauce is great. It's tasting really good .
14. I'm thinking this is your key. Am I right?
Ex. 11 Translate from Russian into English .
1. Питер обычно делает домашние задания перед ужином. 2. Почему ты идешь так быстро? – Я боюсь опоздать (miss) на поезд. Обычно я выхожу из дома раньше и иду медленно. 3. Какие новые предметы студенты изучают в этом году? 4 .
Ex. 12 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there .
If a line is correct, put a tick by the number at the end of each line. If a line has a word that should not be there, write this word next to the number at the end of each line .
Computer games they are now so popular that anyone can walk down 1 a main street in town and to pass a computer games arcade, 2 which is crowded with youngsters with their eyes fixed on video 3 screens. They are being completely unaware of the world outside as 4 they are put more money into the machines to play another game, and 5 some of young people have been known to become addicted to playing 6 Many of parents disapprove of their children playing such games, but 7 there are some benefits. Playing a video game it does help to improve 8 the concentration. In order to get a high score, the player has to try 9 and ignore all the flashing lights and noises. This could be 10 improve a student's ability to concentrate while they are 11 studying. It is also a way to improve hand-eye co-ordination, 12 because of the player has to operate several buttons and watch the 13 screen at the same time. This is useful for learning to drive, and other 14 physical activities. So before you forbid your child to play, think about 15 the benefits .
Use your English Ex. 1 Do you play a lot of computer games? How do they help you?
What are the dangers of playing too much?
Ex. 2 What puts you in a good mood? What usually puts you in a bad mood? How do you get yourself out of a bad mood?
Ex. 3 You work for a magazine called “Holiday”. You are to interview people. Ask your partner about his/her ways of spending holidays. Find out all the details .
Unit 2 Present Perfect Tenses Grammar reference
We use the Present Perfect Simple:
1 when the time of the action in the past is not important. No time expression is used. It has a connection with the present:
I've lost my pen! (I haven't got it now.) 2 when the past time reference is indefinite, with time expressions such as ever, never, before, already, just recently, lately, yet, in the last few
days, so far, etc:
I've met a lot of people recently .
I've been to Australia before .
3 to talk about actions and events that have been continuing up to the
present with since and for:
I've known him for 20 years/since1996 .
I haven't played basketball for weeks/since last year .
4 with the expression It's the first time:
It's the first time I have seen this film .
We use the Present Perfect Continuous:
1 to talk about events/actions which started in the past and have been continuing up to the present, and are still happening now. The actions may
continue into the future:
I have been writing letters all morning, and I still have a lot more to do .
2 with the time expressions for and since to express the same meaning
I've been writing letters for 6 hours .
3 to talk about an event that has only just finished, so that there is present evidence of that event:
A: Why are you so red in the face?(the evidence) B: I've been running up the stairs!
1 The Present Perfect is never used to talk about a definite time in the
past. Use the Past Simple for this:
I had an accident on my way home last night .
I've had an accident! I'm going to be late for the meeting .
2 There is always some kind of reference to the present in the use of this tense: e.g. I've lost my keys! (The speaker wants to emphasise that she does not have them now), or a reference to an indefinite time in the past (already, before, etc.) .
3 Note the difference between been to and gone to:
John's gone to America on business/to the shops. (= He's there now.) I've been to India lots of times. (= visited) .
Grammar practice Ex. 1 Complete this telephone conversation with the correct Present Perfect form of the verbs in brackets .
Martha: Where (be) for the last hour? We (get) quite worried about you since you didn't arrive at 8!
George: We (be) stuck in traffic for nearly an hour, but we should be there soon .
Martha: OK. We (wait) to start dinner for ages, but we can wait a little longer .
George: Sorry about that, but it's not the first time we (have) such trouble. This place is terrible for traffic at this hour! I (never see) it so congested!
Martha: Yes, I know. Where are you now?
George: Well, we (just pass) the big hospital, which is about two kilometres from your house .
Martha: Oh, yes. You'll probably need another 20 minutes, because they (mend) the road for the past week. It's all blocked off, so you'll have to turn off before the petrol station .
George: OK. See you soon. Bye .
Ex. 2 Read the text below and fill in the gaps with the correct form of a verb in the Present Perfect from the box below. Use each verb only once. There is one verb that you don't need .
leave propose pass increase be start become find exist battle patrol The problem of forest fires (1) over the past few years .
The government (9) a new law, which forbids the lighting of any fires on forest land, and all campers must put their tents on official campsites .
Since the new law came into force, police and forest rangers (10) forest areas on the lookout for anyone breaking the rules .
It is hoped that this will cut down on the frequency of fires .
Ex. 3 Answer questions 1-14 using hints a-n which describe the events that took place before the moment of speaking .
Ex. 4 Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Present Perfect Continuous Tense or the Present Perfect Tense .
1. I (try) to get into contact with them for a long time, but now I (give) it up as hopeless. 2. My shortsighted uncle (lose) his spectacles. We (look) for them everywhere but we can't find them. 3. She (be) of great help to us since she (live) for such a long time with us. 4. You ever (work) as interpreter? –Yes, that is what I (do) for the last five months. 5. They (make up) their quarrel? — I don't know. I only know that they (not be) on speaking terms since September. 6. Our pilot (ask) for permission to take off for ten minutes already, but he (get) no answer yet. 7. A skilful photographer (help) me with the development of summer films for two weeks, but we (develop) only half of them. 8. I (know) them since we met at Ann's party .
9. You (open) the door at last, it seems to me I (ring) for an hour at least .
10. Look, the typist (talk) all the time, she already (miss) several words .
Ex. 5 Open the brackets and put the verbs into the proper tense, either the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect Continuous .
1. Don't come in. He (take) an exam. He (take) his exam for half an hour already. 2. Where are the children? — They (play volleyball). They (play volleyball) since two o'clock, 3. 1 (learn) to type for a month and can say that my typing (improve). 4. Nick (come) round to see as tonight. 5. He (stay) at his sister's for six weeks. He (try) to find somewhere to live. 6. We can't dance as my father (work) in the study. He (prepare) a report. He (write) it for the whole day. 7. Do you see what the child (do) with your hat? Тakе it from him. 8. They still (discuss) the article? But they (do) it since twelve o'clock! 9. The prices (go up). They (rise) since 1991. 10 .
What a strong wind (blow)! It (blow) since yesterday .
Ex. 6 Open the brackets and put the verbs into the proper tense (the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous, the Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Tense) .
1. It (snow) steadily the whole week and it still (snow). 2. We (climb) for six hours already, but we (not reach) the top of the mountain yet. 3. The pain already (go) but the child still (cry). 4. The workers (work) very hard these two weeks, they (be) busy with the interior decoration of the house .
5. He (solve) the crossword puzzle for an hour and he (say) he (be) about to solve it as he (think) over the last word. 6. He (work) at the language all the time and (make) great progress. His pronunciation (be) rather good, only a slight accent (remain). 7. Не (finish) the first part of his book and now he (write) the second. He (work) at his book for two years. 8. Dustin Hoffman, who (play) the hero, (give) a fine performance. 9. Why your hair (be) wet? You (swim)? 10. Doctors and scientists (show) recently the benefit of fish in the diet .
Ex. 7 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense .
1. We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three, and now the sewing machine (break) down so we'll be even slower with the next one .
2. George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them .
3. I (look) through my old photograph album. It's full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). I wonder what (happen) to them all .
4. It was lovely at eleven o'clock, but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end .
5. - Since he became Mayor, my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinners, and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend) .
- He (put) on a lot of weight?
6. Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills .
Manager: I know; something (go) wrong with our computer. The mechanic (work) on it. I hope he (find) out what's wrong .
7. Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before! - Well, it wasn't me. I (not be) out of the house for a week!
8. I (stand) in this queue for ages. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) off for lunch .
9. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a garage for three months. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one, so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too .
10. You look exhausted! - Yes, I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years, so I'm not used to it .
11. They began widening this road three weeks ago; but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it .
12. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)?
13. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. I (wait) an hour now. He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this .
14. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than 'Good morning' to me .
15. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me .
- It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the cheque .
16. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity, madam?
Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years!
Shop assistant: I know, madam, but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them .
17. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages. - I (build) a barbecue in the garden .
Ex. 8 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets .
I. 1. Good gracious, Kit, whatever you (do)? You seem to have all the paint on yourself that there is in the world. 2. I (think) about you all day, Emma. 3. What you (do) since we last (meet)? 4. –You look hot. –Yes, I (play) tennis. 5. I (work) in a bookshop now. I (work) here for about six weeks. 6. I (do) so for thirty years and I'm not going to change my ways. 7 .
She (have) toothache since she got up this morning. 8. How long you (know) Susan? 9. We (write) invitation cards all morning. We (write) eleven already. And we still not (finish) them all. 10. Mary (go out) with Steve for a year now, and they (plan) to get married soon. 11. I (keep) a watch on the road for the last few days, trying to catch a glimpse of you as you passed. 12. And now, gentlemen, I want to know what (go on) here and how long it (go on). 13. He (chase) this girl for half a year but she wouldn't even look at him. 14. They (think) a lot about this situation these past few days, since they (be) home. 15. There's something I (want) to ask you for the last couple of hours .
II. Tanya: Julia, what you (do)? It's already 2.00. Aren't we going shopping?
Julia: I know, but everything takes twice as long to do as I expected. I (have) a lot of problems since I moved into this apartment .
T: How long you (paint) those pictures?
J: I started at 8.00 this morning .
T: You mean you (paint) for six hours!
J: I really don't know what I (do). I never (paint) before. Besides, nothing (go) right today. The man from the phone company still not (come). I (wait) for him all day .
Т: What's that strange noise I hear?
J: Oh, that! That's the toilet. It (run) like that since last night. And the refrigerator not (work) properly since I moved in .
T: Well, just call the superintendent to fix those things .
J: I don't know. Maybe I (make) a mistake. I (think) things over lately .
Maybe I shouldn't have moved into this apartment. It (need) too much work .
T: It's not that bad. Your apartment will be great in a few weeks .
J: Maybe. All I know is that I (have) nothing but headaches ever since I moved in .
T: But don't forget that you (have) a lot of fun, too .
Ex. 9 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given .
1. It's about two years since I last went to the beach. (for) I haven't
2. John started working at six, and he's still in his office. (been) John
3. It's some time since I last had Chinese food. (for) I haven't
4. I started to learn Spanish 8 years ago. (learning) I
5. I read that book some time ago. (before) I
6. Is this your first time in London? (ever)
7. Peter left the school a few seconds ago. (just) Peter
9. I last went to London one year ago. (been) I
9. I moved to Greece four months ago. (for) I
10. I bought this watch last summer. (since) I
Ex. 10 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there .
If a line is correct, put a tick by the number at the end of each line. If a line has a word that should not be there, write this word next to the number at the end of each line .
Across the Europe, one of the century's greatest winter snowfalls 1 has been put towns and villages from the Pyrenees to Romania in 2 danger. Among of the first to suffer were the French villages of Le 3 Tour and Montroc, where avalanches they caused a lot of damage. 4 Roads were blocked near to the popular resorts of Davos, Klosters 5 and Zermatt. The heavy snow prevented an efforts to rescue 6 survivors and more than 400 of police, and health workers were 7 being involved in the rescue attempts. High in the Vanoise mountains, 8 three mountaineers were survived 10 days of blizzards in a tent. Res- 9 cuers have found them after one of the climbers managed to make 10 a call from his mobile phone. The weather improved on Sunday, 11 letting aircraft to take people away from the dangerous areas. 12 Meteorologists, warning of the possible danger, had suggested to 13 evacuate 10,000 people from the area only days before the avalanches 14 struck, but the idea was rejected as an unrealistic. It might have 13 been better to respect the forces of the nature and listen to the warn- 14 ings of the experts. 15
Ex. 11 Translate into English .
1. Он наш тренер с тех пор, как я начал играть в этой команде. 2 .
Они уже приняли решение (take a decision) по этому вопросу? – Нет .
Они все еще спорят. Они обсуждают этот вопрос уже два часа и еще не пришли ни к какому решению. 3. Утро было солнечное, но с одиннадцати погода изменилась, и сейчас идет дождь. 4. Чем вы занимаетесь с тех пор, как мы расстались (part)? 5. Мэри уже приехала? – Да, она уже здесь два дня. Она приехала в пятницу. 6. Студенты пишут контрольную работу уже два часа. Пока только двое сдали работы. 7 .
Гроза (thunderstorm) прошла, но небо покрыто темными тучами, и дует сильный ветер. 8. Вы прочитали книгу, которую я вам дала? 9. Вы плохо выглядите. Вы много работали на этой неделе? – Да. Я работаю над переводом уже десять дней, но сделала только половину. 10. Что здесь делает этот человек? – Он ждет секретаря. Она еще не пришла на работу .
Use your English Ex. 1 Write suitable questions for these answers .
1. This? Oh, for about three years, and it keeps very good time .
2. Let's see now, I started when I was eight, so nine years now. And I still can't speak perfectly!
3. So far, six. My driving instructor thinks I'll be able to take my test soon!
4. Yes, I have, actually. I saw him yesterday, and he's looking very well .
5. Only about five minutes. I was late too – the traffic held me up .
6. No, not yet, I still have three more exercises to do .
7. Yes, once. I went there as a child on a school trip .
8. Nearly all my life. My parents bought me my first guitar when I was three .
Ex. 2 Answer the following questions .
1. Have you ever pretended to be ill to get off work or school? 2 .
Ex. 3 Discuss amongst the group .
1. Say if you have made any change in your life recently. What have you been doing since that change took place?
2. Choose a person that you all know and whose life-style has changed .
What change has taken place in this person's life? What was his or her life like before? What has he or she been doing since the change took place?
3. Say if you have a particular hobby. Have you ever had one? How long have you been interested in this? How did you become interested in it? Why do you enjoy it? Why are hobbies important to people? What are some typical hobbies that people in this country enjoy?
Unit 3 Past Tenses Grammar reference
We use the Past Simple:
1 to talk about an action that happened at a specific time in the past:
I met John last night .
The time of the action may be implied in the situation through the mention of the place of the action:
I ate turnips in Germany .
Did you belong to any society at the University?
2 to talk about something that happened over a period of time in the past
and was completed in the past:
I lived in Spain from 1992 to 1995 .
3 to talk about repeated actions or habits in the past:
He always caught the 8.30 train to go to work .
They went to Spain every year for their holidays .
4 in narration to express a succession of actions:
I found some matches, climbed on the table, lit the gas lamp, then settled down to read .
5 to make polite enquiries or requests, usually in formal situations:
Did you want to see me? Could you turn the TV off?
We use the Past Continuous:
1 to describe actions which are interrupted by another action (the interrupting action is in the Past Simple):
I was writing an essay when the phone rang .
2 to talk about an action that continued over some time in the past (the
action may or may not have been completed):
I was doing my homework all evening .
3 with while to talk about two actions continuing at the same time in the
While I was writing, my brother was watching TV .
4 to talk about annoying habits in the past + always / constantly:
He was always losing his keys .
We use USED TO and WOULD:
We use the Past Perfect:
1 to describe actions and events which happened at an earlier time than the events described in the Past Simple or Continuous. There must always
be a past tense to refer to:
I had never played tennis until I went to Spain .
2 with when, before and after to express the same time relations as above. (Note that the Past Simple can be used instead of the Past Perfect
but the Past Perfect emphasizes the completion of the action in the subordinate clause):
When I had finished, I went home .
After I had finished, I went home .
I went home before I had finished my work .
3 in the continuous form when describing an action which continued
for some time before another past action:
The train arrived late and he had been waiting for an hour .
4 in the sentence pattern with a subordinate clause of time introduced by the correlatives scarcely… when, hardly … when, nearly… when, no sooner … than to show the time relation between the two actions of a specific character: the action of the subordinate clause takes place when the action of the principal clause is hardly accomplished yet .
He had scarcely entered the room when in a chair by the door he perceived Ann Chester .
Such sentences are emphatic in meaning and so the correlatives scarcely, hardly, nearly, no sooner may be placed at the head of the sentence with an inverted word order following .
No sooner had they established themselves in the house than he perceived to his dismay a return of her gloomy mood .
5 in the sentence pattern which is a complex sentences with a beforeclause or when-clause to express an action that is not fully accomplished before the action in the subordinate clause .
He had not been there for two days before he admitted that he should not have taken the invitation .
I hadn’t been in the pub five minutes when somebody brought in Tom for a drink .
We use the Future in the Past to describe events that will take place in the future of the story, when we
are already using past tenses to tell the story:
I was afraid that I would never win the game or I was afraid that I was never going to win the game .
