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«Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования ТОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ Н. И. Лисицина ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ...»

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

ТОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Н. И. Лисицина

ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА .

НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА: ПРИЧАСТИЕ

THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERBS/THE VERBALS:

THE PARTICIPLE

Учебное пособие Томск 2010 УДК 801.55 Печатается по разрешению учебно-методического совета ББК 81.432.1-923.2 Томского государственного Л 63 педагогического университета Л 63 Лисицина, Н. И. Грамматика английского языка .

Неличные формы глагола : причастие = The Non-Finite Forms of the Verbs/The Verbals : The Participle : учебное пособие / Н. И. Лисицина ; ГОУ ВПО «Томский государственный педагогический университет». – Томск : Изд-во ТГПУ, 2010. – 128 с .

ISBN 978–5–89428–514–6 Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II и III курсов очного и заочного отделений факультета иностранных языков педагогических вузов, изучающих иностранный язык в качестве основной либо дополнительной специальности .

Пособие включает подробное описание правил функционирования причастия в современном английском языке и комплекс разнообразных упражнений, которые дают практический материал для усвоения этой темы .



Рецензенты:

доцент кафедры лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации института языковой коммуникации Национального исследовательского Томского политехнического университета, И. В. Смагина, канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры английской филологии факультета иностранных языков Томского государственного университета, И. Г. Темникова .

ISBN 978–5–89428–514–6 © Лисицина Н. И., 2010 © Томский государственный педагогический университет, 2010

CONTENTS

Предисловие................................................4 The Non-Finite Forms of the Verbs (/The Verbals)...........................5 The Participle................................................5 Exercises.............................................

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Учебное пособие «Грамматика английского языка. Неличные формы глагола: Причастие» написано в соответствии с Программой по грамматике английского языка для педагогических вузов и включает раздел, посвященный употреблению причастия в английском языке. Пособие предназначено для студентов II и III курсов очного и заочного отделений факультета иностранных языков педагогических вузов, изучающих иностранный язык в качестве основной либо дополнительной специальности. Содержание пособия соответствует ГОСу специальности 033200 «Иностранный язык» .

Данное пособие создано на основе классических работ по грамматике английского языка, изданных в России, а также современных работ английских и американских авторов. Основной целью пособия является совершенствование грамматического аспекта речевой деятельности студентов на материале причастия; детальное изучение причастия поможет выработке навыков, необходимых для точного перевода специальных текстов и документов, а также для понимания литературы – беллетристики, научной прозы и публицистики .



Материал пособия организован по этапам, соответствующим программному изучению причастия; описывается употребление причастия, причастных фраз и оборотов в различных функциях. Пособие включает комплекс разнообразных упражнений: тренировочных, предречевых и речевых, которые составлены на основе современных отечественных и зарубежных методик. Упражнения дают практический материал для усвоения этой темы и направлены на формирование навыков корректного употребления причастия. Упражнения аналитического характера также позволяют изучить функционирование причастия в речи и показать его особенности. Кроме того, предлагаются творческие упражнения, в которых ставится задача использования изученных грамматических явлений в определенных ситуациях общения. Ряд упражнений рекомендуется выполнять устно, но большое количество упражнений предлагается выполнять письменно, так как многократное внутреннее проговаривание в процессе написания и анализ написанного способствует лучшему усвоению структуры предложения. Учитывая как различие между грамматическими явлениями в русском и английском языках, так и их сходство, делаются соответствующие предупреждения, чтобы предотвратить возникающие по этой причине типичные ошибки. Лучшему усвоению материала должны способствовать таблицы и модели, систематизирующие материал разделов .

Пособие содержит раздел Revision Exercises, упражнения которого носят контролирующий характер и могут быть использованы на разных этапах в качестве заданий для самостоятельной работы. К большинству упражнений предлагаются ответы-ключи .

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The Non-Finite Forms of the Verbs (or The Verbals) The verb has finite forms and non-finite which are also called verbals. There are three verbals in English: the Participle, the Gerund and the Infinitive .

The verbals do not express person, number or mood; therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of the sentence. Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have tense and voice distinction .

The Participle

The Participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a double nature: it is a verbal adjective (it has a verbal and adjectival character) or it is a verbal adverb (it has a verbal and adverbial character). (Причастие - это неличная форма глагола. Функции причастия близки к функциям прилагательного и наречия.) There are two participles in English – Participle I and Participle II, traditionally called the Present Participle and the Past Participle though they differ in voice rather than in tense. Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb and Participle II – by adding the suffix -ed to the stem of the regular verbs, while the irregular verbs have special forms of Participle II .

Cf. taking – taken (берущий - взятый) asking – asked (спрашивающий - спрошенный) • writing – written (пишущий - написанный) • telling – told (рассказывающий - рассказанный) • the rising moon – the risen moon • the retiring director – the retired director •

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o The adjectival and adverbial character of the participle is manifested in its syntactic functions as an attribute and an adverbial modifier .

Problems facing parents should be discussed. (attribute) • When left to herself, she spent her time at her writing desk. (adverbial modifier of • time) Оставшись одна, она провела время за своим письменным столом .

o The verbal characteristics of the participle are as follows:

1. Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object .

• Reading English books, he finds interesting expressions .

2. Participle I and Participle II can be modified by an adverb .

• Knowing English well, he had no difficulty in translating the article .

• Deeply moved, she stood up and left the room .

• Rising early, you’ll make your days longer .

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Not having a ticket, I couldn’t go to the concert yesterday .

• Not having a ticket, I won’t be able to go to the concert tomorrow .

2. Participle I Perfect Active and Passive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb. Its forms denote priority (предшествование) to a present, past or future action .

Having learnt the elements of English, our students start learning French .

• Having learnt the elements of English, we started learning French .

• Having learnt the elements of English, I’ll start learning French .

• Having lost the key, he couldn’t get into the house. Потеряв ключ, он не мог попасть в дом .

• Having collected all the material, he will write a good report .

• Note: (a) A prior action is not always expressed by the Perfect Participle. Participle I Indefinite is used even when priority is meant with some verbs of sense perception and motion, such as: to see, to hear, to come, to enter, to arrive, to leave, to look, to turn, to seize-схватить, понять, постигнуть (мысль); хватать (руками), to grasp-хватать, зажимать (в руке), понять, схватить (основную идею); осознать, to put, to put on, to take, to take off, to open, to close, to pass, to cross, etc .