Grammar practice Ex. 1 Comment on the use of tenses in the following sentences
1. When Arni turned on the television, the weatherman was giving the weekend forecast for Europe. 2. Diana and I were sitting in the library on Sunday morning, reading the newspapers. Or rather, she was reading, I was merely glancing through them. 3. To make conversation I asked him what he was doing at Oxford. 4. The noise was caused by a dog, which was chasing a cat through the garden. 5. And I just knew it was my mother's face I was seeing in my mind. 6. As usual, he was being selfish, thinking only about himself. 7. When she came back to the office, the secretary was still riffling through some papers. 8. She was being perfectly friendly again. 9. Nora thought she was being noisy. 10. When I entered a Pizza Hut, all around me people were eating pizzas the size of bus wheels. The programmer had done the work by four o'clock. 11. The policeman asked if there had been any witnesses. 12. By the time we got to the shopping centre it had closed. 13. The students had written the test and were now checking them up. 14. Mike phoned Rosie, but she hadn't returned home yet. 15 .
She complained that she was penniless as she had spent all her money. 16 .
It turned out that Dick was ill and he had been ill for a fortnight. 17. We learnt that they had been close friends for many years. 18. Hardly had I turned on the television, when I heard shocking news. 19. No sooner had he opened the door than the children rushed to meet him. 20. Scarcely had the inspector opened the envelope when he understood everything. 21. She sat staring at the page she had written last night in New York. 22. And for the first time in more than twenty years she had found herself living in the city where she had been born. 23. They walked toward the house. It had been months since they had been there. They felt comforted by the charm of the house. It had always been a peaceful place. 24. Ketti looked at Sue and knew that she had been weeping. 25. I had been hearing and reading about the Vatican for so long that I was genuinely keen to see it. 26. I hadn’t gone a hundred yards from the corner when I noticed there was a car behind me. 27. I realized before you had been here a fortnight that you never were cut for this life. 28. He didn’t hate her, he scarcely seemed aware of her presence. 29. She would sit for hours before the window waiting for her husband. It used to be a wonderful time!
Ex. 2 Complete the text by underlining the correct alternative .
When I (1) had been/was six years old, our family (2) was moving/moved from a quiet country village in Scotland to London. Life (3) used to be/was suddenly very different for us all. Now I (4) had been living/was living in a big city again, I often (5) was remembering/remembered the village and the things we (6) had done/were doing there. My annoying little brother (7) had always been playing/was always playing tricks on me. Once, I (8) walked/was walking home from school, when I (9) felt/was feeling drops of water falling on my head. I (10) would look up/looked up and (11) was seeing/saw him sitting in a tree, slowly pouring water from a bottle. At school, almost every day in break time, he (12) used to sneak/was sneaking up behind me and stick chewing gum on my back! When I (13) sat/would sit down in class, I (14) wasn't understanding/couldn't understand why all the class (15) had laughed/ laughed at me. After school, we (16) didn't use to watch/weren't watching TV like most children nowadays, but instead, we (17) would play/had played with our pets, or run around our garden. Life (18) was/would be much more fun then. When you lived in London, (19) did you used to travel/ did you use to travel) by bus? Susan has changed a lot, she (20) used to look/ didn’t use to look like that .
Ex. 3 Write a suitable form of the verb in brackets in the sentences below. There can be more than one suitable answer in some cases .
1. While we (get) ready for the journey, our parents (wash) the car .
2. After I (read) the instructions, I (try) to answer the questions .
3. When he (arrive) at the airport, he (realize hat he (leave) his passport at home .
4. 'I'm sorry about my homework. I (finish) it, but my computer (break) down!'
5. When I (open) the door to the bedroom, I (see) immediately that someone (be) in the room. All my clothes were on the floor .
6. Finally, at midnight, he (decide) to phone the police. He (wait) for her for over two hours, and he was worried that something (happen) .
7. When I was younger, I (play) a lot of football, but I (stop) when I was 16 to study for my exams .
8. When he was at university he (start) revising the night before the exam .
Ex. 4 Which of the following things had you done by your sixteenth (or twentieth) birthday? Use the Past Perfect tense to answer .
Model: By my sixteenth (or twentieth) birthday, I had smoked cigarettes and decided that I was never going to smoke again smoke a cigarette learn to drive go on my first date get drunk study calculus study physics fall in love have my first kiss learn how to support myself live apart from my parents learn everything there is to know about life be on an airplane learn to speak another language well get a job decide what I wanted to do for a living
Ex. 5 Use the required forms. Complete sentences 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 withyour own details .
1. She hardly (to sit) down when a very stout gentlemen wearing a very small hat (to flop) into the chair opposite hers .
2. He barely (to disappear) when Dennis (to come) sliding down the stairs .
3. No sooner he (to arrive) in Rome than he (to get) a telegram from home that his father was seriously ill .
4. No sooner …… than he (to rise) to go .
5. Hardly …… when she (to answer) them .
6. Scarcely ….. when he (to begin) to read the letter .
7. Nearly … when he (to reach) his hotel .
8. Barely … when a sudden shouting (to arise) .
Ex. 6 Make the right choice .
1. Kate's hopes... after her last interview .
a. raised b. rose c. were raising
2. The landscape... in silence, as if the world had stopped .
a. lay b. laid c. was lying
3. The King's palace... on the hill, overlooking the river .
a. was standing b. stood c. stayed
4. A narrow path... to the entrance to the secret garden .
a. led b. was leading c. is leading
5. Meredith laughed and... a perfectly shaped blonde brow .
a. rose b. raised c. was raising
6. Instinctively she recognized that here her future... .
a. lay b. lied c. was lying
7. She... suddenly and began to clear the kitchen table .
a. raised b. was rising c. rose
8. I... my hand in greeting .
a. raised b. rose c. was raising
9. A little river... through the grounds .
a. flowed b. was flowing c. flew
10. Molly was walking along the lonely path that... between the hills, a. ran b. was running c. runs
11. A thick fog... in the air .
a. hanged b. hung c. was hanging
12. Do you happen to know who... this public fund?
a. found b. founded c. finds
13. My parents couldn't offer me any financial help. I had to... the money myself .
a. raise b. rise c. rose
14. Now she knew that her happiness... in his hands .
a. was lying b. was laying c. lay
15. When I came into the room, my dog... on the bed again .
a. was laying b. lay c. was lying
16. The door... open .
a. stood b. was standing c. stood up
17. Last week he... a new record .
a. sat b. set c. was sitting
18. After the heavy rains the lake... .
a. rose b. raised c. risen Ex. 7 Complete the sentences using the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous .
1. I never (lend) a friend a large amount of money, because I always (think) it would almost certainly be the end of the friendship. But one day I (have) a very good reason for borrowing money myself. I (need) an urgent operation .
2. We think of democracy as a modern invention, but in fact the world's most perfect democracy probably (exist) in Ancient Athens in 500 B.C. - if you (be) not a woman or a slave .
3. Two French architects - Frederic Augusta Bartholdi and Alexander Gustave Eiffel (design) and (build) in Paris the Statue of Liberty which has stood on Liberty Island in New York Island since 1886 .
4. My brother (work) in a bank for about five years, and actually he wasn't very ambitious or career-minded. Then a new manager (persuade) him to take the job more seriously, so he (start) studying to become a manager himself. For five years he (go) to evening classes to get qualifications he needed... but it was worth it .
5. It (snow) when I (get up) this morning. The children next door (make) a snowman. I quickly (put on) my warm clothes and (race) outside to help them .
6. Ann was worn out. The baby (cough) all night and she (not to get) any sleep .
7. Our team (play) really well. We (win) at half time, but in the end we (lose) .
8. Kate was a successful model before she (become) a teacher. She (earn) a lot of money for a few years but then she (give) it all up for the classroom .
9. When my mother (come) downstairs this morning, she couldn't believe her eyes. We (do) all the washing-up and (made) breakfast for her .
We (work) for an hour before she (wake up) .
10. Imagine my delight when I (do) really well in all my exams! My childhood dream (come) true and I (become) a student of the university .
11. She (live) in Oxford when she (meet) her husband. They (go out) for two years before they (get) married .
12. Long, long ago the people of Egypt (make) paper from the tall grass that (grow) on the banks of the river Nile .
13. In 1812 Charles Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University (invent) the first calculating machine which (do) complicated calculations faster than any mathematician .
14. I found a camera you (leave) in hotel room 222 where I (stay) for a week before they offered me a single room .
15. Once I (tell) him the truth, I (feel) better. For many years I (keep) it a secret .
16. It was 1 o'clock and the dog from next door (bark) for two hours. I wondered what (happen) there .
17. My friend was 26 last month. He (start) working for the company when he (be) eighteen. He quickly (climb) the career ladder and not long ago he (become) the youngest managing director the company ever (appoint) .
18. She said she (try) to phone me since morning, but nobody was at home .
19. No sooner I (get) home than the telephone (ring). My mother (call) .
20. After the students (pass) their exams, they went out to celebrate .
Alex (not to go) anywhere because he (fail) his last exam. He said he (have) a lovely time and (not to prepare) for the exam properly .
21. When we arrived at the station, Alex (wait) for us for half an hour already. He (wear) a white suit and (look) very handsome .
22. I heard that Peter (get married). You (know) him quite well, didn't you? - Yes, we (work) for the same company for five years before he (find) another job .
Ex. 8 Put the verbs in the Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous or Past Indefinite. Retell the text .
Cooking the Books?
Old Mr Williams was very concerned. He and his wife were pensioners and he (spend) the whole morning looking for their pension books. He (look) everywhere, but he (not be able) to find them. Meanwhile, his wife (be) busy. She (cook) all morning. She (prepare) a delicious meal. She (make) soup, followed by a lovely pie, which she (bake) in the oven. Mr Williams (always enjoy) his food, but he clearly wasn't enjoying his lunch .
"What's the matter, Tom?" his wife asked. Mr Williams (have to) confess that he (lost) their pension books. "I know", Mrs Williams (say), with a twinkle in her eye. "I've got them." "You've got them?" "Yes - and guess where I (find) them!" Mr Williams suddenly remembered. "In the oven! I (put) them there for safe-keeping." He (smile) with relief as she (fish) them out of her apron pocket!
Ex. 9 Open the brackets and use the proper tense .
1. When he (arrive), I (live) in London for a week. 2. We (read) while he (eat). 3. When Jack (phone) me, I (write) a letter. 4. When my friend (come), I (do) an exercise for an hour. 5. The library (close) by the time I (get) there. 6. I (drive) home when I (hear) the news on the radio. 7. They always (have) loud parties which (go on) till the early hours. 8. We (walk) for some hours before we (realize) that we (lose) our way. 9. No sooner I (complain) that I (not hear) from them for a long time than the letter (come). 10. The concert was a great success. When the pianist (finish) his part, the audience (applaud) the orchestra for some minutes .
Ex. 10 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets .
1. The three of them became inseparable. A great deal of camaraderie (develop) between them in the short time they (know) each other. 2. He admitted that it (be) too long since he (see) them. 3. My life was hectic .
And indeed it (be) a stormy life I (live) ever since. 4. Joe saw that Nel was worried. She (live) with a problem for the last few days, ever since the baby (be) born. 5. Mrs. Loveday liked Maggie. In the few weeks she (know) the girl she never (see) her ruffled. Nor she ever (hear) her raise her voice at the children. 6. He painted mostly in the red barn. It (become) a refuge for him since he (move) into the house. 7. She looked up at Charles. She (be) acutely conscious of him from the moment he (arrive). 8. The Berlin, she (be born) in, and where she (grow up), no longer existed .
Ex. 11 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given .
1. I was always getting into trouble when I was at school. (to) I
2. I haven't had a holiday for three years. (last) The
2. I have had this camera for a year. (bought) I
4. Whenever I went to the cinema, I bought popcorn. (buy) When I went to the cinema,
5. As a child, we always had our summer holiday by the sea. (have) As a child, we
6. We haven't seen each other for ages. (last) We
7. I forgot everything I had learnt in class. (remember) I
8. James went out for a walk despite the heavy rain. (although) James went out for a walk……………………………..heavily .
Ex. 12 Translate into English .
1. Мы посмотрели пьесу до того, как обсудили ее. 2. Мы посмотрели пьесу, а затем обсудили ее. 3. Я был в Лондоне в прошлом году .
Раньше я там не бывал. 4. Ему не нравилось письмо, которое он пытался написать уже два часа. Слова казались ему неубедительными (unconvincing). 5. Когда мы пришли, он уже вернулся и что-то писал в своем кабинете (study). 6. Он окончил свою работу в саду и сидел на террасе (terrace). Вечер был теплый, и солнце только что зашло. 7 .
Она проработала с нами только два месяца, но доказала, что она опытный юрист (lawyer). 8. Шел очень сильный снег, и я не смог разобрать (make out) номера трамвая. Когда я уже проехал (cover) несколько остановок (tram stops), я понял что ехал в неправильном направлении. 9. Я звонила вам с 4 часов, но не смогла дозвониться (get): ваша линия была все время занята, 10.
Две недели шли дожди:
наконец три дня назад установилась (set in) хорошая погода. 11. Не прошло и пяти минут, как мистер Браун появился в комнате с чашечкой кофе. 12. Не успела Джули получить известие о моем отъезде, как к ней приехал новый жилец. 13. Они едва въехали в новый дом, как к ним приехали родственники. 14. Дети не прошли и трех миль, а маленький Джон почувствовал, что он зря отправился в это путешествие. 15. В детстве она ничего не ела сладкого, чтобы не поправиться .
Use your English Ex. 1 Discuss amongst your group what you had achieved by your sixteenth birthday .
Ex. 2 Put the verb in the required form, retell the text .
The Australian Salute Before I (visit) Australia, an Australian friend in London (tell) me I'd learn "the Australian salute". "What's that?" I (ask). "You'll find out when you get there", he (say). I (arrive) in Perth last week. Since then, I (stay) at a nice hotel near a beautiful beach. I (never visit) Australia before and I am enjoying my stay. I (swim) every day from the time I (arrive). Yesterday, an Australian friend (suggest) a tour into "the bush". I (agree) at once. The first thing I (notice) when we (be) in the bush (be) the flies. After a while I (remember) the conversation I had had in London before I (come) here .
"What's the "Australian salute"?" I (ask) suddenly, as I waved my right arm to keep the flies away. "That's it!" my friend said as he (wave) back!
Ex. 3 Practice the following dialogues. Pay attention to the form used to. Ask and answer the questions about your life now and when you were a child .
a) E: Reggie, you used to be the best baseball player in the National League. Are you going to come back and play again?
R: No, I'm not. No more .
E: Why not?
R: Well, baseball used to be the most important thing in my life, but it isn't any more. I used to practice every day. I never used to smoke, drink, or stay up late .
E: Why, has your life changed, Reggie?
R: Well, I was poor then, but I'm not now. I don't need to play baseball any more .
b) G: Dad?
G: There is a terrific movie downtown .
H: Really? What is it?
G: Star Wars .
H: Are you going to see it?
G: I'd like to. All my friends are going; but I don't have any money .
H: O.K., O.K. How much do you want?
G: Ten dollars .
H: Ten dollars! When I was your age I used to get two dollars to go to the movies!
G: I know, I know. And you used to walk a mile to school and you used to cut wood .
H: And I used to talk to my father with respect .
Unit 4 Past and Present Tenses Compared Ex. 1 Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct tense, either the Present Perfect or the Past Indefinite .
I. 1. You (find) the money which you (lose) yesterday? – Yes, I (find) it in the pocket of my coat when I (come) home. 2. The rain (stop) but a strong wind is still blowing, 3. You (see) Nick today? – Yes, but he already (leave). 4. We never (see) him. We don't even know what he looks like. 5 .
She (meet) them in the Globus theatre last afternoon. 6. How long you (know) him? – We (meet) in 1996, but we (not see) each other since last autumn .
The discussion already (begin). Why are you always late? 22. Why you (take) my pen while I was out? You (break) it. 23. You never (tell) me why you're called Tony when your name is John. 24, Her father (die) when she was a small girl. 25. They (not meet) since they (leave) school. 26. The rain (stop). Come out, I want to speak with you .
II. 1. – You (see) Jane today? – Yes, I (see) her at about nine, but I not (see) her since then. 2. I have always wanted to go to Scotland, but I never (manage) to get there. 3. Bob (want) to be a bodyguard until he (be) fifteen. 4. – We not (see) much of Helen lately. – You (see) her? 5. I (be) ill a lot last year. 6. I (be) ill for two weeks. 7. – How's your new job? – Everything (be) all right up to now. 8. Nelly (go) to America on holiday ten years ago, and she (live) there ever since. 9. He (climb) quite a lot of mountains, but he never (be) up Everest. 10. You ever (study) a musical instrument when at school? – I (learn) to play the flute but never (be) successful. 11. Alex (have) an enormous amount of work last week. 12. We (have) a very busy week. We need a break. 13. When you first (fall in love)? 14. How long ago you (meet)? 15. How long you (be) in your present job?