Hearing footsteps below, he rose and went to the top of the stairs. Услышав шаги • внизу, он встал и вышел на лестницу .

Arriving at the station, he found the train gone .

• Leaving the house, Andrew continued his round .

• Turning the corner, you’ll see the house you are looking for .

• Taking off our shoes, we tiptoed into the nursery .

• Looking out of the window, she saw that the rain had stopped .

• (b) Participle I Perfect of the same verbs is used when there is a lapse of time (промежуток времени) between the two actions, or when the action denoted by the participle is durative (продолжающийся, не законченный). Compare the following examples:

Seeing Jane, I rushed to greet her .

• Having seen the girl only once, I didn’t recognize her .

• Not having seen her for a long time, I didn’t recognize her .

• (c) Sometimes The Perfect Participle is used to emphasize priority. Compare these

examples:

Her husband, finding the right key, fits it into the lock of the bureau. (письменный • стол) Having found the place he sought, Bateman sent in his card to the manager .

• (d) Participle I Indefinite may denote a posterior action (последующее действие), immediately following the first action, forming its part or being its result, as in:

Lizzy left the room, banging the door shut. = Lizzy left the room and banged • the door shut .

John fell, hurting his knee. = John fell and hurt his knee .

• (e) There may be a lapse of time between the first and the second (posterior) action .

This is evident from the context .

I then hired a car and went home, arriving just before twelve o’clock .

• We left at dawn, returning late .

• (f) As seen from the above examples Participle I Indefinite denoting a prior action usually precedes the predicate verb. When it denotes a posterior action, it stands always after the predicate verb. In both cases it corresponds to the Russian perfective adverbial participle (деепричастие) (приехав, повернув, услышав, сняв, поднявшись, найдя, хлопнув, вернувшись) Participle II has no tense distinctions: it has only one form which expresses both an action simultaneous with, or prior to the action expressed by the finite verb; the latter case is more frequent .

written / fallen / left / done/ opened/ invited • The books written by him are very popular now .

• When tired, take a walk in the park .

• The voice distinctions of the participle Participle I of transitive verbs has special forms to denote the active and the passive voice .

When writing letters he does not like to be disturbed .

• Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to make out .

• Having written some letters he went to post them .

• Having been written long ago, the manuscript was illegible .

• Translating from English into Russian, you should know well both languages .

• Being translated into many languages, the novel is known all over the world .

• Having translated the text into Russian, we handed it to the teacher .

• Having been translated long ago, the novel is likely to be re-translated .

Participle II of transitive verbs has a passive meaning:

a broken glass = a glass which was broken • a caged bird = a bird who is caged •

Participle II of intransitive verbs has an active meaning; it is used only in compound tense-forms and has no independent function in the sentence:

has fallen, had laughed, have swum • Sometimes Participle II of intransitive verbs denotes passing into a new state and it serves to show that the person or thing denoted by the head-noun is the doer of the

action expressed by the participle:

a withered flower - засохший цветок. His face was like a withered apple. (= an apple • that withered) a faded leaf - увядший листок. She looked at the faded photograph .

• a fallen star - упавшая звезда. She sat down on a fallen tree to have a short rest .

• the fallen leaves - опавшие листья; fallen acorns - упавшие желуди a retired colonel - отставной полковник, уволенный в запас, вышедший на пенсию; the retired • president. Jenkinson was a retired colonel whose chief occupation was gardening .

vanished - исчезнувший; the vanished jewels - пропавшие драгоценности; the vanished civilization - исчезнувшая цивилизация the risen sun - поднявшееся солнце • the departed guest - уехавший гость • his deceased partner - покойный, умерший партнер • decayed - сгнивший, разрушенный, пришедший в упадок, жалкий, захудалый; a decayed tooth разрушенный зуб

• Note: there are not many participles formed from intransitive verbs .

Participle II of phrasal verbs retains its composite structure:

a boy brought up in a teacher’s family •

Participle II of prepositional transitive verbs is followed by the appropriate prepositions:

a book often asked for; the article referred to; a man much spoken of • The dictionary referred to is to be found in our library. Словарь, на который ссылаются, • можно найти в нашей библиотеке .

Participle I - Participle II (-ing or -ed) The participle may lose its verbal character and becomes adjectivized (адъективизируется, т.е. переходит в класс прилагательных; при этом причастие в какой-то мере меняет свое значение, а также приобретает грамматические характеристики прилагательных). Some present participles (-ing forms) and past participles (-ed forms) of verbs can be used as adjectives. There are many adjectives ending in -ing and -ed .

For example: ‘boring (скучный, надоедливый, неинтересный) and bored (скучающий, утомленный)’

• He is boring. Он скучный/ надоедливый/ неинтересный. I am bored. Мне скучно/ мне надоело .

Study this example situation: ‘Jane has been doing the same job for a very long time. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again. She doesn’t enjoy it any more and would like to do something different .

• Jane’s job is boring. Работа Джейн скучная .

• Jane is bored with her job. Джейн скучно./Джейн надоела работа .

Somebody is bored if something is boring. Or, if something is boring, it makes

you bored. So:

Jane is bored because her job is boring .

• Jane’s job is boring, so Jane is bored. (not ‘Jane is boring’) • If a person is boring, this means that they make other people bored .

George always talks about the same things. He’s really boring .

• The boring professor put the students to sleep .

• The boring lecture put the students to sleep .

• The bored students went to sleep during the boring lecture .

• The child saw a frightening movie. The frightened child began to cry .

• Participle I is used as an adjective when the noun it modifies performs or is responsible for an action .

Participle II is used as an adjective when the noun it modifies is the receiver of the action .

She gave me a welcoming cup of tea. (welcoming - гостеприимный, приятный) • The students’ tests results were pleasing. (pleasing - приятный, доставляющий удовольствие) • My mother appeared delighted with the present. (delighted - рад, доволен) •

o Compare adjectives ending in -ing and -ed:

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1. While doing the Hermitage, the tourists are always greatly interested in the pictures by Leonardo-da-Vinci .

While doing the Hermitage, the tourists were particularly interested in Italian art .

While doing the Hermitage, you will see the masterpieces of world art .

2. Having written a letter, I usually look it through .

3. Having written the letter, she decided not to post it .

4. Having written the letter, you will certainly post it at once .

5. Hearing the telephone call, I took off the receiver .

6. Throwing himself into his mother’s arms, the child burst out crying .

7. The students had to analyse the forms written in italics .

8. The mother’s look cast on the youth was full of love and anxiety. (to cast a look at smb .

- бросить взгляд на кого-л.)

9. We stopped at the turning of the road leading to the nearest village .

10. She is a woman respected by everybody .

Exercise 2. Comment on the active or passive meaning of the participles given in bold type. Define the form of the participles .

1. While discussing that intricate (запутанный, сложный) question, we argued a lot about it .

Being discussed everywhere, the new plan is known to everybody .

Having discussed the production plan, the workers left their workshop. (мастерская;

цех) Having been discussed long ago, the thesis ought to be read by the members of the department again .

The question discussed at yesterday’s meeting is of great importance .

2. While sleeping, I never hear anything that is going on around me .

Having slept much after a day’s walk, the tourists felt refreshed and strong again .

Exercise 3. Remember the differences between the following pairs of adjectives:

(1) alarmed (встревоженный, обеспокоенный) – alarming (волнующий, тревожный) (to alarm встревожить, взволновать; напугать; насторожить; вызвать тревогу) (2) amazed (изумлённый, поражённый) – amazing (изумительный, ошеломительный, ошеломляющий, поразительный, удивительный) (to amaze - изумлять, поражать, удивлять = to fill with great surprise or wonder) (3) amused (довольный, увлеченный) – amusing (забавный, занимательный, занятный) (to amuse – забавлять, развлекать, занимать внимание кого-л .

) (4) astonished (изумлённый, поражённый) – astonishing (изумительный, ошеломительный, поразительный, удивительный) (to astonish - изумлять, поражать, удивлять = to surprise greatly) (5) annoyed (раздосадованный, раздраженный) – annoying (раздражающий; досадный; надоедливый) (to annoy - досаждать; докучать, донимать, допекать, надоедать, раздражать) (6) bored (скучающий) – boring (скучный, надоедливый, неинтересный) (to bore - докучать, донимать, надоедать) (7) confused (смущённый; озадаченный; поставленный в тупик, сбитый с толку; поражённый) – confusing (сбивающий с толку) (to confuse - запутывать, сбивать с толку, приводить в беспорядок, приводить в замешательство, смешивать, спутывать) (8) convinced (убежденный, уверенный (в ч-л. - of) convincing – (убедительный) (to convince - убеждать, уверять (в ч-л.) (9) depressed (подавленный, угнетённый, унылый) – depressing (гнетущий, тягостный; унылый; наводящий тоску; a depressing thought – гнетущая мысль) (to depress – подавлять, угнетать; приводить в уныние; огорчать) (10) disappointed (разочарованный, разочаровавшийся; огорченный) – disappointing (вызывающий разочарование, разочаровывающий, неутешительный; печальный) (to disappoint - разочаровывать, обманывать (надежды), не оправдывать (ожиданий) ; расстроить (планы) (11) disgusted (чувствующий отвращение) – disgusting (отвратительный, плохой, противный) (to disgust – внушать отвращение) (12) embarrassed (смущенный; сконфуженный, растерянный, сбитый с толку) – embarrassing (смущающий, стеснительный, неудобный) (to embarrass - затруднять, мешать, стеснять, сбивать с толку, смущать, ставить в неудобное положение) (13) encouraged (воодушевлен) – encouraging (ободряющий, поощряющий, поддерживающий, подстрекательный, обнадёживающий) (to encourage - ободрять; поощрять, поддерживать, содействовать, стимулировать) (14) excited (взволнованный, возбужденный; взвинченный, напряженный (about, at, over) – exciting (возбуждающий, волнующий, захватывающий) (to excite - побуждать, стимулировать; вызывать (эмоциональный отклик, к-л чувства); пробуждать (интерес и т. п.) (15) exhausted (истощённый, изнурённый; измученный; обессиленный – exhausting (утомительный;

изнурительный) (to exhaust – истощать, изнурять, утомлять; исчерпывать) (16) fascinated (заколдованный; очарованный; загипнотизированный) – fascinating (обворожительный, очаровательный, пленительный) (to fascinate - восхищать, очаровывать, пленять, завораживать, гипнотизировать ) (17) frightened (испуганный, напуганный) – frightening (пугающий) (to frighten - пугать) (18) pleased (довольный) – pleasing (приятный, доставляющий удовольствие; привлекательный, притягательный; услужливый) (to please - радовать, доставлять удовольствие; быть в радость; угождать) (19) satisfied – satisfying (удовлетворяющий) (to satisfy - удовлетводовольный, удовлетворённый) рять (чьи-л. требования, запросы) (20) shocked (потрясенный, возмущенный, в состоянии шока) – shocking (потрясающий; ужасающий;

скандальный, ужасный) (to shock - поражать, потрясать, возмущать, шокировать) (21) surprised – surprising (поразительный, удивительный) (to surprise – удивлять, (удивленный) изумлять, поражать) (22) tired (усталый, уставший, утомленный) – tiring (утомительный, изнурительный) (to tire - надоедать; наскучить; терять интерес; утомлять(ся), уставать (of - от ч-л.) (23) terrified – terrifying (ужасающий) (to terrify - ужасать; устрашать, внушать или (напуганный) вселять ужас, страх; запугивать) (24) worried (озабоченный) – worrying (вызывающий тревогу, волнующий) (to worry - беспокоить(ся) волновать(ся), надоедать; докучать; тревожить)

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Exercise 4. Participle I - Participle II (-ing or -ed) Complete the sentences for each situation. Use the word given + the ending -ing or -ed .

1. The film wasn’t as good as we had expected. (disappoint-) a. The film was ….. disappointing …… .

b. We were ……. disappointed ……. with the film .

2. Diana teaches young children. It’s a very hard job but she enjoys it. (exhaust-) a. She enjoys her job but it’s often … .

b. At the end of a day’s work, she is often … .

3. It’s been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress-) a. This weather is … .

b. This weather makes me … .

c. It’s silly to get … because of the weather .

4. Clare is going to the United States next month. She has never been there before .

(excit-) a. It will be an … experience for her .

b. Going to new places is always … .

c. She is really … about going to the United States .