Ex. 2 Use the Present Perfect or the Past Indefinite in the followingquestions .
1. "What you (to hear)?" she demanded. "A farmer tells me he saw your brother walking back to the town." "Why he (not to tell) us?" "He thought we knew." 2. The parrot screamed a few words in Hindi. "Where he (to learn) that?" my aunt asked me. 3. When Renny came in, his grandmother asked him: "Where you (to be) all day?" 4. "What sort of time you (to have) in France?" "A lot of things (to happen) there." 5. "Everyone in the village will talk about it." "How this affair (to begin)?" 6. "How many children you (to teach) in that other family?" the girl asked her new governess. "Not many. Just one girl." "How long you (to stay) with her?" Ex. 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: Present Perfect or Past Indefinite .
1. Mary (feed) the cat? - Yes, she (feed) him before lunch. - What she (give) him? - She (give) him some fish .
2. How long you (know) your new assistant? - I (know) him for two years. - What he (do) before he (come) here? - I think he (be) in prison .
3. I (not see) your aunt recently. - No. She (not be) out of her house since she (buy) her colour TV .
4. The plumber (be) here yet? - Yes, but he only (stay) for an hour. What he (do) in that time? - He (turn) off the water and (empty) the tank .
5. Where you (be)? I (be) out in a yacht. - You (enjoy) it? - Yes, very much. We (take) part in a race. - You (win)? - No, we (come) in last .
6. How long that horrible monument (be) there? - It (be) there six months. Lots of people (write) to the Town Council asking them to take it away but so far nothing (be) done .
7. I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it? - No, I.... Is it like the book? - I (not read) the book. - I (read) it when I (be) at school. When Tolstoy (write) it? - He (write) it in 1868. - He (write) anything else?
8. Hannibal (bring) elephants across the Alps. - Why he (do) that? - He (want) to use them in battle .
9. Where you (be)? - I (be) to the dentist. - He (take) out your bad tooth? - Yes, he... - It (hurt)? - Yes, horribly .
10. She (say) that she'd phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not phone) yet .
11. I just (receive) a letter saying that we (not pay) this quarter's electricity bill. I (not give) you the money for that last week? - Yes, you... but I'm afraid I (spend) it on something else .
12. How long you (be) out of work? - I'm not out of work now. I just (start) a new job. - How you (find) the job? - I (answer) an advertisement in the paper .
13. You (finish) checking the accounts? - No, not quite. I (do) about half so far .
14. I (cut) my hand rather badly. Have you a bandage? - I'll get you one .
How it (happen)? - I (chop) some wood and the axe (slip) .
15. How you (get) that scar? - I (get) it in a car accident a year ago .
16. You (meet) my brother at the lecture yesterday? - Yes, I …. We (have) coffee together afterwards .
17. He (lose) his job last month and since then he (be) out of work. Why he (lose) his job? - He (be) very rude to Mr Pitt .
18. What are all those people looking at? - There (be) an accident. - You (see) what (happen)? - Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry .
19. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer .
20. Originally horses used in bull fights (not wear) any protection, but for some time now they (wear) special padding .
21. That house (be) empty for a year. But they just (take) down the 'For Sale' sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it .
Ex. 4 Choose the right variant using the Present Perfect, the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous Tense .
1. While I (was waiting / waited / have waited) for him to call up, he (had / was having / have had) a good time in the bar. 2. She (has written / wrote/was writing) this exercise yesterday at 8 o'clock. 3. He (has invited/was inviting/ invited) me to the party yesterday. 4. I (passed/have passed/ was passing) my exam in history today. 5. He (read/has read/was reading) a book two days ago. 6. They (have seen/ saw/were seeing) this film last week. 7. She (painted/has painted/was painting) the picture when I came. 8. I (made/have made/was making) my report when you entered the hall. 9. They (learnt/were learning/have learnt) the new words yesterday from three till seven. 10. It (rained/has rained/was raining) this week. 11 .
She (was having/had/ has had) a bath at seven o'clock last night. 12. She (was washing/washed/has washed) dishes already. 13. They (had/have had/were having) supper when the telephone rang, 14. I (didn't meet/haven't met/was not meeting) you for ages. 15. Last summer he (has gone/was going/went) to the Caucasus. 16. She was thoughtfully looking at him while he (read/was reading/has read) a newspaper. 17. While I (swept/was sweeping/has swept) the floor, Mrs. Parker began cooking. 18 .
I just (had/have had/was having) a telegram to say that my poor friend is badly ill again. 19. We (sat/were sitting/have sat) in silence for a few minutes. He (spoke/was speaking/has spoken) at last. 20. While she (washed/was washing/has washed up), she (was hearing/heard/has heard) the doorbell, then voices. 21. "She (was making/made/has made) tea, let's go to the dining room." 22. Only two stars (shone/were shining/ has shone) in the dark blue sky. 23. On glancing at the address, he observed that it (contained/was containing/has contained) no name. 24. He just (left/was leaving/has left) the hall when a stranger (entered/was entering/has entered). 25. I (met/was meeting/have met) Ann at her father's house twenty years ago and (knew/have known/ was knowing) her ever since .
Ex. 5 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: Present Perfect or Past Simple. In some cases the Present Perfect Continuous is also possible .
1. Peter (meeting Paul unexpectedly in London): Hello, Paul! I (not know) you (be) here .
Paul: Oh, I (be) here nearly two months. I (arrive) on the 6th of January .
2. Peter: When we last (meet) you (say) that nothing would induce you to come to England. What (make) you change your mind?
Paul: I (find) that I (need) English for my work and this (seem) the quickest way of learning it .
3. Peter: You (know) any English when you first (arrive) here?
Paul: No, I (not know) a word .
4. Ann (to Yvonne, who is going to English classes): How long you (learn) English?
Yvonne: I (learn) off and on for about five and a half years. 5. I (begin) English at secondary school and (do) it for three years. Then I (drop) it for a year and (forget) most of it. Then I (spend) two years at a secretarial college, where I (study) commercial English, and for the last six months I (study) in London .
6. At 4 p.m. my neighbour (ring) up and (say) ‘Is Tom with you?' Tom, her son, (spend) most of his time in my garden playing with my children, so whenever she (not be able) to find him she (ring) me. I'm afraid I (not see) him today,' I (say). 'But my children (go) to the beach this morning and (not come) back yet. Perhaps he (go) with them.'
7. I just (have) my first driving lesson. - How it (go)? You (enjoy) it?
- Well, I not actually (hit) anything but I (make) every other possible mistake .
8. Old Ben (sell) newspapers just inside the station entrance, and my father always (buy) his evening paper from him as he (leave) the station on his way home. But one day my father (arrive) home without his paper. 'Ben (not be) there this evening,' he (say). 'I hope he (not be taken) ill.'
9. On Saturday afternoon I (see) Frederick sitting in his garden. 'I (think) you (work) on Saturdays,' I (say). 'I (work) this morning,' (explain) Frederick, 'but at lunch time the boss (go) off to play golf and (tell) us all to go home. It's about time he gave us a whole Saturday off actually. I (work) practically evry Saturday since the beginning of the year.'
10. Ann: You (be) to Hampton Court? Jane: Yes, I (go) there last week .
The tulips (be) wonderful. Ann: You (go) by car?
Jane: No, I (go) with my English class. We (hire) a coach .
Ann: Where else you (be) to since you (come) to England?
Jane: Oh, I (be) to Stratford and Coventry and Oxford and Canterbury .
Ann: You (see) a lot. When you (go) to Stratford?
Jane: I (go) last week. The people I work for (take) me .
Ann: You (see) a play at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre when you (be) at Stratford?
Jane: Yes, we (see) Macbeth. We were very lucky. We just (walk) in and (ask) if they (have) any returned tickets, and the girl at the box office (say), 'Yes, a man just (return) three stalls.' Ann: You (be) to Wales?
Jane: No, I (be) to Scotland but I (not be) to Wales. I'd like to go .
Peter: You (see) any good films lately?
Ann: Yes, I (go) to the National Film Theatre last week and (see) a Japanese film .
Peter: You (like) it?
Ann: Yes, I (love) it, but of course I (not understand) a word .
11. Tom: I hear that Mr Benson just (die). You (know) him quite well, didn't you?
Jack: Yes. We (work) for the same company for ten years. I (not see) so much of him after he (leave) the company but we (keep) in touch .
12. Ann (think) the garage (be) empty, and (turn) off the lights. 'Hey!' (shout) Paul from under the car. I'm sorry, Paul,' (say) Ann, I (not know) you (be) there.'
13. Father: Tom (not come) back yet? Mother: Yes, he (come) in an hour ago. He (go) straight to bed. Father: Funny. I (not hear) him .
14. Paul: That's a live wire. It just (give) me a shock! Ann: Nonsense! I just (touch) it and I (not feel) anything!
15. When Paul (come) into the room, Ann was sitting in an armchair just behind the door. Paul, not noticing Ann, (go) to the window and (look) out. Ann (cough) and Paul (spin) round. 'Hello, Ann!' he (exclaim), 'I (not see) you!'
16. Jack: You just (agree) to go, so why aren't you getting ready? Peter:
But I didn’t realize that you (want) me to start at once!
Ex. 6 Use one of the present forms or the Past Continuous or the Past Indefinite in the following sentences. There can be more than one variant .
1. I (to have) an uncomfortable feeling that he (to laugh) at me .
2. They (to move) into the shelter. The rain (to come) down .
3. I only (to want) to know if you (to come) on Saturday .
4. Jack (to look) at her trying to guess what (to come) .
5.Through the arch I (to see) Simon. He (to lie) on the ground. He (to have) a cut which (to bleed) a lot. A few people (to stand) around. His friend, at the top of his voice, (to yell): "You (to hurt) him!" One of the crowd (to say): "I (not to touch) him." As I (to come) up Simon (to open) his eyes and (to say), "What on earth (to happen)? Where I (to be)?"
6. It (to be) evening, Jessica (to go) to the window and (to look) out. A Siamese cat (to walk) slowly along the top of the garden wall. A newspaper boy (to deliver) the evening papers. A student (to polish) his old car .
Two dogs who had just met (to wag) their tails. She (to turn) away from the window and (to go) back to her desk .
7. He is the sort of chap who always (to look) at a clock .
8. It's funny that all these years he never (to bother) to see you .
9. Just think how you (to improve) in the short time I (to know) you .
10. I (to know) that they (to go) out that night .
11. He (to have) interests elsewhere. He always (to ask) for special leave .
12. When I (to come) up to her she (to search) through a velvet bag which she always (to carry) for her spectacles which she always (to lose) .
Ex. 7 Use the proper tense form: the Present Perfect, the Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Indefinite .
A: I (not to see) you sister lately. She (go) away?
B: Yes, she (go) to England already .
A: When she (go)?
B: She (go) there at the end of last year .
A: You (have) any letters from her?
B: I haven't, but her husband (hear) from her regularly. He (think) about going out and joining her there .
A: She (live) in London or any other city?
B: She (work) in London for six months already and (live) there all this time .
A: Has she any problems with her English?
B: I don't think so. She (learn) English for a few years already and now she has a good language practice there. For ages I (want) to have such an opportunity to improve my English .
A: You (wait) too long. It's time for you to change something in your life .
B: You are right. I (think) about it myself .
Ex. 8 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets
1. They (be) political rivals for more than 30 years and still are. 2. New York house (be) his main home for the last forty years. 3. I (miss) you terribly! Where you (be) all this time? 4. It (be) a long way, I really feel tired .
5. I always (like) being near water, and for as long as I can remember. 6 .
Frank wants to fly. He (do) this so many times in his mind that he is beginning to think it really (happen). 7. Life (be) very kind to me. 8. I not (see) fireflies since I (be) a kid. 9. I (notice) something strange in her lately. 10 .
We believe you (be) very busy since you (arrive) in New York. 11. Melanie (know) the Hills for donkey's years. 12. After all, Nigel always (be) a bit of a know-it-all. 13. It is quiet in the apartment now that everybody (leave) it. 14. It's strange that they are friends, they never (share) the same interests. 15. "I think you had better leave," he said icily. "Before I really lose my temper. I just (have) enough of you." 16. I always (want) to look clever, but now at the age of twenty I have to admit that I look like a person who never even (hear) of Jung or Updike. 17. We (see) each other fairly steadily for the past year, and when David (ask) me to marry him, last week, there (seem) no reason to say "no". I (be) very lonely for a very long time. And so (have) David, ever since his wife (die) seven years ago. 18. I never (to see) anyone more beautiful than your wife. 19. I (to meet) your husband this afternoon at Green Street. 20. He said, "You (to meet) this passenger? He calls himself Major Jones." "I (to speak) to him." 21. I said, "Mr Jones (to be) arrested by the police." "My goodness. You don't say .
What he (to do)?" "He necessarily (not to do) anything." "He (to see) a lawyer?" "That's not possible here. The police wouldn't allow it." 22. "You (to hear) the news?" "What news?" "About Ted and Dave. They (to be) out on the roof last night and Ted (to slip) and Dave (to try) to hold him but he couldn't and (to be) pulled off too. They're both in hospital with concussion and their people (to be) sent for." 23. He (to light) a cigarette and (to walk) to the window. 24. "Can we get dinner here?" "Of course we can. Have you got enough money? I (to spend) my last dollar on the taxi." 25. You (to say) just now that time (to be) everything. What you (to mean) by that? 26 .
"I remember you (to have) three funny little freckles on your nose,” he said, “but they (to disappear).” 27. "You (to read) 'Winnie the Pooh' by A .
A. Milne?” “Yes”. “And how you (to like) it?" "Very much indeed”. 28. At school I (to be) never good at languages, but here I (to pick) up a bit of French. 29. "Good night. It (to be) nice to meet you," he (to say) and (to go) off to his car .
Ex. 9 Use one of the present or past forms in the following sentenc-es .
1. It was early evening. John, who (to be) in bed until half an hour ago, (to wear) his silk gown. A fire (to burn) in the grate which he (to lay) and (to light) himself .
2. Mr. Wrangle: "Why does a woman say she (to shop) when she (not to buy) a thing?" Mrs Wrangle: "Why does a man (say) he (to fish) when he (not to catch) anything?"
3. When she (to go) out of the room Jack (to stand) just outside the door, and she (to have) the impression that he (to try) to listen to what her father (to say) in the room .
4. She (to find) the family on the beach. Theo (to sit) on the sand beside his clothes. Pierce, who (to swim), (to lie) limply on the pebbles, half in and half out of the water. The dog, who (swim) with Pierce, (to shake) itself and (to spray) rainbow drops on Pierce's trousers. The cat, who (to fluff) itself into; woolen ball, (to watch) the dog. Paula and John (to get) fully dressed and (to walk) slowly along the beach .
5. Martin Eden asked Ruth: "I wonder if I can get some advice from you. You remember the other time I (to be) here I (to say) I (can) not talk about books and things because I (not to know) how. Well, I (to do) a lot of thinking since. I (to be) to the library many times, but most of the books I (to read) (to be) too hard for me to understand. Maybe I'd better begin at the beginning. I never (to have) any advantages. I (to work) pretty hard ever since I (to be) a kid and now that I (to be) to the library, looking with new eyes at books, I just (to conclude) (not to read) the right kind .
6. "I (to mean) to call you up," Pete said, wanting to get away, "but I (to be) busy."
7. As we (to approach) the corner we (to fall) silent .
8. They (to walk) for less than an hour when the moon, which (to pass) its first quarter, suddenly (to appear) between the heavy clouds .
9. Her parents (to live) in Florence and she (to visit) them every weekend .
10. He (to remember) that his mother (to meet) her first husband when she (to work) in a New York publishing house .
11. "How's your sister?" "I (not to know) anything about her." "Why you (to stop) going to see her?"
12. As he (to pay) his bill his brother (to come) up .
13. The lights were switched off and she (to sit) in the glow of the wood fire and he (to have) the impression that she (to cry) .
14. "I (to be) retired for a few years now." "Why they (to give) you a pension? What war you (to be) in?"
15. Nick had to repeat that he (to have) a letter from his sister and that she and her husband (to sail) the following week for Canada .
16. "You (to see) her today?" "Yes. We (to have) lunch."