Exercise 5. Participle I - Participle II (-ing or -ed) Choose the correct word .

1. I was disappointing/disappointed with the film. I had expected it to be better .

2. Are you interesting/interested in football?

3. The football match was quite exciting/excited, I enjoyed it .

4. It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money .

5. Do you easily get embarrassing/embarrassed?

6. I had never expected to get the job. I was really amazing/amazed when I was offered it .

7. She has really learnt very fast. She has made astonishing/astonished progress .

8. It was a really terrifying/terrified experience. Afterwards everybody was very shocking/shocked .

9. I didn’t find the situation funny. I was not amusing/amused .

10. Why do you always look so boring/bored? Is your life really so boring/bored?

11. He’s one of the most boring/bored people I’ve ever met. He never stops talking and he never says anything interesting/interested .



Exercise 6. Participle I - Participle II (-ing or -ed) Complete the sentences using one of the words in the box .

interesting/interested confusing/confused exhausting/exhausted annoying/annoyed amusing/amused disgusting/disgusted boring/bored exciting/excited surprising/surprised

1. He works very hard. It’s not … surprising … that he’s always tired .

2. I’ve got nothing to do. I’m … .

3. The teacher’s explanation was …. Most of the students didn’t understand it .

4. The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages. It was really … .

5. I seldom visit art galleries. I’m not particularly … in art .

6. There’s no need to get … just because I’m a few minutes late .

7. The lecture was …. I fell asleep .

8. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn’t … .

9. I’ve been working very hard all day and now I’m … .

10. I’m starting a new job next week. I’m quite … about it .

11. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very … .

12. Liz is a very … person. She knows a lot, she’s travelled a lot and she’s done lots of different things .

Exercise 7. Use Participle I or Participle II .

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Exercise 8. Complete these sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets .

Use the -ed form in one sentence in each pair and the -ing form in the other:

1. a. Annette was … bored ….. She had nothing to do. (bore) b. She had a book to read but it was very … boring … .

2. a. I enjoyed our visit to the museum. It was really …. (interest) b. I like swimming but I’m not … in jogging .

3. a. I didn’t enjoy the film very much. The dinosaurs were too …. (terrify) b. The whole house was on fire. We were all … .

4. a. There are far too many accidents on the roads. It’s very …. (worry) b. I thought we were lost. I was really … .

5. a. My brother always laughs at me. He’s very …. (annoy) b. He wasted a lot of money. His father was extremely … .

6. a. We were all … to hear that the president had been killed. (shock) b. I don’t feel at all well. I’ve got a … cold .

7. a. The first half was good but the second half wasn’t very …. (excite) b. We were all very … when we heard the news .

8. a. I knew what would happen. It wasn’t at all …. (surprise) b. I was … to hear that Anna had failed her exam .

9. a. It was … that there weren’t more people at the concert. (disappoint) b. There weren’t many people at the theatre. The actors were very … .

10. a. He told a few funny stories but they weren’t very …. (amuse) b. I don’t think that’s very funny. I am not … .

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. It’s difficult to teach a classroom of bored students. 2. It was a disappointing film. 3. That was a satisfying meal. 4. The journey was exciting. 5. My job is exhausting. 6. I could hardly keep awake – it was the most boring film I’ve ever seen .

7. She was the most boring person at the party and I sat next to her all evening. It was awful! 8. The less interesting the subject is – the more bored the students become .

Exercise 10. Complete the following sentences with the correct -ed or -ing adjective, using the verbs in the list .

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1. The instructions in the exam were very complicated and left the students feeling totally… .

2. I don’t find horror films at all … - in fact, I find them quite funny .

3. Would you be … in coming to the theatre this evening? I have a spare ticket .

4. Can’t you fix that dripping tap? It’s getting on my nerves – it’s really … .

5. I didn’t expect to see Peter at the party. 1 was really … to see him there .

6. He’s had a lot of bad news recently and is feeling a bit …. Let’s go and cheer him up .

7. I find it … to lie on the sofa and listen to music after a hard day’s work .

8. I was told the film was really good but I felt utterly … by it .

9. I get really … when people throw rubbish down in the streets. It makes me furious .

10. If I said anything as stupid as he did in front of a thousand people, I’d feel really … .

Exercise 11. Underline the correct -ed or -ing adjectives in the following text .

School Report Shocks Parents Teachers are finding it increasingly difficult to control classes of young pupils, says a report published yesterday. The evidence from the 100 schools which were involved in the study is not encouraged/encouraging (1). The report paints a depressing/ depressed (2) picture of schools up and down the country, with teachers feeling disappointed/disappointing (3) not only by students’ results in tests but by the worrying/worried (4) increase in violent behaviour in class and in the playground .

‘I am worn out at the end of the day; my job is exhausted/exhausting (5), I can tell you,’ complained one teacher. One of the most disturbed/disturbing (6) revelations is the use of drugs by youngsters. Although teachers were not totally surprised/ surprising (7) by the findings, parents are worried/worrying (8); some even described the report as shocked/shocking (9) and demanded immediate action. Pupils who were asked to comment on the report said they found school uninterested/uninteresting (10);

they blamed teachers for teaching boring/bored (11) lessons. The report is particularly embarrassed/embarrassing (12) for the Minister of Education who claimed recently that British education is ‘the best in the world’ .

Participle I - Participle II

In the sentence the participle may occur:

(a) singly (as a single participle) i.e. without accompanying words .

She went away smiling. Она ушла, улыбаясь. (‘smiling’ is a single participle; it is used • in the function of an adverbial modifier of manner) A broken toy lay on the floor. Сломанная игрушка лежала на полу. (‘broken’ is a single • participle; it is used in the function of an attribute) (b) in phrases (as a participial phrase), i.e. with one or several accompanying words .

Having finished my lessons, I went home. Закончив уроки, я пошел домой. (‘Having finished my lessons’ is a participial phrase; it is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time.) This plant, hidden from the light, has kept its flowers till the autumn. (‘hidden • from the light’ is a participial phrase; it is used in the function of an attribute) (c) in predicative constructions, i.e. constructions consisting of two elements/components: a nominal element (noun or pronoun) and a verbal element (participle I - participle II); the verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element, i.e. in a relation similar to that between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence .

I saw him walking along the street. Я видел, как он шел по улице. (‘him walking’ is the • Objective Participial Construction; it is used in the function of a complex object) Where did you have your photo taken? Где ты фотографировался? (‘photo taken’ is the • Objective Participial Construction; it is used in the function of a complex object) The children/they were seen running to the river. Видели, как дети/они бежали к реке .

• (‘The children/they – running’ is the Subjective Participial Construction; it is used in the function of a complex subject) The rain having ruined my hat, I had to buy a new one. Так как дождь сделал непригодной мою шляпу, мне пришлось купить новую. (‘The rain having ruined my hat’ is the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction; it is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.) Note: In written English, it is usual to move from the familiar (the current topic) to the new and to be economical with words and avoid repetition. Participial

and infinitive phrases help us to do these things. Compare these examples:

Steve went home. He noticed a piece of paper which had been left on the doorstep • as he walked towards the door. Steve went home. Walking towards the door, he noticed a piece of paper left on the doorstep. (порог) Because Marion didn’t have a degree, she was the only one who wasn’t offered a • permanent contract. Not having a degree, Marion was the only one not to be offered a permanent contract .

The Functions of Participle I in the Sentence

1. Participle I Indefinite Active can be used as an attribute .

It is rendered in Russian by a clause or действительное причастие. A single participle in attributive position usually precedes the noun it modifies but a participial phrase follows the noun it modifies .

I looked at the smiling child. (The child is smiling; I looked at the child who was • smiling.) The girl standing at the window is my sister. (The girl who was standing at the • window is my sister.) Let sleeping dogs lie. (proverb: ‘Не буди лиха, пока лихо спит’.) (‘sleeping’ is a single participle in the function of an attribute. It precedes the noun it modifies, i.e. it is used in preposition.) There are some other people waiting for you. (‘waiting for you’ is a participial phrase • in the function of an attribute. It follows the noun it modifies, i.e. it is used in post-position.) Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (The woman is talking to Tom.) • The large building being built in our street is a new school. (The large building is • being built in our street) I found myself in an embarrassing situation last night. Я оказался в затруднительном положении вчера вечером .

The man is very noisy. The man lives upstairs. The man who lives upstairs is •

very noisy. The man living upstairs is very noisy .

• Note 1. Participle I Perfect Active and Passive is not used as an attribute because it cannot express priority. In this case an attributive clause should be used. In Russian we have perfective participle active (действительное причастие прошедшего времени, с суффиксом -вш), e.g. спросивший, переводивший, уехавший, вернувшийся .

The children who had been playing in the garden went home. Дети, игравшие (которые играли) в саду, ушли домой .

I’ve just talked to the students who came back from their school practice last • week. Я только что разговаривал со студентами, вернувшимися с практики на прошлой неделе .

The man who came yesterday is my friend. Человек, приходивший вчера, мой друг .

• The people who were present at the meeting approved of the proposal .

• Cf. • I addressed the woman standing on the porch. Я обратился к женщине, стоявшей на крыльце, (simultaneous actions) = I addressed the woman who was standing on the porch .

• The woman who had been standing on the porch went into the house. Женщина, стоявшая на крыльце, вошла в дом. (‘who had been standing’ a prior action) o However, in rendering the Russian действительное причастие прошедшего времени, when it refers to no particular time, a participle is usually used in English .

The road joining the two villages was very narrow. Дорога, соединявшая две деревни, • была очень узкая .

I couldn’t think of the name of a flower beginning with ‘T’? Я не мог придумать название цветка, начинавшегося с ‘T’ .

I lived in a pleasant room overlooking the garden .

• We stopped at the turning of the road leading to the nearest village .

• Note 2. We can’t use -ing: when we talk about a single completed action in the defining relative clause, rather than a continuous action .

Cf. • The girl who fell over on the ice broke her arm. Девочка, упавшая на льду, сломала руку .

• I pulled off the sheets which covered the furniture. Or: I pulled off the sheets covering the furniture. Я убрала простыни, покрывавшие мебель .

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here: The thief taking her bag has been arrested. or The thief having taken her bag has been arrested.)

• Note 3. In formal English, that and those can be used before a participle adjective:

Here is some advice for those (those = people) preparing to go on holiday .

• We were able to speak to all students except those working in the laboratory. Мы • имели возможность поговорить со всеми студентами, за исключением тех, которые работали в лаборатории (или: за исключением студентов, работавших в лаборатории) .

II. Participle I can be used as an adverbial modifier:

a) of time .

In Russian it is rendered by a clause or деепричастие .

Opening his eyes, the baby began to cry. (= When the baby opened his eyes, he began • to cry.) Turning slowly, she went to her room. Медленно повернувшись, она пошла в комнату .

• Seizing ink and writing paper, she began to write. Схватив чернила и бумагу, она начала • писать .

Leaving the motorway, we noticed an overturned truck on the verge (обочина). (= • As/When we were leaving the motorway, we noticed an overturned truck on the verge.) Having thrown the letter into the fire, he left the room. (= After he had thrown the • letter into the fire, he left the room.) Бросив письмо в огонь, он вышел из комнаты .

Having returned from a business trip, he suggested new methods of work .

• Returning to London, he threw himself into the work .

• Having finished her work, she went home .

• Having taken off his shoes, John walked into the house. Сняв туфли, Джон зашел в дом .

• Having passed my driving test, I was able to buy my first car. (= After I had • passed my driving test, I was able to buy my first car.) Having been warned that bad weather lay ahead, the captain changed the course .

• o We use Participle I Indefinite to talk about something that takes place at the same time or very close in time to the action expressed by the predicate .

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o Sometimes we can use either Participle I Indefinite or Participle I Perfect with similar meanings, although using Participle I Perfect emphasizes that something

is completed before the action expressed by the predicate begins. Compare:

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o If the action described is relatively long compared with the one described by the

finite form of the verb, we use a Participial phrase with Participle I Perfect:

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o If the action expressed by Participle I Indefinite Active is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, the conjunction when or while is often used .

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o Participle I Indefinite of the verb ‘to be’ is not used as an adverbial modifier of time. Clauses of the type ‘Когда он был ребенком,...’ may be translated ‘When a boy...’, ‘When he was a boy…’ .