17. I (to play) for several minutes before I (to see) that Marcel (to sit) behind my back .
18. The telephone (to ring) as he (to unlock) the door to his apartment .
19. While I (to watch) the advertisements on the television last night I (to see) Sophy Brent. I (not to set) eyes on her for some months. She (to advertise) a new kind of chocolate cake .
Ex. 10 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets .
Nina: Guess what? I have wonderful news. Vladimir and I are engaged .
Erika: What! You...engaged? It's all so sudden .
N: I not (tell) anyone yet. This is the first time I (speak) about it .
E: But are you sure you know what you (do)? I never (meet) Vladimir .
Who is he?
N: He's the most wonderful person I ever (know) .
E: Where you (meet) him?
N: I (meet) him in History class last semester .
E: Oh, he's a student. He (finish) college yet?
N: He not (graduate), but he already (finish) most of his courses .
E: How will you support yourselves?
N: We already (discuss) that. I am going to work until he (finish) school .
E: Nina, you never (be) on your own. Has he? He ever (work) before?
He ever (live) alone?
N: No, but that's not important. What matters is that we're in love .
E: How you (know) you're really in love? You not (have) much experience with men .
N: Yes, Vladimir is the first one I ever (fall in love with). But I feel as if I always (know) him .
E: I know, I know. Love (make) the world go round. But so far you not (convince) me that you know what you're doing. Why you (not wait) for a while?
Ex. 11 Translate the following sentences using the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect .
1. Где мистер Андерсен? – Он уехал в Гаагу. – Когда? – Несколько дней тому назад. – А я никогда не был в Нидерландах, хотя хочу там побывать уже несколько лет. 2. Вы когда-нибудь были в СантаБарбаре? – Да. – Когда вы там были в последний раз? – В прошлом году. 3. Где Анна? Почему она не пришла в институт? Я ее сегодня не видел. С ней что-нибудь случилось? – Да нет, Анна здесь. Она только что пошла на лекцию. Но лекция уже началась, так что ты не сможешь сейчас с ней поговорить. 4. Вы были в театре на Бродвее? Что вы там смотрели? Когда вы там были в последний раз? 5. В последнее время я не получала писем (hear from) от своих родителей. – Когда ты получила последнее письмо? – Месяц назад. С тех пор я уже отправила им несколько писем. 6. Пойдемте в ресторан обедать. – С удовольствием. Я еще не обедал. – А когда вы завтракали? – Поздно утром, но я уже давно хочу есть. 7. Погода изменилась со вчерашнего дня .
Очень холодно, идет снег и дует сильный ветер. 8. Они уже ушли? – Да, они вышли ровно в семь. 9. Они познакомились полгода тому назад у моей подруги, но с тех пор не виделись. 10. Я скучаю по своей семье. Мне кажется, я не был дома уже целую вечность. Моя командировка длится уже полгода. 11. Вы уже написали контрольную работу? Покажите мне ее. 12. Давно вы приехали? Видели его? – Я приехала вчера, Я видела его и говорила с ним сегодня после завтрака. 13 .
Месяца три спустя он уехал в Африку. С тех пор они не встречались .
14. Я давно пришла сюда. Я здесь с 9 часов. 15. У тебя с тех пор немного потемнели волосы. 16. Мы только что продали последний экземпляр этой книги. Жаль, что вы не сказали нам, что она вам нужна .
17. Когда он заболел? – Три дня назад. Я с ним со вчерашнего дня. 18 .
Я узнал ваш телефон в справочном бюро (enquiry office) и звонил вам несколько раз, но никто не отвечал. 19. Вы давно здесь? – Нет, я только что пришел. 20. Он научился плавать в детстве. Они тогда были на юге .
Ex. 12 Choose the right variant .
1. Higher education in the US ___in 1636 when the first colonists___ Harvard College .
a) has begun, founded
b) began, have founded
c) began, founded
d) was beginning, have founded
2. Noah Webster___ An American Dictionary of the English Language in two volumes in 1828, and since then it ___the recognized authority for usage in the United States .
a) published, became
b) has published, has become
c) published, was becoming
d) published, has become
3. He ___at Oxford then. He was not the best student, though he ___ well known among the second year students .
a) was studying, became
b) was studying, has become
c) studied, became
d) has studied, has become
4. One day when he___ home he ___a boy who___ him from the opposite side of the street .
a) was walking, saw, watched
b) walked, has seen, was watching
c) was walking, saw, was watching
d) has walked, has seen, has watched
5. It was midnight. She____ in her lonely room. The rain driven by the rain__ against the window .
a) sat, beat
b) was sitting, was beating
c) has sat, beat
d) has been sitting, has been beating 6. ___ever___ to this museum? — Yes, I___it once when I___a youth, and the pictures___ a deep impression on me. Since then I___there .
a) did you be, visited, was, made, was not
b) were you, visited, was, have made, was not
c) have you been, have visited, were, have made, have not been
d) have you been, visited, was, made, have not been
7. I___Jack lately. When___him last? — I___ him two days ago. I___ that he ___very much .
a) did not see, have you seen, met, thought, changes
b) have not seen, did you see, met, think, changed
c) have not seen, you saw, met, think, changed
d) do not see, have you seen, have met, thought, would change
8. The Egyptian civilization ___ the oldest which___ us art. It___about five thousand years ago. The story of Egyptian art___three thousand years and__ the art of different periods .
a) is, left, began, covers, includes
b) was, leaves, has begun, covered, included
c) is, has left, has began, has covered, has included
d) has been, left, began, covers, included 9.___ your tennis racket with you? — Yes, I am going to show you how much I __ since last summer. I ___tennis lessons now. Now it___for you to judge if I ___ any progress,
a) did you bring, improved, take, is, have made
b) have you brought, improved, take, was, have made
c) did you bring, have improved, am taking, is, made
d) have you brought, have improved, am taking, is, have made 10.___lunch already? — No, not yet. The waitress my order fifteen minutes ago and ___me anything yet .
a) have you, took, has not brought
b) have you had, took, has not brought
c) did you have, has taken, did not bring
d) have you have, was taken, was not brought Ex. 13 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there .
If a line is correct, put a tick by the number at the end of each line. If a line has a word that should not be there, write this word next to the number at the end of each line .
Use your English Ex. 1 Do you believe the people in the story above were saved by an angel? If not, how can you explain this story?
Ex. 2 Say if the given below words and phrases express finished or unfinished time. Make up sentences of your own with them to illustrate the difference .
Today, yesterday, this morning, ever, never, always, when I was nine, until I was nine, since I was nine, after I got up, since I got up, three years ago, for the last three years, the other day, this year, last year, for the last year, in 1998, since 1997, recently, lately, so far, just now, just, up till now, these days .
Ex. 3 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. Dramatize the sit-uation .
When Nikita finally reached the club, his friends Olga and Oleg were already waiting for him near the entrance. Nikita said he was sorry he was late and asked how long they (be) there. They explained that they (wait) for about thirty minutes and in their turn asked him where he (be). Nikita said he (finish) a pot in his pottery class, and it (take) him a really long time to clean up. Olga was greatly surprised and asked how long he (take) a class in pottery, as he never (mention) it before. Nikita said he (register) some time before as he needed a break from his classes. He never (try) to do anything creative before and he (have) a really good time. He admitted that since he (start) it, he (spend) all his free time in workshop. He also (run) around to antique stores, so he not (go out) much with his friends recently .
His friends said they were sure it was just the beginning and soon things (get back) to normal .
Ex. 4 Find out what your classmates had achieved by the age of 22?
Ex. 5 Complete the following conversation, using the verbs in the proper tense. Retell the story on the part of Gary and Jean .
Gary: Jean, I'm surprised to see you .
Jean: Well, I think you owe me an explanation .
Gary: Me? What about you? I (see) you in the cafe last night. We (arrange) to meet at the cinema, if you remember .
Jean: So why you (not to come) into the cafe if you saw me?
Gary: I (be) too angry and cold. I (wait) outside the cinema for threequarters of an hour .
Jean: But why? You ( not to get) my note?
Gary: What note?
Jean: The note I (leave) here yesterday afternoon. When I (go) past the cinema yesterday lunchtime I (notice) that they (change) the film. So I (put) a note under your door to tell you .
Gary: I (not to find) any note .
Jean: It must be here. Let me look. Yes, oh dear. I'm afraid it (slip) under the mat .
Gary: Oh. I'm sorry I was angry. It's just that, well, while I (wait), I was worried about what (happen) to you. And then, I (see) you in the cafe. You (laugh) with your friends and I (realize) that you (sit) there quite comfortably with them all evening. I (just lose) my temper .
Jean: Never mind. Lets forget it. Where shall we go now?
1 to express a decision already made, an intention:
I'm going to spend the summer on a Greek island .
2 to make a prediction that is almost certain to happen. This prediction
is based on something you can see in the present:
The twins are growing fast - they're going to be as tall as their father .
We use the Present Continuous to express definite arrangements already made. Appointments, meetings, reservations, etc, can all be expressed with the Present Continuous .
This is a very certain future:
They're getting married in July. I'm spending the summer on Kos .
(compare with 'I'm going to spend the summer on a Greek island.')
We use the Present Simple:
1 to express the future based on timetables and fixed programmes:
The film starts at 7.30.The plane arrives at 8 this evening .
2 in subordinate clauses of time, condition and concession when the action refers to the future. Clauses of time may be introduced by
the conjunctions when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as:
I shall have a look at his paper when I get it. She won't go to bed till you come .
Clauses of condition are introduced by the conjunctions if, unless, on condition (that), provided (providing) and in case:
If you send me a line to my club, it'll be forwarded at once .
Clauses of concession are introduced by the conjunctions even
if, even though, no matter how, whenever, whatever, however, etc:
I'll have dinner whenever it is ready .
We use the Present Perfect in subordinate clauses of time introduced by the conjunctions when, before, after, as soon as, till and until where it is used to express a future action. It shows that the action of the subordinate clause will be
accomplished before the action of the principal clause:
As soon as we have had some tea, Ann, we shall go to inspect your house. I'll take you back in my car but not till I've made you some coffee .
We use the Future Simple:
1 to express simple, factual predictions:
The newspaper says inflation will go up in the next few months .
2 to express a succession of actions in the future:
I'll take a walk to the sea and on my way back I'll buy you a newspaper .
3 a) to express hopes, fears, thoughts about the future, with verbs like
think, hope, am sure, am afraid, believe, expect, etc:
I'm afraid I'll get lost without a map .
Do you think the weather will change?
b) to denote actions whose realization is uncertain, doubtful, with
adverbs perhaps, probably, of course and the like:
They'll probably get a lot of satisfaction out of our quarrel .
Of course he will send you a letter in a few days .
4 to express a decision made at the moment of speaking:
O, wait a minute, I'll come tomorrow instead of Friday .
We use the Future Continuous:
1 to express an action that will be taking place over a period of time in
Don't come on Monday because I'll be working all day .
This time next year, I'll be taking my exams .
2 to speak about an action that will happen around or at a certain time:
He'll be arriving at 7 .
3 to be more polite and formal when asking questions about the future:
When will you be arriving?
4 to express an action which the speaker expects to take place in the future in the natural course of events. The difference between the Present Continuous used to denote a future action and the Future
Continuous becomes quite evident if we compare the following sentences:
We are meeting tomorrow (= we have arranged to meet tomorrow, we have fixed the date of our meeting) .
We shall be meeting tomorrow (= not because of some arrangement but in the normal course of events; either because we work together, or because we attend classes together, or regularly play some game at the same place and at the same time, etc) .
We use the Future Perfect Simple to talk about an action that will be completed before a given time in the
I'll have taken all my exams by the end of next week .
We use the Future Perfect Continuous to talk about an action that will be completed before a given time in the future similar to the Future Perfect Simple, but to describe actions/events
that continue over a period of time:
By the end of the year, I'll have been working in my present job for three years .
Grammar practice Ex. 1 Read the sentences, comment on the use of tenses .
1. "We're going to have more rain." "Yes. Bob will be glad he's got his hay in." 2. By the time my parents get back home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 3. I'm having some people in after dinner tonight at my place. Will you come? 4. "When is Rosemary coming?" "Some time later this evening, Philip said. And he's coming, too. We're going to have a jolly family evening." "You'll have to look after her till I get back.” 5. Will you have arranged everything by tomorrow? Well, I'll be seeing you this evening. 7. "How long are you going to stay with us?"
8. When you drop in at my place, I will have painted the door. 9. He says he'll do whatever I wish. 10. Next month I will have known Rick for twenty years. 11. I’ll probably come back and sleep here. 12. Are you staying at home tonight? 13. You are to stay here till I come back. 14. The tourists hope that the tornado will have finished before they arrive in California .
15. "When he comes," said the General, "I'll see him alone." 16. In that case we'll take a bus. 17. They are to get married this spring. 18. When you have had something to eat you’ll feel better .
Ex. 2 Read the text, find sentences expressing future actions and comment on the use of tenses .
It's struck me several times lately that perhaps I should write down my stories and draw pictures to illustrate them. Perhaps I will, but only for Jamie and Lissa. This idea suddenly took hold of me. What a wonderful surprise it would be for the twins if I created a picture book for each of them, and put the books in their Christmas stockings .
I groaned inside; how ridiculous to be thinking of Christmas on this suffocatingly hot summer's day. But the summer will soon be drawing to an end; it always does disappear very quickly after July Fourth weekend .
Then Thanksgiving will be upon us before I can blink, with Christmas not far behind .
This year we are planning to spend Christmas in England. We will be staying with Diana at her house in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew and I are really looking forward to it, and the children are excited. They are hoping it will snow so that they can go sledging with their father. He's promised to take them on the runs he favored when he was a child; and he is planning to teach them to skate, providing Diana's pond has frozen solid .
Ex. 3 Open the brackets and use either the Future Indefinite or the Present Continuous Tense .
1. I've bought a typewriter, I (learn) to type. 2. No, I (not eat) meat any more. I am a vegetarian. 3. What's wrong? – I've got a flat tyre. – No problem. I (help) you. 4. I (punish) you if you continue doing it. 5. The forecast says it (rain). 6. I (go) to the country for the weekend. – I (go) with you. 7 .
Nick, my TV set is again out of order. – O.K. I (fix) it. 8. I suppose he (come). 9. He (help) you if you ask him. 10. What you (do) this evening?
11. He (be) busy tomorrow. He (sell) his car. 12. Lucy (not go) anywhere this summer. Her son (go) to college. 13. Ann is very angry with him. I am afraid she (not stay) here another minute. 14. I (give) you another piece of cake? – No, thanks, that’ll do. 15. You (help) me with this bag? 16. In the 21st century people (fly) to Mars and other planets. 7. I am afraid, it (be) difficult for you to stay there so long. 18. Where we (meet)? Victoria Station (be) all right?
Ex. 4 Open the brackets and use either the Present Continuous, the to be going to- form or the Future Indefinite where possible. Comment on your choice .
1. I am sure that I (recognize) him. 2. I (see) her tomorrow. 3. He (play) in a tennis match on Friday. 4. She (come) back on Monday. 5. I (go) again next year. 6. We (know) tonight. 7. You pay and I (owe) you the money. 8. I (believe) it when I see it. 9. I (have) my car repainted next week. 10. I hope that you (have) a good time tomorrow. 11. His speech (be) broadcast tonight. 12. The window-cleaner (come) at eight tomorrow .
13. Tom (catch) the 7.40 train. 14. Where you (meet) them? – I (meet) them at midnight in the middle of the wood. 15. What horse you (ride) tomorrow? 16. Look! I've broken the teapot. What Mrs Pitt (say)? - She (not mind); she never liked that one. 17. I've left the light on. It (matter)? 18. He (not forget) to come. 19. He (leave) in a few days. 20. I (remember) it. 21 .
If you drop that bottle it (break). 22. I never (forgive) him. 23. I'm sure that you (like) him. 24. They (lay) the foundations next week. 25. You (see) a signpost at the end of the road. 26. He has cut my hair too short. – Don't worry; it (grow) again very quickly. 27. You (understand) when you are older. 28. The cat (scratch) you if you pull its tail. 29. I (be) back at 8.30 .
30. If he doesn't work hard he (not pass) his exam. 31. She (go) on a cruise next summer. 32. I (move) to a new flat next week. 33. - I am sorry that the child saw the accident. – I don't think it matters. He soon (forget) all about it. 34. I (wait) here till he comes back. 35. He (not write) to you unless you write to him. 36. There (be) a big meeting here tomorrow .
Ex. 5 Open the brackets and put the verb in the Future or the Present Indefinite Tense .