When a boy, he liked to play tennis. (= When he was a boy, he liked to play tennis.) • Когда он был мальчиком, он любил играть в теннис .

When hot, the body emits infra-red radiation. (= When the body is hot, it emits infra-red radiation.) Когда тело раскалено, оно испускает инфракрасные лучи .

When young, he took great interest in chemistry. (= When he was young, he took • great interest in chemistry.) Когда он был молодым (будучи молодым), он проявлял большой интерес к химии .

While in Moscow last summer, they often went to the theatre. (=While they were • in Moscow last summer, they often went to the theatre.) В то время как они находились в Москве прошлым летом, они часто ходили в театр .

b) of cause .

Not knowing where to go, I turned back. (=As I didn’t know where to go, I turned • back.) Hoping to catch the train, we took a taxi. (= Because we hoped to catch the train, we • took a taxi.) Being late for the lesson, he had to wait for the bell to ring. (=As he was late for the • lesson, he had to wait for the bell to ring.) Being ill, he can’t go out yet. Так как он болен, он пока не может выходить (будучи больным, он • пока не может выходить) .

Being happy with my results, I decided to go out and celebrate. (=As I was happy • with my results, I decided to go out and celebrate.) Being left alone, we kept silent for some time .

• Having plenty of time, we did not hurry. Так как у нас было много времени, мы не спешили .

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o In negative forms of sentences, not usually comes before the -ing form or past

participle. However, not can follow the -ing form or the past participle, depending on meaning:

Not wanting to wake her, Steve left the house silently. (=As Steve didn’t want to • wake her, he left the house silently.) Preferring not to go out that night, I made an excuse. (=As I preferred not to go • out that night, I made an excuse.) o Where a passive form is expected, this is often shortened to a past participle .

Having been abandoned by his colleagues, the Minister was forced to resign .

• Abandoned by his colleagues, the Minister was forced to resign .

o In general, using a Participial phrase instead of a clause beginning with a conjunction (when, because, as, etc.) or an attributive clause makes what we say or write more formal. Participial phrases like this are used particularly in formal or literary writing .

c) of manner or attendant circumstances .

Participle I Indefinite is mostly used in this meaning and it denotes some action or event parallel to the action or state expressed by the predicate .

He sat in the armchair reading a book .

• She was silent, looking at her hands .

• I wrote to him a friendly letter, thanking him for his help .

• Little bare-legged children ran about him, playing on the grass .

• o We often use an -ing phrase in written narrative after direct speech, when we want

to say what someone was doing while they were talking:

‘Wait a minute,’ said Frank, running through the door .

d) of comparison .

Participle I is always introduced by the conjunctions as if or as though .

He looked at her as if wanting to ask her something .

• He looked from side to side as though trying to escape .

• “What's wrong with his arm?” - he asked as if not knowing the reason .

• He said this as if thinking aloud. Он сказал это, как будто думал вслух .

e) Occasionally Participle I occurs as an adverbial modifier of concession .

Participle I is introduced by the conjunction though, although .

Somebody was waiting: a man who, though moving irregularly was making quite • a speed in my direction .

The meal continued and he soon partook in it, although remaining aloof from the • conversation. (aloof - равнодушный, индифферентный)

f) Occasionally Participle I occurs as an adverbial modifier of condition .

She ought to be there and her absence might be resented, but being there she •

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III. Participle I as a predicative .

In this function only Participle I Indefinite Active is used, its adjectival character being predominant (преобладающий). Although keeping the form of the participle, it is treated as an adjective or an adjectivized participle .

The film was quite boring. (‘boring’ is the subjective predicative) • The effect of his words was shocking .

• Впечатление, произведенное его словами, было шокирующим .

The story is amusing. (‘amusing’ is the subjective predicative) (Cf. I find the story amusing. ‘amusing’ is the objective predicative.) Your answer is surprising. (Cf. I consider your answer surprising. ‘surprising’ is the objective predicative.) The children are amusing = they seem amusing to me. (But: They are amusing me .

• ‘amusing’ - Participle I is part of the Present Continuous Tense.) The music is deafening = it seems deafening to me; I find it deafening. (But: The music • is deafening me. ‘deafening’ - Participle I is part of the Present Continuous Tense.) IV. Participle I as part of a complex object .

We saw the train approaching the station .

• We heard John and Peter singing .

• I found him sitting at the breakfast table .

• In the dark the old man could feel the morning coming .

• IV. Participle I as part of a complex subject/part of a compound verbal predicate .

She was heard talking over the telephone .

• Paul was found working in the garden .

• I was kept waiting an hour or so .

• The boy was caught teasing the cat .

• V. Participial phrase as parenthesis .

Generally speaking, I don’t think so. Вообще говоря, я так не думаю .

• Strictly speaking, the excuse was not necessary. (the excuse - извинение, отговорка, оправдание) • Judging from/by what you say, he ought to succeed .

• I’m not to this day absolutely sure of where, geographically speaking, Jones’ •

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judging by appearances - судя по внешности • roughly speaking - приблизительно, примерно, грубо говоря, на глаз, ориентировочно • strictly speaking - строго говоря • putting it mildly - мягко выражаясь • frankly speaking - откровенно говоря • taking everything into consideration - принимая все во внимание •

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A. Participle I as an attribute. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. The police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (The police are investigating the crime.)

2. Who were those people waiting outside? (They were waiting.)

3. I was woken up by a bell ringing. (A bell was ringing.)

4. Problems facing parents should be discussed .

5. He lives in a charming house outside the town .

6. We went along the street leading to the seashore .

7. Emma sat in the armchair facing the door

8. Increasing prices are making food very expensive .

9. Do you know the students translating the text?

10. Have you read the text being translated by the students?

11. There were some children swimming in the river .

12. Is there anybody waiting?

13. He grew more and more nervous as he thought of the approaching interview .

14. The platform was crowded with people waving good-bye to friends and relatives .

15. The picture hanging over the fireplace is a family heirloom. (heirloom - фамильная ценность) 16. (В предложении ‘We stood on the bridge connecting two halves of the building. - Мы стояли на мосту, соединявшим две половины здания.’ - логическим подлежащим причастия ‘connecting’ = We stood on the bridge which connected two halves of the buildявляется ‘bridge’ .

ing.) B. Participle I as an adverbial modifier of time. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. Seeing him on the other side of the street, I called him .