1. I (accompany) you with pleasure as soon as I (finish) my report. 2 .
The performance (be) a great success if he (play) the leading role. 3. If this time (be) convenient for you, we (meet) tomorrow. 4. We (not complete) the work this week in case he (get) ill. 5. We (not start) till he (arrive). 6 .
Provided he (leave) now, he (miss) the rush hour. 7. We (not be able) to carry out the experiment unless he (help) us. 8. You may take my dictionary as long as you (give) it back on Friday. 9. As soon as he (return) from the beach, we (have) dinner. 10. I (phone) you when she (come). 11 .
Providing that he (work) hard, he will finish his work on Thursday. 12. She has two keys in her bag in case she (lose) one. 13. Unless he (come), we (not go) to the country. 14. He (remind) you of your promise in case you (forget) it. 15. As soon as the lake (get frozen), she (go skating). 16. When you (turn) to the right, you (see) an old oak. 17. If she (keep) her promise, they (be) rich. 18. Unless you (look) at the picture at some distance, you (not see) the details. 19. Providing that nothing (happen), I (return) in two weeks. 20. If the wind (blow) from the west, it (rain). 21. If you (get) there before me, wait till I (come). 22. Provided all (go) well, I (graduate) in June. 23. He (not go) for a walk until he (do) his lessons. 24. He (not catch) the train unless he (leave) immediately. 25. We (not wait) till he (make up his mind) .
Ex. 6 Open the brackets and use the proper tense, either the Future or the Present Indefinite, paying attention to the use of these tenses in subordinate clauses .
1. Well go swimming if it (be) a nice day tomorrow. 2. I wonder if it (rain) tomorrow. 3. You'll get wet if you (not take) an umbrella. 4. I don't know when he (come back). 5. I doubt if he (join) us. He is very busy. 6 .
She will serve the table when he (come). 7. I'll be grateful to you if you (lend) me this sum of money. 8. I am not sure if he (follow) my advice. 9. I wonder if I (solve) this problem without anybody's help. 10. He supposes that they will buy the house if it (be) in good condition. 11. I am sure that when he (come) he will apologize for his rudeness. 12. I wonder if you (invite) the Browns if they (be) here on Sunday? 13. It's hard to say if she (find out) everything. 14. I don't know when she (go) to see them. 15. We will discuss the terms of the contract when he (come). 16. I will not deal with him if he (be) so stubborn!
Ex. 7 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense using the Future, Present, or Present Perfect. Explain your choice .
1. When we (take) our exam we'll have a holiday. 2. When I (finish) the book I'll lend it to you. 3 When we (have) our injections I expect we'll feel awful. 4. When I (be) here for a year I'll ask for a rise. 5. When Tom (go) I'll tell you a secret. 6. By the time he (get) back from his holiday the milkman will have left twenty-one bottles of milk outside his door. 7. Don't drive at more than 50 k.p.h. till your car (do) 4,000 kilometres. 8. When you (do) 4,000 kilometres you can drive it at 70 k.p.h. 9. When you open the safe you (see) a small black box. 10. When we (have) lunch we'll go for a walk. 11. When the bell rings I (take) the meat out of the oven. 12. I'll bolt all the doors before I (go) to bed. 13. When we (see) the cathedral we'll go to the museum. 14. We'll have to stay up this tree till the bull (go) away. 15. He (not let) you out till you have finished your homework. 16 .
As soon as I hear from him I (let) you know. 17. My father will be furious when he (see) what you have done. 18. You (not hear) the sound of the explosion till after you have seen the flash. 19. These gates will remain shut until the train (pass). 20. When he (sell) all his newspapers he'll go home .
21. We can't have a fire here until we (sweep) the chimney. 22. You (get) a shock when you open that box. 23. When you are eighteen your father (give) you a latchkey. 24. Don't jump out of the aeroplane until the pilot (say) "Go!" 25. I can't leave the country till the police (return) my passport .
26. When a bottle of champagne (be) opened for twenty-four hours the wine is not fit to drink. 27. Hotel receptionist: “When you (sign) the hotel register the porter will show you your room.” 28. You (not know) how good oysters are till you have tasted one. 29. That road will not be safe till the floods (subside). 30. When everybody (leave) the park the park-keeper will lock the gates. 31. When we have seen the Chamber of Horrors we (have) a cup of tea. 32. When you (have) something to eat you'll feel better. 33. I (stay) in court till the jury returns. 34. You cannot become a member of this club until you (make) a parachute descent. 35. When the boa constrictor (eat) the goat he will become very lethargic. 36. As soon as everybody has gone to bed the mice (come) out of their holes .
Ex. 8 Complete the following sentences .
1. I'm going to eat without you if.... 2. You'll get some fresh fruit after.... 3. I'll be able to afford a holiday in case.... 4. They'll be able to leave their kids when.... 5. Your T-shirts won't shrink if.... 6. You'll tan more quickly after.... 7. Your roses will last longer if.... 8. Your house plants will die unless.... 9. Take your umbrella in case.... 10. You'll learn the results as soon as.... 11. I must go to the shop before.... 12. She'll be pleased whenever.... 13. I wonder if.... 14. Will you be upset if... ? 15 .
The young specialist will lose his independence whatever.... 16. Nobody knows when.... 17. I'll buy some new clothes as soon as.... 18. We shall take some measures before.... 19. Mother doesn't know whether.... 20. I doubt whether anyone.... 21. We don't know either if Maxim... .
Ex. 9 Open the brackets and use either the Future Indefinite or the Future Continuous Tense .
1. He has come home from school late today. So he can't go for a walk:
he (do) his homework after dinner. 2. Today is Sunday and it does not rain .
We (have) tea out in the garden. 3. The big stores (have) their summer sales soon. 4. The weather is warm today. We (have) a walk out in the garden. 5. I'm leaving now, but I suppose I (see) you in the evening. 6. There is a party at Betsy's house tonight. So I (meet) you in the evening. 7. It's awful to think I (work) this time next week. 8. Wait a little, I (phone) for a taxi. 9. I'm very tired. I think I (go) to bed earlier today. 10. We (play) chess in half an hour. 11. When you come, he still (work) at his report. 12 .
Tomorrow at this time we (go) to Scotland. 13. Can you imagine that in five days we (cross) the Atlantic on our way home. 14. What you (do) if I come at five? — I (watch) TV. 15. If they arrive at 7. I still (sleep). I usually get up at 8 .
Ex. 10 Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Future Indefinite, the Future Perfect, the Present Indefinite or the Present Perfect Tenses .
1. By 8 o'clock they (have) dinner. 2. By the end of the week he (finish) the translation. 3. Before you (come) I (do) all the work. 4. She (look) through the article by 12 o'clock. 5. They (receive) our letter by Monday .
6. By the time we (get) to the forest the rain (stop). 7. I think he (answer) the letter by this time. 8. We (begin) to work after we (read) all the instructions. 9. We (not do) anything until he (take) necessary steps. 10. The committee (prepare) the plan by tomorrow. 11. I suppose when my letter (reach) you I already (return) from my voyage. 12. He (pass) an exam after he (learn) all the material. 13. I am afraid they (not discuss) all the questions by the time they (come). 14. We (not be able) to start the experiment before we (obtain) the necessary data. 15. The secretary already (look) through all the papers before the boss (come). 16. My train (leave) by the time you (come) to the station .
Ex. 11 Open the brackets and use the Future Perfect ContinuousTense .
1. They already (rehearse) for an hour when we come. 2. I (work) in this company for 10 years next April. 3. By next year he (write) the novel for three years. 4. The thieves are sure that they (drive) for 6 hours when the police discover the robbery in the morning. 5. They (study) for 3 hours when you come .
Ex. 12 Use the Future Perfect Continuous or the Future Perfect, note where both are possible .
1. By the end of March he (live) here for three years. 2. They will be ired when they get there. They (travel) all day. 3. The (have) lunch by the time we arrive. 4. We (fly) nonstop for six hours by the time the plane lands. 5. I (work) for this company for thirty years by the end of October .
6. By July I (learn) English for three years. 7. They (stay) here for five weeks by Monday. 8. By tea time she (play) tennis for three hours. 9. By next June Ann (study) in London for a year. 10. The children (sleep) for eight hours by breakfast time. 11. I (write) a thesis for six months by the end of the year. 12. How long you (study) in this group by February? 13. I (write) my homework by six o'clock. 14. They (complete) the new bridge by the end of the year. 15. By the end of this week, I (wait) three months for my car to be repaired. 16. I hope I (finish) this report by the end of the day. 17. She (leave) for work before the children get home from school .
18. They (complete) work on the great dam by the end of this decade. 19 .
He (work) in the North for two years by the time he (retire). 20. By the end of the year he (climb) 10 mountains. He (climb) for 10 years by that time .
21. By the end of this month I (save) for three years, and I hope I (buy) a new car by my wife's birthday .
Ex. 13 Use the suitable form of the verbs to express a future action .
1. There isn't any bread left. - Oh, I (buy) some. 2.The phone is ringing .
- I (answer) it. 3. Spring (come) again and birds (build) their nests. 4. She (knit) a jumper; she's already bought some wool. 5. Look at those clouds!
It (rain). 6. They (leave) for England tomorrow. I (see) them off at the airport at 6 о'clock. 7. Men have never managed to abolish wars up to now, but may be they (find) a way in the near future. 8. The police (arrest) each of the suspected men soon. 9. I ever (forget) those happy days of my youth? - No, I'm sure! 10. "You (gain) nothing without effort", my father used to say. I always (remember) about it. 11. Don't get off the bus till it (stop). - Don't worry, I (not, do) it.12. You mustn't cross the street until the light (change). 13. You (lend) me ten pounds? I (pay) back tomorrow. Yes, I (...). 14. If you (look) after the luggage, I (buy) the tickets. - Sure, I (do) it. 15. I (not go) to the tea-party unless you (come) with me. 16. The day is too hot.... you (have) some mineral water? 17. They say if children have complete freedom when they are young, they (not have) inhibitions when they (grow up). 18. You (get) home by bus or by taxi tomorrow? - I (take) a taxi. 19. I (see) you home? - No, thanks. I (go) home with my school friend. 20. I wonder if he (succeed) in his exams which he (take) in a month. - I hope he (...). 21. When you (graduate) from university? - If I (not fail), I (graduate) it in a year. 22 I (see) him at the university. He never misses lectures. 23. Don't phone me between 7 and 8. We (have) dinner then. 24. I (see) him at the club tomorrow - he is usually there when I come. 25. Your stars say that this time tomorrow you (do) something you have never done in your life. 26. She hopes she (earn) a lot of money as soon as she (receive) her degree. 27. You (see) either John or Jean tomorrow, by any chance. Ask them to call me tomorrow evening. 28. I wonder what she (do) with that hammer. 29. I'll still be here next summer but Tom (leave). 30. The train (leave) before we reach the station. 31. When you come back I (finish) all the housework. 32.When we reach Crewe we (do) half of the journey. 33. On 21 October they (be) married for twenty-five years .
Ex. 14 Put the verbs into the Present Indefinite or the Future Indefinite, the Present Perfect or the Future Perfect, the Future Continuous or the Future Perfect Continuous Tense .
1. I think she (hear) all about it by the time I (see) her. 2. I promise, I (finish) this book by the weekend and then I (give) it to you. 3. The children (be) hungry when they (get in) because they (run around) all afternoon. 4. This government (be) in power for eight years soon but I don't think they (win) the next election. 5. You (have) breakfast already? If not, I (make) you something. 6. Don't phone them now. They (not get) home yet .
They (probably get back) at about half past eight. 7. I think they (finish) building the house by the time the winter (come) and then we (move in) by the New Year. 8. I expect they (be) tired when you (see) them because they (work) all day. 9. If I (come) and see the film with you on Saturday, I (see) it six times. But it's the best film I ever (see). I think you (love) it. 10. Why don't you come round at 9 o'clock? The children (go) to bed by that time so it (be) nice and peaceful. 11. They might be tired when you see them because they (work) hard since morning. 12. We hope that life in this region (return) to normal within a couple of months, although it (take) many years before they (repair) the structural and emotional damage of the war. 13 .
You (lend) me your season ticket? - I (not to lend) it to you because it's against the law. 14. When I get home, my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. I (feed) the dog before I (go) to bed. 15. You (have) lunch with me tomorrow? - I'd love to, but I'm afraid I (do) my exam at that time. 16. He spends all his spare time planting trees. He says that by the end of next year he (plant) more than one thousand. 17. I hope they (repair) this road by the time we (come) here next summer. 18. I know that the first day of the term (be) horrible for me, for everybody (talk) about their holidays and they (show) photographs of foreign beaches, but as I (not to be) anywhere I (feel) terrible of it. 19. You (read) the notes for the meeting? - No, not yet, but tomorrow I (sit) on the bus for two hours, so I (do) it then. 20. The government (make) a promise. They (not to increase) taxes during the next year. 21. Would you like to come over for dinner on Sunday? – Well, unfortunately, I (work) all day and I (be) very tired. 22. I'm going to Hide Park to hear the people making speeches. - By the time you (get) there they (finish) their speeches and everybody (go) home. 23. In the future more and more people (use) mobile telephone. It's the first time I (use) this telephone today. 24. I hope you (inform) me as soon as the director (sign) my application. - Don't worry I think he (sign) it by tomorrow .
Ex. 15 Translate into English .
I. 1. Они будут смотреть фильм, как только дети лягут спать. 2. Как только он придет, я ему все расскажу. 3. Я с ним поговорю до твоего приезда, но я не уверен, последует ли он моим советам. 4. Я буду вам очень благодарен (grateful), если вы продиктуете (dictate) мне эту статью. 5. С вашей стороны будет очень глупо, если вы не воспользуетесь данной возможностью. 6. Поезд прибывает через час. Если вы поедете на машине, вы встретите ее. 7. Как только вы его увидите, спросите его, когда он уезжает и зайдет ли он к нам перед отъездом .
8. Спросите их, не дадут ли они мне пылесос, если мне нужно будет почистить ковер. 9. Вот вам мой адрес на тот случай, если вы решите приехать в Москву. 10. Мне отправить письмо? – Да. Когда вы пойдете домой, бросьте его в почтовый ящик (mailbox). 11. Я уверен, вы полюбите ее, как только она начнет работать с вами, 12. Мы детально (in detail) обсудим этот вопрос до того, как он придет. 13. Если он не получит книгу в воскресенье, он не сможет подготовиться к докладу .
14. Я с ним поговорю, когда он придет, но я не знаю, придет ли он сегодня. 15. Я не знаю, когда я получу от нее ответ, но как только я его получу, я сразу же вам позвоню .
II. 1 Если погода будет хорошей, завтра в это время вы будете пересекать Ла-Манш. 2. Не звоните мне от 3 до 5. Я буду работать. 3 .
Девочки сейчас будут играть в волейбол, а мальчики – в футбол. 4 .
Когда ты придешь к нему, он будет красить потолок (ceiling). Он ремонтирует (refurbish) квартиру. 5. Боюсь, я буду занят в это время .
Мы будем встречать японскую делегацию. 6. Когда мы придем домой, мама все еще будет готовить обед. 7. Неужели я завтра буду лететь на самолете в Америку? 8. Боюсь, когда вы придете, сын будeт уходить .
9. Мы завтра будем обедать в три, а не в два. 10. Ваш малыш еще будет спать, если я приду в три?
III. 1. Я надеюсь, что напишу дипломную работу к концу учебного года. 2. Решишь ли ты все свои проблемы до нашей следующей встречи? 3. К концу года цены на бензин вновь вырастут. 4. У меня короткая стрижка, но к лету волосы вырастут. 5. Садовник подстрижет кусты и деревья, расчистит дорожки, сожжет опавшую листву до наступления зимы. 6. Не беспокойся, платье сошьют к выпускному вечеру. 7. К тому времени, как ты доберешься домой, пицца будет приготовлена. 8. Программист завершит новую программу до назначенного срока. 9. Учительница обещает, что проверит наши контрольные работы к следующему уроку .
IV. 1. К первому сентября этого года я уже десять лет буду работать в этом университете. 2. В июле будет год, как они женаты. 3. К тому времени, как ты проснешься завтра утром, мы уже три часа будем лететь над Европой. 4. B маe будет пять лет, как он водит эту машину. 5. Они будут экспериментировать в этой области уже много лет к концу тысячелетия. 6. К тому времени, как приедет полиция, детектив уже два часа будет изучать место происшествия .
Use your English Ex. 1 Read these newspaper headlines, and write a suitable first sentence for each article Example: Feb. 14th. Fixed for Wedding Day Says DiLivio .
Leonardo DiLivio is getting married on February 14th .
1. Government Announces New Airport Open Spring 2011 .
2. Weather Windy On Islands Tomorrow .
3. The Basketball Star’s Intention To Retire At 27 .
4. President In China Next Month To Meet Defense Minister .
5. June 19th. Fixed For Next Ecology Conference In Rio .
6. Living Costs Up Next Year Predict Economists .
7. Present Traffic Problems Mean More Travelling Time In Future .
8. Rock Star Promises Never To Drink Again .
Ex. 2 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick by the number. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space at the end of the line .
Several writers were asked to give us their picture of life 1 in the future, and here's what they think scientific progress will be 2 bring us in the corning centuries. In the year of 2001, a television 3 that is one metre long, and so completely flat, will be available in the 4 shops. You will watch programmes and videos, and when it 5 is not in use, it will show your most favourite work of art. By 2005, 6 video holiday postcards will have been being introduced into the shops 7 They will be of the same size as a normal postcard, and you will be 8 able to record ten seconds of your holiday fun, and send it to all your 9 friends. In 2006, we will be wearing the clothes made from fabrics that 10 will warm you up in cold weather, and cool you down when it's so hot 11 One year later, cars will be fitted with special instruments that they can 12 warn us of possible dangers on to the road ahead, so that we will be 13 able to avoid doing accidents. By the year 2010, many of us will have 14 been bought a pet robot, which will be able to recognize its owner's 15 voice, and do all the household jobs. 16 Ex. 3 There are five inventions mentioned in the text. Which one would you most like to have? Why? Which one do you think is the most useful?
Ex. 4 Imagine that you are planning to spend your holiday in the Crimea (or anywhere else). Give the route of your travel there. Try to use as many means of denoting future actions as possible .
Ex. 5 Imagine that you are planning a party. What shops will you go to and what kind of food will you buy?
Unit 6 Passive Forms Grammar reference
The passive forms are used when:
1 we don't know the agent (the person or thing who performs the action):
My money has been stolen! (I don't know WHO stole my money.) 2 the agent is obvious:
Smoking is forbidden.
(It is obvious that this is a rule made by the government, or the management of a building.) 3 the event or action is more important than the agent:
The proposal is being considered by the committee. (We are more interested in whether the proposal will be accepted or not, than who is considering it.) 4 Most verbs with an object (transitive verbs) can be made passive, however, the verbs to own, become, fit (be the right size), get, have, lack, let, like, resemble, suit may not be used in the Passive .
5 It is quite rare to mention an agent in passive sentences .
6 Passives are often used in formal report writing .
He will be informed about the situation .
The building will have been completed by the end of the year .
The road is going to be repaired soon .
7 Modals can be combined with passive infinitives:
It can't be done!
He should have been told about the problem .
8 Not all tenses of active verbs can be transferred to a passive. For example, notice that there are only two continuous passive forms, present and past .
9 It is possible to end a sentence with a preposition in the sentence where a prepositional verb is passive Our hose was broken into .
10 Make is followed by to when used in the Passive form .
I was made to work hard by my boss .
The word-combination have/get something done is called The Causative .
All tenses of the Causative are formed with the verb have/get + object +
I have my car washed every week. It's expensive, but I'm too lazy to do it myself!
I had my hair cut last week .
I've had this watch repaired three times, and it still doesn't work .
You should have something done about that .
The causative is used:
1 when we want to say that someone else has to do something, usually
when we can't do it ourselves:
I had my hair cut last week. (I can't cut my own hair, so I go to the hairdresser) .
2 when we want to talk about asking, ordering or arranging for someone to do something:
You should get your eyes tested (have is more formal than get) .
3 when we want to talk about something unpleasant that happened:
I had my handbag stolen on the bus .
Grammar practice Ex. 1 Choose the correct grammar form to translate a predicate .
1. Этот дом был построен в прошлом году .
a) was being built b) has been built c) was built
2. Сейчас здесь строится новый супермаркет .
a) is being built b) is building c) is built
3. На этой неделе преподаватель объяснил новый материал .
a) had been explained b) was explained c) has been explained
4. Новое здание института уже построили, когда я поступила на юридический факультет .
a) was built b) has been built c) had been built
5. Студентов экзаменуют два раза в год .
a) are being examined b) is examined c) are examined 6. «Вы были невнимательны, когда объяснялось это правило», — сказал преподаватель .
a) was explained b) had been explained c) was being explained
7. Цветы уже политы .
a) are watered b) have been watered c) were watered
8. Такие столы делают из дорогого дерева .
a) are being made b) have been made c) are made
9. Этот фильм никогда не показывали по телевизору,
a) has never been shown b) was never shown c) had never been shown
10. Мою квартиру отремонтируют к субботе,
a) will be repaired b) will have been repaired c) is being repaired
11. Списки все еще печатаются .
a) are typed b) are being typed c) have been typed
12. Их еще не пригласили,
a) were not invited b) had not been invited c) have not been invited
13. Вам сообщат об этом завтра .
a) will be informed b) will have been informed c) are informed
14. Когда я вошел, обсуждение было прервано .
a) had been interrupted b) was interrupted c) has been interrupted
15. Земля была покрыта снегом .
a) was being covered b) was covered c) had been covered Ex. 2 Open the brackets and use the verb in the appropriate tense form of the Passive Voice .
1. The first draft resolution (not discuss) yesterday; it (withdraw) long before the beginning of the meeting. 2. He is not in town; he (send) on a special mission. 3. Don't come into the compartment; the berth (fix) now .
4. A new underground line (construct) now. They say one of its stations (build) in my street. 5. He wants to know when the final decision (take) .
The activities of the committee and their delays already much (speak) about. 6. It was three o'clock. We (tell) to hurry up because we (wait). 7 .
Do you believe that such a problem can (solve)? 8. It must (do) without delays. 9. On September 9, 1850, California (admit) to the Union as the thirty-first state. 10. Don't speak in a loud voice: we (listen). 11. The plan (approve)? — No, it (discuss) now. — How long it (discuss)? 12. By the time he arrives everything (settle). 13. Not all the necessary things (buy) for our trip that's why the departure (postpone). 14. The money (lend) to him two months ago, but it (not give) back yet. 15. The business day was in high gear: the mail (look) through, documents (type), letters (answer), talks (hold). 16. Wait a minute. The table (lay). 17. Dynamite (invent) by Alfred Bernhard Nobel. 18. This exercise may (write) with a pencil. 19. This work (do) before you went to Moscow? 20. If you (ask) about it, will you be able to answer?
Ex. 3 Supply the correct form of the verb in brackets .
1. There isn't any food left. All of it (eat)! 2. I couldn't wear my suit last Sunday. It (clean). 3. Wine (produce) in many part of France. 4. I can't find my car anywhere. I think it (steal). 5. How many languages (speak) in Switzerland? 6. The Tower of London (build) at the beginning of the eleventh century. 7. We couldn't use the photocopier yesterday morning. It (repair). 8. A compass (use) for showing direction. 9. Millions of cars (export) from Japan every month. 10. Last week I (offer) a job at a local bank, but I didn't accept. 11. The World Cup soccer games (televise) all over the world. 12. Language skills (teach) in every school in the country. 13. The accident (see) by several people. 14. The documents (type) by the time you return. 15. A test (give) in the next room right now. 16. The news (announce) tomorrow. 17. That play (write) by Shakespeare. 18. A new idea (suggest) by Shirly. 19. The librarian said that the book (return) to the library some days ago. 20. By this time tomorrow, the announcement (make). 21. I was very excited, I (interview) by the assistant manager. 22 .
America (discover) by Christopher Columbus .
Ex. 4 Put the verbs in the correct form .
1. I've collected all the documents that (need) for the house sale. Can you take them to the lawyer's office to (sign)? 2. Look, this is a secret .
Come into the garden where we (not / overhear). 3. If you are so late for work, you (sack). 4. This office is very inefficient. The telephone (never / answer) promptly, no proper records (keep), and, worst of all, no reports (write) for weeks. 5. I was so worried about my garden while I was in hospital, but I have very good neighbours. When I got home I could see that the vegetables (water) every day and the grass (cut) regularly. 6. Can you come to the police station? The man who (suspect) of stealing your wallet (arrest), and (question) at the moment. The police hope he (identify), either by you or another witness. 7. We had hoped to see several famous paintings, but the gallery (reorganized) at the time of our visit and most of the really valuable works (move) for safe keeping. 8. I found the idea of going to Hereford very upsetting because I (to promise) a very nice job a couple of weeks before. 9. Not far away she noticed the film manager in whose office she once (to make) to feel so ridiculous. 10. "You must be very prosperous, Eustace, to own a car like that." "This car (to lend) to me by an American woman." 11. After lunch, we heard that Charles (to send) for .
12. She (to operate) on at seven o'clock next morning. 13. Their engagement (to announce) and a number of parties (to give) for the young couple .
14. I said: "Our dog (to run) over, but we're going to have another." 15 .
The days that followed afterward (to look) back on by Philip as a kind of nightmare. 16. The scene (to put) an end to abruptly by the arrival of their father. 17. I discovered that a similar message (to send) to my office. 18 .
After the two women (to show) over the house they (to take) for a walk round the garden. 19. Our garden was all weeds, but the one next door (to look) after to perfection. 20. You have hardly any right to talk to me about the children. They (to see) to all right, and it will be me that sees to them, not you. 21. Somewhere from far away in the town came the sound of shots! "Somebody (to kill)" I said. 22. Joe (to try) and (to sentence) to five years in New Caledonia! 23. He watched Jack while the film (to run). 24 .
The boy who put a frog in the teacher's desk (to ask) to return the frog to the pool. 25. Our ability to use English subtly or precisely continually (to interfere) with by our need to use language simply and imprecisely for everyday purposes .
Ex. 5 Use the required passive forms in the following texts .
a) It was now a charming room. The walls (to paint) light blue. The curtains (to draw) and the fire (to light). All the furniture (to dust). The piano (to move) out but a wireless set (to add). On the chest of drawers there was a collection of small presents which (to bring) to the old woman at various times by her children .
b) No one there could understand a word he said, but an interpreter (to send) for, his papers (to examine) and he (to tell) that he (to fly) back by the first plane .
c) The reception was all that (to expect). When we arrived we (to show) into some kind of hall where we (to detain) with the rest of the actors. Apparently we (not to allow) yet to mingle with the other crowd. As the guests assembled in the room, it was plain to me that they (to choose) carefully. Looking around, I recognized Anthony Blanche. He (to point) out to me often in the streets. I (to interrupt) in my observation by a woman reporter whom the manager had led up to me. I (to warn) against the dangers of being interviewed by strangers. As we (to introduce) I made up my mind to avoid it at any cost .
d) The Connolly children (to find) lurking under the seats of a carriage when the train (to empty). They (to drag) out and (to stand) on the platform. Since they could not (to leave) there, they (to include) in the party that (to send) by bus to the village. From that moment their destiny for ever (to involve) with that of the village. Nothing ever (to discover) about the children's parents .
Ex. 6 Use the required active or passive forms in the following texts .
I. Nearly a quarter of a century has passed since this book first (to publish). During this period several hundred thousand copies of the book (to dispose) of, and it (to sell) practically in every country in the world where English (to teach) as a second language. Nevertheless, the twenty-fifth anniversary is so important an occasion that it (to commemorate) with the publication of the new edition, which throughly (revise) and considerably (to enlarge). Additional sections (to include). Another innovation is that a list of irregular verbs in everyday use (to introduce). These verbs intentionally (to place) as endpapers for easy reference. Besides, the opportunity (to take) of revising the book from cover to cover, bringing it up to date and introducing many little improvements here and there. Much care (to give) to the preparation of the Index, which it (to hope) will make the book a useful work of reference. The writer is of the opinion that the best results (to achieve) if it (to use) by the students both as a text book and as a book of reference .
II. At the last glow of sunset, they (to board) the aeroplane in inverse order of seniority beginning with the sergeant and ending with General Spitz. The plane they (to provide) with was luxurious for the wartime. It (to fit) with seats. Little lights (to glow) along the roof. Soon the doors (to shut). The lights (to go) out. It (to be) now completely dark. What once (to be) windows (to paint) out. The roar of the engine (to impose) silence on the party. Dan, who (to put) himself next to the cockpit, (to long) for a forbidden cigarette and (to try) to compose himself for sleep, though it (to be) far from his normal bedtime. He (to wear) the same shirt all day without a chance of changing. In the hot afternoon it (to be) damp with sweat. Now in the chill upper air it (to cling) to him and (to set) him shivering. It (not to occur) to him to bring his greatcoat. It (to be) an unsatisfactory day. He (to wander) about the streets of the old town with the Lieutenant. They (to lunch) at the club and (to order) to report at the airfield two hours before they (to need). He (not to dine) and (to see) no hope of doing so. He (to sit) in black boredom and discomfort until, after an hour, sleep (to come) .
Ex. 7 Change the sentences from active to passive .
1. Someone is making a dress for the bride. The bride …. .
2. Someone has already made a cake for the bride and groom. They … .
3. Someone printed beautiful invitations for them. They…. .
4. Someone is going to deliver the flowers to the church for them They
5. Someone must book plane tickets for their honeymoon before Saturday. They ……
6. Someone will clean the groom's suit before Saturday. The groom…… .
7. Someone has already booked a room for the reception at a hotel for them. They …… .
8. Someone is going to cook all the food for the reception for them .
Ex. 8 Express in the passive the idea of the second sentence, mind the use of prepositions .
1. The child is very ill. Someone must send for the doctor. 2. This old car is in excellent condition. The owner has looked after it well. 3. The Prime Minister spoke very long. The people listened to him in complete silence. 4. She is going into hospital tomorrow. The doctors and nurses will take good care of her. 5. That little boy is very thin and always dirty. No one brings him up properly. 6. The new servant girl is always breaking things in the kitchen. Someone should speak to her about her carelessness .
7. Shakespeare was born about 400 years ago. People look upon him as the greatest of English poets. 8. The thieves broke into the bank at midnight and stole $20.000. No one call for the police until 8 o'clock the next morning .
Ex. 9 Supply appropriate prepositions .
1. Though the question had been discussed for a long time no decision was arrived.... 2. The visit of this delegation is widely commented... in the newspapers. 3. He left for Australia five years ago and he hasn't been heard... since. 4. I'm sure your idea of spending the week-end in town will be strongly objected.... 5. Unfortunately our work was constantly interfered.... 6. His presence at the meeting will be insisted.... 7. Don't say foolish things. You'll be laughed.... 8. Mr Brown is such an experienced lecturer. I'm sure he will be listened... with great attention when he gives his lecture on Modern art. 9.I felt I was being looked... and turned around .
10. The children should be looked... better. They look so grubby. 11. The key has been looked... since morning but it's nowhere to be found. 12. A shop was broken... last night. A man was seen leaving it. 13. He was knocked... by a bus and taken to hospital. 14. The roof was blown... by a gust of wind. 15. The matter will be dealt... as soon as possible. 16. The old rules have been done away.... 17. Mr Sakson has been sent... and he will soon come. 18. The child likes to be read.... 19. This newspaper article is often referred.... 20. He can never be relied.... Whenever he makes a promise he always breaks it. 21. There was a road accident last night. An elderly man was run... by a car and was badly injured. 22. Where have you been all this time? You have been asked... more than once. 23. When they realized that the child was running a high temperature the doctor was sent... immediately. 24. Little Jane was very much upset because she had never been spoken badly... in the presence of strangers before. 25. He was surprised to find a letter in the letterbox. He had never been written... and that letter came so unexpectedly. 26. Nobody likes to be shouted... .
Ex. 10 Change the sentences from active to passive if possible .
1. Doctors use this medicine widely. 2. They deliver milk before 8 a.m .
3. When I came to the service station, they were still repairing my car. 4 .
Jack walked to school yesterday. 5. Don't worry; our people will meet the group at the airport. 6. This man is installing a new Xerox in the office. 7 .
We stayed in a three-star hotel. 8. The police arrested the wrong man mainly because they confused the names which the witness had given them. 9 .
They threw him into prison and deprived him of his property. 10. The leaves fell to the ground. 11. Have you received the message yet? 12. People are destroying large areas of forest every day. 13. Mary's cat ran away last week. 14. I hope they will have completed the repairs by tomorrow .
15. Some people were using the tennis court, so we couldn't play. 16. No one has solved that problem yet. 17. Has anybody invited you to the party?
18. I agree with you, gentlemen. 19. This news surprised me. 20. Mr. Lee will teach this class .
Ex. 11 Change sentences in the way shown .
Example: He did not paint the walls. – He had (got) them painted .