2. Arriving at the party, we saw Ruth standing alone. (=When we arrived at the party, we saw Ruth standing alone.)

3. Glancing over his shoulder, he could see the dog chasing him. (=When he glanced over his shoulder, he could see the dog chasing him.)

4. Jim hurt his arm (while) playing tennis. (=while he was playing)

5. Be careful (when) crossing the street. (=when you are crossing)

6. Reaching her room, she turned on all the lights .

7. When travelling, now and then I watched the sunrise .

8. Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door. (If one short action follows another short action, you can use the simple ‘-ing form’.)

9. Reading a newspaper, I heard the doorbell ring .

10. Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner .

11. Having sent the invitation, I felt a sense of relief .

12. Having completed the book, he had a holiday. (=After he had completed the book, he had a holiday.)

13. Having passed my driving test, I was able to buy my first car. (= After I had passed my driving test, I was able to buy my first car.) or: I was able to buy my first car, having passed my driving test .

14. Having received their final medical check, the astronauts boarded their spacecraft .

15. Having finished the painting, he gave a sigh of relief .

16. Living in Los Angeles, Brad was one of those ever-optimistic movie wannabes .

(wannabe – разг., сокр. от “want to be, wanna be” 1) фанат, поклонник (o человеке, стремящемся во всём походить на своего кумира) 2) амбициозный человек; человек, нацеленный на ч-л. (о человеке, стремящемся к чемулибо) C. Participle I as an adverbial modifier of cause. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. Feeling tired, Louise went to bed early. (=As Louise felt tired, she went to bed early.)

2. Being a newcomer, he felt ill at ease .

3. Being an orphan at six, he was brought up by a distant relative .

4. Being hungry, I ate .

5. Being left alone, Paulina and I kept silent for some time .

6. Being imported, the radios were more expensive .

7. Being slim, he could squeeze through the opening in the fence .

8. Knowing exactly what I wanted, I didn’t spend much time shopping .

9. Even then he wasn’t able to watch her, not having eyes in the back of his head .

10. Not knowing his address, I cannot write to him .

11. Hearing a noise in the garden, I looked out of the window .

12. Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money. (=Because he is unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.)

13. Not having a car, he finds it difficult to get around. (=Because he does not have a car, he finds it difficult to get around.)

14. Having lived in England for many years, he knew English well .

15. Having already seen the film twice, I didn’t want to go to the cinema .

16. Having been invited to the party, we could hardly refuse to go .

17. Having been told to wait, she waited .

18. Having forgotten to take my keys, I had to borrow a set from my landlord. (= Because I had forgotten my keys, I had to borrow a set from my landlord.)

19. Having decided on this course of action some time ago, I was unable to stay at home .

20. (В предложении ‘Feeling tired, I went to bed. - Почувствовав усталость, я лег спать’ .

- логическим подлежащим причастия ‘feeling’ является ‘I’. = As I felt tired, I went to bed - Так как я почувствовал усталость, я лег спать.) D. Participle I as an adverbial modifier of manner or attendant circumstances .

Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. She was silent, fidgeting with the spoon in her saucer .

2. He came in limping .

3. They walked by the lake holding hands .

4. The children rushed into the room laughing loudly .

5. Little bare-legged children ran about him, playing on the grass .

6. He looked at me smiling .

7. The captain walked up and down looking straight before him .

8. I read it to her twice. Each time she listened carefully, giving her comments .

E. Participle I as an adverbial modifier of comparison. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. She paced up and down the room restlessly as if trying to make some decision .

2. He kept silent as if waiting for further explanation .

3. Lena gave me a very long look indeed as though seeing me for the first time .

4. She stopped speaking as if waiting for him to speak .

5. He listened as though brooding. (to brood – размышлять)

6. He was silent for a while as though pausing for a reply .

7. My friend gave me no answer as if dreaming .

8. She looked at me as if expecting me to say something .

9. As if obeying him, I turned and stared into his face .

10. She looked at me as if waiting for an answer .

11. And then she glanced quickly at Ray as if seeking to see whether it was all right for her to laugh a little .

F. Participle I as a predicative. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. The present situation is terrifying .

2. His argument was convincing .

3. Your suggestion is very tempting .

4. She remained standing .

5. Last night’s concert was extremely exciting .

G. Participle I as part of a complex object. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. I saw him running across the field .

2. I have never seen him playing football .

3. I could hear the wind whistling all night .

4. A huge crowd watched the firemen fighting the blaze .

5. I found the child crying bitterly .

6. Can you smell something burning?

7. I won’t have him speaking like that .

8. I cannot have them working so much .

H. Participle I as part of a complex subject/part of a compound verbal predicate .

Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. He was seen going towards the river bank .

2. He could be seen following her with his eyes .

3. She was heard playing the piano .

4. At the same moment the carriage was heard rolling up the gravel-walk. (дорожка из гравия)

5. They were left waiting outside .

I. Participial phrase as parenthesis. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. Generally speaking, this novel is worth reading .

2. Judging from what you say, it had an influence on him .

3. Judging by recent events, the Government appears to be gaining popularity .

4. Putting it mildly, I consider the plan to be unwise .

5. Frankly speaking, I’m not quite sure how to do it .

–  –  –

Exercise 14. Point out Participle I and state its functions in the sentence .

1. She sat very still, and the train rattled on in the dying twilight. 2. I sat quite silent, watching his face, a strong and noble face. 3. He wished to say something sympathetic, but, being an Englishman, could only turn away his eyes. 4. She was always to him a laughing girl, with dancing eyes full of eager expectation. 5. Having overheard part of their conversation, I thought it best to remain hidden until after they had left .

6. The door opened and he entered, carrying his head as though it held some fatal secret. 7. I’m afraid it’s the moon looking so much like a slice of melon. (melon - дыня) 8 .

Lying he spoke more quickly than when he told the truth. 9. I hadn’t slept the night before, and, having eaten a heavy lunch, was agreeably drowsy. When driving in London itself, she had as immediate knowledge of its streets as any taxi-driver. 11 .

“What nice lunch,” said Clare, eating the sugar at the bottom of her coffee cup. 12 .