1. He did not fix the fridge. 2. I did not wash the floor. 3. She did not type the article, 4. He did not translate the letter. 5. They haven’t repaired the house. 6. I did not wash the car. 7. She will not make the dress. 8. He did not cook supper. 9. He hadn’t ironed the shirt before the show. 10 .
They are not building the fence, it will be a barn .
Ex. 12 Use a passive infinitive to say what must (can, may, should, has to...) be done. Follow the model .
Model. We have to clean the pools every two days. The pools have to be cleaned every two days .
1. We have to feed pups four times a day. 2. We may keep an injured seal here for several months. 3. People must keep dogs on lead in the park .
4. You can obtain further information about the post by telephoning 2637645. 5. People should send their complaints to the head office. 6. They had to postpone the meeting because of illness. 7. We can change the speech if you don't like it. 8. I have to return these books to the library. 9 .
Our neighbour ought to paint the garage. 10. You must mend the light. 11 .
Applicants should send in application forms for the post to the personnel officer by 15th August. 12. We couldn't use the telephone .
Ex. 13 Change the sentences from active to passive. Give two formsif possible .
1. They offered me the vacancy. 2. The boss has given us all the instructions. 3. We showed the girls our buys. 4. Father promised Ted a new skateboard. 5. Somebody told him the truth. 6. The manager sent them the fax last night. 7. Ben offered the fellow a beer. 8. The expert recommended the client several solutions to the problem. 9. Grandmother gave me a wonderful cookery book. 10. Our partners promised us support and understanding. 11. The policemen showed us the way to the Tower. 12. They paid him a pretty sum of money. 13. They filled the glasses and made another toast. 14. They took these examples from literature .
Ex. 14 Decide whether the sentences in each pair have the samemeaning .
1. I’ve just cut my hair at the hairdresser’s. What do you think?
I’ve just been to the hairdresser’s. What do you think
2. Someone is painting our house at the moment .
We are painting our house at the moment .
3. The dentist is going to take out two of my teeth tomorrow .
I’m having two teeth taken out tomorrow .
4. The teacher made us all tidy up .
We were made to tidy up by the teacher .
5. The car is thought to have been stolen by joy-riders .
We had our car stolen by joy-riders .
6. The car is thought to have been stolen by joy-riders .
Joy-riders are thought to have stolen the car .
7. Just a minute, I’ll ask someone to wrap it for you .
Just a minute, I’ll have to wrap this up for you .
8. The car hasn’t been services for along time .
We haven’t had the car serviced for a long time .
9. They are coming to put in a new water-heater next week .
We are putting in a new water-heater next week .
10. Would you consider having plastic surgery to alter your nose?
Would you consider having your nose altered by plastic surgery?
11. A qualified electrician checked the wiring .
We had checked the wiring with a qualified electrician .
Ex. 15 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given .
You must use between two and five words, including the word given .
1. People are using their cars more and more every day. (used) Cars
2. The electrician who lives nearby has repaired our heater. (had) We ……………………………… by the electrician who lives nearby .
3. Smoking can seriously damage your health. (be) Your health
4. I really must call the hairdresser for a haircut soon! (my) I really must
5. Somebody broke into my house last night and stole my television .
(had) I ………………………………. last night and my television stolen .
6. Why didn't anybody tell me about this? (was) Why
6. They're not going to open the new bridge until next month. (be) The new bridge is
7. I wonder how much it will cost for somebody to repair my stereo .
(have) I wonder how much it will cost
8. When people tell me what to do, I hate it! (told) I hate
9. People are buying more mobile phones than ever before. (bought) More mobile phones
Ex. 16 Find and correct the mistakes if any .
1. Don't bring the article today. It will be being typed only tomorrow .
2. The South Pole was discovered by Amundsen in 1912. 3. The book which was written last month is discussing a lot. It has been written a lot of articles about. 4. When I came, an experiment was been holding in the lab .
5. Do you know that this house was belonged to Mr. Brown? 6. What new buildings have been built in your town since I was there? 7. The building was collapsed during the earthquake. 8. Have you seen him? Has he been changed much? 9. Do you know that you are following? 10. I hope this journal can find at the library .
Ex. 17 Translate into English .
I. 1. Детективные романы хорошо продаются. 2. Эта ткань хорошо стирается. 3. Дмитрий перевелся в другой университет. 4. Сухие листья хорошо горят. 5. Шум стих (to calm down). 6. Эта книга легко читается. 7. Это вещество хорошо горит. 8. Кафель легко моется. 9. Этот свитер не садится и не линяет. 10. Эти брюки совершенно не мнутся .
11. Тесто хорошо поднимается. 12. Пирог еще печется. 13. Этот диск хорошо расходится. 14. Это лекарство хорошо продается. 15. Золото легко плавится. 16. Этот металл деформируется под давлением .
II. 1. Нужно ли этот текст переводить на английский язык?
2.Больному человеку нужно помочь. 3. Эти книги не следует рекомендовать для обсуждения. 4. Ваше мнение нужно услышать всем. 5 .
Этот эксперимент можно не повторять. 6. Благодарность можно выразить публично. 7. Это стихотворение нужно выучить наизусть. 8. Эти английские книги должны быть прочитаны в оригинале .
III. 1. Каждая женщина знает, что если у нее плохое настроение, то она должна купить что-то новое или же сделать прическу. 2. Мне подарили новые серьги. Нужно проколоть уши. 3. Мне опять разбили окно в машине. Нужно срочно установить сигнализацию. 4. Три месяца назад мы подали заявку на установку нового телефона. Мы все еще ждем. 5. Нужно пройти техосмотр. Но перед этим нужно сменить покрышки, зарядить аккумулятор, залить бак .
IV. 1. К сожалению, на конференции такие вопросы не затрагивались (touch upon). 2. Кто вам сказал, что соглашение (agreement) подписано? 3. Здесь говорят только на английском. 4. Ей разрешили заниматься спортом. 5. Посетителей принимают каждый день. 6. Бетти не разрешают приходить сюда. 7. В больнице за ним ухаживали плохо. 8. За ним уже послали? – Да, ему позвонили и велели придти в восемь. 9. На нашей улице строят новый кинотеатр. 10. Не говори это, а то (otherwise) над тобой будут смеяться. 11. Мне еще ничего об этом не говорили. 12. Мы поедем завтра за город, если будет дождь? – Да, мы должны туда поехать, нас там будут ждать. 13. Это здание было только что построено, когда мы приехали сюда. 14. К вечеру работа была закончена. 15. Когда мы вернулись, нам рассказали много интересных новостей. 16. Учти, в расписание внесли некоторые изменения. 17. Словарями нельзя пользоваться на экзаменах. 18. Его постоянно критикуют за плохие манеры. 19. – Машина сияет. – Да, ее только что помыли. 20. Дайте нам знать, если хотите, чтобы вас встретили в аэропорту. 21. Синтетические ткани хорошо стираются. 22. Вещи, сделанные из льна, сильно мнутся. 23. Его необходимо остановить, пока не слишком поздно. 24. Ее укусило странное насекомое. 25. Детей следует уважать так же, как и взрослых. 26. Лабораторией нельзя было пользоваться вчера, в ней устанавливали новое оборудование .
27. Все работы будут закончены к концу недели. 28. – Ты почему не в новых туфлях? – Они в ремонте. 29. Инспектор заверил нас, что все необходимые меры уже были приняты. 30. Как только данные будут получены, вас проинформируют об этом. 31. Эйфелева башня была спроектирована Александром Эйфелем. Ее воздвигли в 1889 году .
Башню можно видеть из любой части города .
Ex. 18 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick by the number. If the line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space at the end of the line .
Imagine getting into a train, and, while riding along, are being 1 taken to a magical and seaside world on the coast of Jamaica" 2 You can smell the salt water mixed with suntan oil and hear the sound 3 of crashing waves. For a fee, which has not yet been being decided 4 passengers are going to be able to do just that, on Florida's Fun Train. 5 Users will be wear helmets and sit in Virtual Reality kiosks. Special 6 sounds and smells will have be delivered to passengers as they travel. 7 There are many scenarios chosen by passengers, including 8 a trip to the Egyptian Pyramids and a walk in the desert. A company 9 meeting is been being held next week to decide on more scenarios 10 and on the price. It is being thought that more passengers will be 11 so attracted by this service, and that it will prove profitable. 12 Entertainment is only the beginning. Since smells can have also cause 13 emotional responses, it seems this technology can be being used by 14 doctors in the treatment of patients by helping them to relax before an 15 operation .
Use your English Ex. 1 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. Retell the text .
What new methods of teaching do you know?
Many changes are happening in education today. In the traditional classroom, the teacher is in complete control. The teacher decides when the class will study which subject, and all students must work on the same subject at the same time. Nowadays developments in technology (use) in the classroom. Children (teach) Mathematics with calculators. Television (use) to teach basic Reading and Mathematics. The influence of general computerizing can't (overlook) either. In many schools computers (experiment) with in the classroom. They (use) to help teach English. In many elementary schools children (teach) how to read and write on computers .
In some schools, a new method called "the open classroom" (apply) these days. More and more students (permit) to choose for themselves which subject they want to work on and for how long. Students can work by themselves or in groups. Children are usually enthusiastic about this new method, but some parents are beginning to have doubts. According to these concerned patterns, the children (give) too much freedom nowadays, not enough time (spend) on real work, and the children not (teach) the subjects that are most important. In some schools that experimented with the open classroom in the past, the traditional methods of teaching (reinstate) .
A number of years ago, universities also experimented with television in college lectures. Professors recorded their lectures on videotapes, which later (play) in class. The professors were not present in the classrooms .
This new method (use) when studies came out showing that students were not learning. One professor received an unpleasant surprise when he entered his classroom. His lecture (show) on TV, but no students were in the room .
Ex. 2 Read the text below and think of the word which best fits the space. Use only one word in each space .
In spite of all the amazing advances which have (1) made in telephone technology, there are two main problems. The first one is typing, and the second one is language. Mobile telephones (2) now equipped with a choice of languages and the future will bring us phones that respond to voice commands. Already, up to 10 simple commands are recognised (3) some phones, and designers are looking for ways for this to (4) increased to 100 .
In three or four years, we will be using phones that can understand any language commands, and voice patterns (5) be kept on the phone, so our callers (6) be identified. One company has a dream of finding a way to instantly translate from one language to another while a phone call is being (7). Your phone will have a language button, and when it (8) pressed, the speaker's voice will immediately be (9) into the listener's language of choice. However, speech is so complex that it is believed that it will be at least 20 years before we'll be speaking to anyone in the world without a language problem. The possible effect of this kind of technology is that we may feel less enthusiastic about learning a foreign language when we can (10) translations done by a computer!
Ex. 3 Use these notes made by a reporter about a disaster at sea to write a short paragraph. Use the underlined words as the subject of the sentence and write passive sentences .
1 We have received reports of a shipping disaster .
2 Oil tanker hit the SS Close Encounter yesterday evening .
3 The accident damaged the side of the oil tanker .
4 Oil leaked from the ship and has endangered the life of many seabirds .
5 Coastguards sent assistance immediately .
6 Amateur radio enthusiasts picked up the Mayday signal .
7 Rescue teams took the survivors to shore in lifeboats .
8 Officials are investigating the disaster at the moment .
9 They will publish their report next month .
10 The government should bring in a law to prevent these kinds of accidents .
Ex. 4 Translate the verbs in bold type into English. Use the Passive Voice if possible. Retell the story .
A Молодой писатель ходил взад и вперед по комнате. Он пытался найти тему для рассказа. Рассказ был давно обещан редактору. Срок подходил, а ничего еще не было сделано. Молодой писатель посмотрел на книжные полки. "Сколько уже написано, - подумал он. – Все хорошие темы уже много раз использованы. Вот хотя бы эти рассказы. Они были написаны до моего рождения. И это хорошие рассказы. Без сомнения, их в свое время читали, они нравились, и о них говорили. Но сейчаc они совершенно забыты. А что, если..."
К концу дня один из забытых рассказов был перепечатан и отослан в редакцию. На следующий день пришло письмо из редакции журнала .
"Это безобразие, – писал редактор. – Такие поступки нельзя ни простить, ни понять. Ведь этот рассказ был опубликован в нашем журнале только месяц тому назад" .
B Частная жизнь Хэмфри Богарта Наш старый бухгалтер ушел на пенсию, и на его место взяли нового. Через неделю его уже знали все, и всем он нравился. Выяснилось, что он женат, и у него есть ребенок. Было решено, что он хороший человек, тихий и скромный. Мы тогда и не думали, что через несколько недель о нем будет говорить вся контора .
Случилось это так. Весна в прошлом году пришла рано. В одно прекрасное утро кто-то сообщил в конторе, что Богарта видели в ресторане с девушкой. Они ели мороженое, и он смотрел на нее влюбленными глазами .
Через несколько дней его видели с этой же девушкой в самом темном углу парка. Они целовались. Через неделю их встретили на пляже .
- Что-то надо делать, – было общее решение. – Ему надо сказать, его надо остановить, ему надо объяснить .
Наконец ему велели сейчас же идти в кабинет директора. Там его встретила целая комиссия .
- Хэмфри Богарт, – сказал директор. - Вас много раз видели с молодой женщиной... Потом Богарту велели на следующий же день привести эту молодую женщину к директору для серьезного разговора .
- Но, - сказал он, – завтра нельзя. Она поведет ребенка к врачу .
- Так там уже есть ребенок! – воскликнул профорг .
- Конечно, – ответил он. – Я думал, что все уже знают .
- Значит, это была ваша жена! – сказали мы. – Почему же Вы этого сразу не сказали?
- Меня не спрашивали, – ответил он .
Ex. 5 What do you think causes so many forest fires in hot countries? What can be done to prevent them?
Ex. 6 Discuss with other members of your class what you think should be done about the problem of heavy traffic in towns .
Ex. 7 Describe a picture. What is being done in it? Discuss what has been done by the government lately for the improvement of people’s lives .
Ex. 8 Say what you can have done at these places: a laundry, a hairdresser’s, a garage, a photographer’s studio, a dry cleaner’s, a dentist’s .
Ex. 9 You are going to buy a flat. It’s quite cheap, but it isn’t in very good condition. Say which of the jobs you would do yourself and which you would have done by someone .
Unit 7 Revision Ex. 1 Make the right choice .
1. George is on holiday. He... to Barbados .
a. is gone b..has gone c. has been
2. Everything is going well. We... any problems so far .
a.didn't have b.don't have c.haven't had
3. You're out of breath.... ?
a. Are you running b. Have you run c. Have you been running
4. Where's the letter I gave you? What... with it?
a. have you done b. have you been doing c. are you doing
5. We're good friends. We... each other for a long time .
a. know b. have known c. knew
6. Sindy has been writing this programme... .
a. for a month b. since six months c. six months ago 7. "… this week?" "No, he's on holiday."
a. Is Bill working b. Does Bill work c. Does work Bill
8. John... tennis once or twice a week .
a. is playing usually b. is usually playing c. usually plays
9. Tracey... her hand when she was cooking dinner .
a. burnt b. was burning c. has burnt Ex. 2 Choose the right variant .
1. When ____Ann last? I___her since she ____ to another city .
a) have you seen, haven't seen, has moved
b) did you see, didn't see, moved
c) did you see, haven't seen, moved
d) have you seen, didn't see, has moved
2. Our train___at 8 o'clock. If you___at 5, we ___ our things .
a) leaves, come, will pack
b) will leave, will come, will be packing
c) is leaving, will come, are packing
d) leaves, come, will be packing
3. They___ to build a new McDonalds in several days and___it by the end of the year .
a) will start, will finish
b) are starting, will have finished
c) start, will be finishing
d) start, are finishing
4. I ___the performance for twenty minutes when my friend ___at last .
His car ___on his way to the theatre .
a) was watching, had come, had broken down
b) had been watching, came, had broken down
c) watched, came, broke down
d) have been watching, had come, has broken
5. Look, what he ___on the blackboard. He ___three mistakes .
a) is writing, has made
b) has written, had made
c) has been writing, is making
d) writes, made
6. What ___if the rain __by evening? It ___since yesterday, I wonder when it___ .
a) will we do, doesn't stop, is pouring, will stop
b) are we doing, hasn't stopped, had been pouring, stops
c) shall we have done, won't have stopped, was pouring, will be stopping
d) shall we do, hasn't stopped, has been pouring, will stop
7. What ___when I___? - We. ___the article which Mary ___just ___. I ___to read it for a long time .
a) did you do, was coming in, were reading, has brought, have wanted
b) were you doing, came in, were reading, had brought, had wanted
c) had you been doing, came in, read, brought, had been wanting
d) have you done, have come in, have read, has brought, wanted
8. It ___ dark, it's time for the children to go home. They ___in the yard for the whole evening .
a) got, play
b) has got, are playing
c) is getting, have been playing
d) gets, played
9. I haven't heard you come into the room. When___? – I __ long ago. You ___and I ___to disturb you .
a) did you come, came, were reading, was not wanting
b) did you come, came, were reading, did not want
c) have you come, have come, have been reading, don't want
d) were you coming, was comings read, haven't wanted
10. I__ till Father___. He ___his key and I will have to wait for him .
a) won't be leaving, will come, had lost
b) won't leave, will come, has lost
c) won't leave, comes, has lost
d) aren't leaving, comes, loses Ex. 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form .
1. The director (not to allow) the actors to travel by air while they (work) on the film last time. 2. When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker just (finish) speaking and the audience (clap). 3. I remember that while I (learn) to drive I (have) ten accidents. 4. Yesterday he (have) a bad fall while he (repair) the roof of his house. 5. While we (fish) someone came to the house and (leave) this note for us. 6. The exam just (begin) and the candidates (write) their names at the top of their papers. 7. I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (burn) brightly when Jane (came) in at 7.00. 8. When I arrived, the lecture (start) already and the professor (write) something on the blackboard. 9. He was very polite. Whenever his wife (enter) the room he (stand) up. 10. What you (think) of his last book? - I (like) it very much .
It's the most interesting book I ever (read). 11. When she (leave) school, she cut her hair and (wear) it short ever since. 12. Mr Blake is the bank manager. He (be) here for twenty-five years. He says he (be going) to retire soon. 13. We (miss) the last bus. Now we (walk) home in the rain and (feel) ourselves miserable. 14. You (know) that lady who just (leave) the shop? She (be) a customer of yours? 15. You (see) my bag anywhere? I (look) for it for ages but I haven't found it yet. 16. You are tired. You (drive) all day. Let me drive now. 17. That helicopter (fly) round the house for the last hour. You (think) it (take) photographs? 18. The radio (play) since 7 a.m. I (have) a headache, and I want you to turn it off. 19. He (study) Russian for two years but he (not learn) even the alphabet yet. 20 .
That house (be) empty for a year. But they (take) down the "For Sale" sign today, so I suppose someone (buy) it already. 21. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer. Where (you be) and what (you do) the whole day? 22. It (snow) for three days now. The roads (block) if it (not to stop) soon. 23. He (sleep) since ten o'clock. It's time he woke up. He (be) to be at college in ten minutes. 24. I only (hear) from him twice since he (go) away. I (not see) him for ages. 25. Sam, why (you make) such a horrible noise? - I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my mother but she (not to hear) anything. 26. We (buy) a new flat not long ago and we (move) in very soon. We (not buy) new furniture yet. 27. If you (learn) another language, you will get a better job when you (leave) school. 28. I am sure that I (recognize) him when we (meet) next summer. 29. I hope you (understand) everything when you (be) older. Now you (not understand) anything. 30 .
I'm sorry that the child (see) the accident yesterday. - I (not think) it matters. He (forget) everything soon. 31. He says that they (broadcast) his speech tonight. He (get) ready for it now. 32. She (hire) a typewriter already and she (learn) to type soon. 33. I (plan) already my future for the next ten years. – That is very clever of you. What you (do) when you (leave) university? – I (not decide) yet .
Ex. 4 A TV correspondent is interviewing a famous woman author, who is eighty-five years old. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets .
C: I'd like to ask you some questions about the changes you (see) in your lifetime. What is the biggest change you (notice) in the way people live?
A: That's a difficult question to answer. I guess it is the change in the younger generation. Young people (change) a lot recently. In my day, young people (be) very different .
C: In what way they (change)?
A: To my way of thinking, they (become) too casual and much too liberal in language, in dress, and in attitude in general. I guess I'm just oldfashioned .
C: Would you give me an example of what you mean?
A: Here's a small example. For the last fifteen years, since my youngest granddaughter (leave) high school, students (wear) blue jeans and T-shirts to school. Even some women-teachers (wear) pants in the classroom recently. In my day, they (kick) you out of school when you not (dress) properly .
C: What you're saying is true. Even professors at the universities (lecture) in blue jeans nowadays .
A: It also seems to me that young people (tend) to start dating at an earlier and earlier age. They start dating at thirteen, and, as you know, many couples (live) together without being married. That (be) unthinkable in my day .
C: And what is the biggest change that you personally (experience)?
A: I suppose getting married was the biggest change .
C: How long ago you (get) married?
A: I (get) married sixty years ago. My husband and I (live) happily together ever since .
C: Congratulations. It's nice to meet someone who (be) married for so long and (be) still happy .
Ex. 5 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets .
I. Harry (wake) early on Saturday morning and (lie) for a while thinking about the coming match. He (be) nervous since Monday, mainly at the thought of what Wood (say) if the team (lose). He never (want) to beat Slytherin so badly. He (get) up, (dress), and (go) down to breakfast early, where he (find) the rest of the team. They (sit) at the long, empty table .
Nobody (talk) .
II. A week later, Harry, Snape and Ron (walk) across the Entrance Hall when they (see) a small knot of people who (gather) around the noticeboard and (read) a piece of parchment that just (pin up). "They (start) a Duelling Club!", (say) Ron. "First meeting tonight! I not (mind) duelling lessons, they (may) come in handy one of these days. We (go)?" Harry and Snape (be) all for it, so at eight o'clock that evening they (hurry) back to the Great Hall. "I wonder who (teach) us? I hope it (be) Frederick," said Snape .
Ex. 6 Use the required past, future or future-in-the-past forms in the following text .
George Moon (to sit) in his office. His work (to be) finished, and he (to linger) there because he (not to have) the heart to go down to the club. It (to get) on towards dinner time, and there (to be) a good many fellows hanging about the bar. Two or three of them (to offer) him a drink. He (can) not face their heartiness. He (to know) some of them for thirty years .
They (to bore) him, and on the whole he (to dislike) them, but now that he (to see) them for the last time it (to give) him a pang. Tonight they (to give) him a farewell dinner. Everyone (to be) there and they (to present) him with a silver tea-service that he (not to want) in the least. They (to make) speeches in which they (to refer) to his work in the colony, (to express) their regret at his departure and (to wish) him long life to enjoy his well-earned leisure. He (to reply) suitably. He (to prepare) a speech in which he (to survey) the change that (to take) place in the colony since he (to land) at Singapore. He (to thank) them for their loyal co-operation with him during the term he (to be) in the service. They (to sing) "For he's a jolly good fellow." Then they (to dance) and a good many of the younger men (to get) drunk. Tomorrow a large crowd (to see) him off at the station and that (to be) the end of him. He (to wonder) what they (to say) of him. His subordinates (to fear) him. He never (to spare) himself and (to see) no reason why he should spare others. George Moon (to sigh) a little. From an official standpoint, his career (to be) a success; but from the human one it perhaps (to be) otherwise. He (to earn) respect, but he (to be) too clever to think for a moment that he (to inspire) affection. No one (to regret) him. In a few months he (to be) forgotten .
Ex. 7 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence .
Model: He left before my arrival (when) .
When I arrived, he had already left .
1. In the middle of my meal, the telephone rang. (while)
2. I'm sorry, but Mrs White isn't here. (gone out)
3. I last saw David in 1990. (since 1990)
4. Are you free tomorrow evening? (do)
5. I have come to stay with you for the weekend. (stay)
6. What's your usual time of arrival at school? (When … ?)
7. My niece started playing tennis six months ago. (for six months)
8. I'll wait here until it stops raining. (when... leave)
9. Do you need any help with your suitcase? (Shall...?)
10. You are always late! (never come)
11. I started working three years ago. (for three years)
12. Hurry up! We'll get to the theatre after the beginning of the play .
(By the time... )
13. Oh no! My wallet is missing. (Oh, no!... lost)
14. I haven't been to the cinema for two months. (The last/... ago.)
15. We have never flown in helicopter before. (This is the first time...)
16. This is my first visit to Japan. (It's the first time...)
17. Their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary is at the end of next year .
(By the end of next year /... married) Ex. 8 Translate into English .
1. Он стоял у окна и думал о своем будущем. 2. Я видел его давно .
Я видел его недавно. Я не видел его давно. 3. Это произошло до того, как мы туда приехали. 4. Они сделали все возможное (do one's best) до того, как пришел врач. 5. Я надеюсь, тебе будет все ясно, когда ты получишь письмо. 6. К 9 часам он закончил работу и вышел на улицу .
Ветер утих (fall), но было довольно прохладно. Он медленно шел, стараясь ни о чем не думать. 7. Я не видел тебя целую вечность. Как дела, какие новости? 8. Вы ошиблись. Вы передаете мне соль, а не горчицу (mustard). 9. Мы остановились, так как какой-то человек подходил к нам, 10. Я пришел, чтобы попрощаться с вами. Завтра в это время я буду плыть (sail) к острову Пасхи (Easter). 11. Куда ты положил ключ? Я нигде не могу его найти. 12. Он не видел меня, так как что-то писал. 13. Наконец я сделал свою домашнюю работу и теперь свободен. 14. Кто-то стоит у нашей двери. Мне кажется, он подслушивает (overhear). 15. Если она не получит никаких известий от брата на этой неделе, она пошлет телеграмму. 16. К тому времени, когда мы добрались до дома, снег прекратился, а луна ярко сияла на темном небе. Мы устали, так как шли три часа. 17. Ты когда-нибудь слышал, как хорошо она говорит по-английски? Говорят, она учит его уже три года. 18. Что ты будешь делать завтра в три часа? Если ты будешь свободен, мы придем к тебе .
Ex. 9 Render into English .
Черный тюльпан Много лет назад жил в Нидерландах, на окраине Гааги, ничем не примечательный (unremarkable) человек по имени Ганс. Он был сапожником по профессии, и к тому же очень хорошим. Голландцы, как известно, очень любят цветы, они в особенности славятся своими тюльпанами. И Ганс не был исключением. В течение многих лет он выращивал различные виды тюльпанов, пока в один прекрасный день не увидел в своем саду необыкновенный тюльпан. Он был черный .
Никто раньше не выращивал черные тюльпаны, и Ганс очень гордился своим удивительным цветком. Новости, как вы знаете, распространяются очень быстро. И новость об уникальном цветке стала известна во всей стране. Многие хотели купить луковицу черного тюльпана, но сапожник-садовник и слушать об этом не хотел, хотя и очень нуждался в деньгах .
Однажды приехали к Гансу люди, которые предложили ему столько денег, сколько он не заработал за всю свою жизнь, хотя он всегда был очень искусным мастером и трудолюбивым человеком. Ганс думал несколько дней и сказал, что продаст луковицу. И неудивительно! Ведь в то время, а именно в 1670 году, на эти деньги можно было купить несколько домов. Только после того, как он получил деньги и пересчитал их, он отдал этим людям свое сокровище. Не успели незнакомцы получить луковицу, как они бросили ее на землю и стали топтать, пока от нее ничего не осталось. «Что вы делаете? Вы что, с ума сошли? – закричал потрясенный Ганс. – Я всю жизнь трудился, чтобы вырастить это чудо, а вы его УНИЧТОЖИЛИ!» «Глупец, – ответили ему, – мы были готовы заплатить тебе в два раза больше .
Дело в том, что мы тоже вырастили черный тюльпан, но мы не хотим никаких конкурентов в этой стране!» Когда Ганс услышал, что он упустил шанс получить в два раза больше денег, чем те, что ему дали, он сошел с ума. Ну, а черные тюльпаны перестали со временем быть редкостью. Наиболее известные их сорта называются «Королева ночи», «Черная красавица», «Черная магия», «Черный герой» .
Ex. 10 Write a short letter to a friend from whom you haven’t heard approximately for six months. Be sure to cover these points .
1) Mention that you wrote a letter six months ago and still haven’t got an answer. 2) Briefly tell your friend what you have done and what you have been doing in the last six months. 3) Ask a few questions about things you want to know about your friend. 4) Mention something you are looking forward to doing or any plans you have for the future .
Keys Ex. 1 Make the right choice l. b, 2.с, 3.с, 4.a, 5.b, 6.a, 7.a, 8.с, 9.a Ex. 2 Choose the right variant .
1.c, 2.d, 3.b, 4.b, 5.a, 6.d, 7.b, 8.c, 9.b, 10.с Ex. 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form .
1. didn’t allow, were working .
2. had finished, were clapping .
3. was learning, had .
4. had, was repairing .
5. were fishing, left .
6. has just began, are writing .
7. will be burning, comes .
8. had started, was writing .
9. entered, stood up .
10. do you think, like, have ever read .
11. left, cut, has been wearing .
12. has been, is going .
13. have missed, are walking, feel .
14. do you know, has left, is she .
15. have you seen, have been looking .
16. have been driving .
17. has been flying, do you think, is taking .
18. has been playing, have .
19. has been studying, hasn’t learned .
20. has been, have taken, has bought .
21. phoned, got, were, were you doing (did you do)
22. has been snowing, will be blocked, doesn’t stop .
23. has been sleeping, is .
24. have heard, went, haven’t seen .
25. are making, have lost, are trying, doesn’t hear .
26. bought, are moving, haven’t bought .
27. learn, leave .
28. shall recognize, meet .
29. will understand, are, don’t understand .
30. saw, don’t think, will forget .
31. broadcast, is getting .
32. have hired, will learn .
33. have been planning, are you going to do, leave, haven’t decided .
Ex. 4 A TV correspondent is interviewing a famous woman author, who is eighty-five years old. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets .
C. have seen, have noticed A. have changed, were C. have they changed A. have become A. left, have been wearing, have worn (have been wearing), kicked, were not dressed (didn't dress) C. lecture A. tend, live, was C. have experienced C. did you get married A. got married, have been living C. has been married, is Ex. 5 Use the right term of the verbs in brackets .
I. woke, lay, had been, would say, lost, had... wanted, got up, dressed, went, found, were sitting, was talking .
II. were walking, saw, had gathered, were reading, had just been pinned up, have started, said, wouldn't mind, might, shall... go? were, hurried, will be teaching, will be .
Ex. 6 Use the required past, future or future-in-the-past forms in the following text .
was sitting, was, lingered, hadn’t, was getting, would be, would offer, could, had known, had bored, disliked, was seeing, gave, were giving, would be, were presenting, did not … want, would make, would refer, (would) express, (would) wish, would reply, had prepared, surveyed, had taken, (had) landed, would thank, had been, would sing, would dance, would get, would see, would be, wondered, would say, had feared, had … spared, saw, sighed, had been, had … been, had earned, was, had inspired, would regret, would be .
Ex. 7 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence .
1. While I was eating, the telephone rang .
2. I’m sorry, but Mrs White has gone out .
3. I haven’t seen David since 1990 .
4. What are you going to do tomorrow evening?
5. I’m going to stay with you for the weekend .
6. When do you usually arrive at school?
7. My niece has been playing tennis for six months .
8. When it stops (has stopped) raining I’ll leave .
9. Shall I help you with your suitcase?
10. You have never come in time!
11. I have been working for three years .
12. Hurry up! By the time we get to the theatre the play will have begun .
13. Oh no! My wallet has been lost .
14. The last time I was at the cinema was two months ago .
15. This is the first time we have flown in helicopter .
16. It's the first time I have visited Japan .
17. By the end of next year they will have been married for twenty five years .
Ex. 8 Translate into English .
1. He was standing by the window and thinking about his future .
2. I saw him long ago. I haven't seen him lately. I haven't seen him for a long time. 3. It had happened before we came there. 4. They had done their best before the doctor came. 5. I hope everything will be clear for you when you get the letter. 6. By 9 o'clock he had finished work. He went out .
The wind had fallen but it was rather cool. He was walking slowly trying to think about nothing. 7. I haven't seen you for ages! How are you getting on, what's new? 8. You are wrong. You are passing me the salt, but not the mustard. 9. We stopped because a man was approaching us. 10. I've come here to say good-bye to you. Tomorrow at that time I will be sailing to Easter Island. 11. Where have you put the key? I can't find it anywhere .
12. He did not see me as he was writing something. 13. At last I've done my homework and I am free. 14. Somebody is standing by our door. I think he is overhearing us. 15. If she hasn't heard from her brother this week, she will send a telegram. 16. By the time we reached home, it had stopped snowing, and the moon was shining brightly in the dark sky. We were tired because we had been walking for three hours. 17. Have you ever heard how well she speaks English? They say she has been learning it for three years. 18. What will you be doing at 3 tomorrow? If you are free, we'll come to see you .
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