While eating and drinking, they talked loudly in order that all present might hear what they said. 13. When she saw Philip standing alone, staring at her from across the room, her face lighted. 14. I received from her another letter saying that she was passing through Paris and would like to have a chat with me. 15. I sat on the doorstep holding my little sister in my arms thinking over my chances of escaping from home .

16. I used to tell all my troubles to Mrs. Winkshap, our neighbour living next door .

17. “It’s a quarter past seven,” he said trying as hard as he could to keep relief from his voice. 18. As he wrote, bending over his desk, his mouth worked .

Exercise 15. Participle I as an attribute. Read the following sentences. (Перевод английских причастий на русский язык.)

–  –  –

1. Русское действительное причастие прошедшего времени (с суффиксом -вш) переводится на английский язык формой Present Participle (делавший - doing;

читавший - reading), если выражает действие, одновременное действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым .

1. The students translating this article at - Студенты, переводившие эту статью the examination used dictionaries. на экзамене, пользовались словарями

2. При переводе русского действительного причастия прошедшего времени, выражающего предшествование, на английский язык, надо помнить об отсутствии эквивалентной формы в английском языке. Такое причастие переводится на английский язык определительным придаточным предложением в требуемом времени .

1. The students who translated this ar- - Студенты, переводившие эту стаticle yesterday say that it is very difficult. тью вчера, говорят, что она трудная .

2. The student who has written (wrote) - Студент, написавший эту статью, this article is here. сейчас присутствует здесь .

Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into English using attributive participial phrases where possible (Participle I) .

1. Старик, работавший в саду, не сразу заметил меня. 2. Высокий человек оказался инженером, работавшим на этом заводе несколько лет тому назад. 3 .

Мальчика, продававшего газеты, уже не было видно. 4. Все, читавшие юмористические рассказы этого писателя, не могут не восхищаться ими. 5. Студенты, читавшие этот очерк, говорят, что он труден для перевода. 6. Мой друг, посетивший Панамский канал, рассказывает много интересного о своем путешествии. 7. Туристы, посетившие Музей Изобразительных Искусств (Fine Arts Museum) одновременно со мной, выражали вслух свое восхищение. 8. Наконец молодой человек, читавший иллюстрированный журнал, поднял голову и взглянул на меня. 9. Человек, спрашивавший дорогу к мосту Ватерлоо, вдруг куда-то исчез .

10. Молодой рабочий, спрашивавший меня, откуда я приехал, показался мне знакомым, я определенно его уже видел. Но где? 11. Наши друзья, работавшие на Дальнем Востоке, вернулись в Москву. 12. Микки (Micky), переводивший трудную статью, даже не взглянул на меня. 13. Мики, переводивший эту статью, говорит, что мы должны непременно прочесть ее в оригинале .

Exercise 17. Participle I as an adverbial modifier. Перевод английских причастий на русский язык .

В функции обстоятельства могут употребляться все пять форм причастия. На русский язык такое причастие может переводиться деепричастием или соответствующим обстоятельственным придаточным предложением .

1. Asking me about it, he smiled. (= Спрашивая меня об этом, он улыбнулWhen he was asking me about it, he ся. (Когда он спрашивал меня …) smiled.)

2. Asking the teacher to explain this rule Прося преподавателя объяснить это again and again, he showed that he правило еще и еще раз, он показал, что couldn’t understand it. (As he asked the он не может понять его (=Так как он teacher to explain …) просил преподавателя объяснить...)

3. He turned to Petrov asking him (and Он обратился к Петрову, прося его (и попросил) принести сегодняшнюю газету .

asked him) to bring today’s newspaper .

4. I am afraid I’ll tire you asking you so - Я боюсь, что утомлю вас, задавая так many questions. много вопросов .

5. Running home, the boy lost one of his Когда мальчик бежал домой, он потеmittens. (When the boy was running...) рял одну из рукавичек .

6. While learning the pronunciation of Пока мы учили (изучая) произношение these words, we learned their meaning. этих слов, мы выучили их значение .

7. Being busy, he refused an invitation. - Будучи занятым, он отказался от (As he was busy…) приглашения (так как он был занят)

8. Being asked to take part in this work, Когда его попросили принять участие в he agreed at once. (= Asked… = When этой работе, он сразу согласился .

asked… = When he was asked to take part...)

9. Being interested in this problem, he Интересуясь этой проблемой (так как joined our expedition. (= As he was in- он интересовался), он присоединился terested in this problem,...) к нашей экспедиции .

10. Asked to help me, he called me at Когда (так как) его попросили помочь once. (Asked… = Being asked… = When мне, он сразу мне позвонил .

asked… = When he was asked…)

11. Having asked the doctor about his Спросив доктора о состоянии здоровья child’s state, he left the room. (= After he своего ребенка, он вышел из комнаты had asked the doctor…) (после того как он спросил…) .

12. Having been asked, the students После того как студенты были опроwent to the cinema. (=After the students шены, они пошли в кино .

had been asked, they went …)

13. Having been adopted, the resolution Так как резолюция принята, ее нужно must be carried out. выполнять .

–  –  –

Past Participle; thrown – бросаемый, брошенный

1. Stones thrown into the water go to the Камни, бросаемые в воду, идут ко дну .

bottom .

2. The stone thrown by the boy reached Камень, брошенный мальчиком, долеthe opposite bank. тел до противоположного берега .

Perfect Participle; having been thrown – так как был брошен (быв брошен) Форма быв брошен в современном русском языке неупотребительна, и при переводе Present Participle Passive употребляется придаточное предложение .

1. Having once been thrown into the Так как собака была однажды брошеwater by the children, the dog always ran на детьми в воду, она всегда убегала away when it saw them. при виде их .

Exercise 18. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

1. Читая английские книги в оригинале, он обычно пользуется словарем. 2. Читая повесть Фурманова «Чапаев», я вспоминал годы гражданской войны (civil war). 3. Читая эту книгу, я буду выписывать новые слова и выражения. 4. Прочитав книгу, я сразу возвращаю ее в библиотеку. 5. Прочитав вашу книгу, я сразу же передам ее вашей приятельнице. 6. Увидев автобус, я решила не ждать трамвая. 7. Услышав свист, собака насторожилась. (to prick up one’s ears) Exercise 19. Use the appropriate form of Participle I of the verbs in brackets .

1. (to look) out of the window, she saw there was a man working in the garden. 2 .

That night, (to go) up to his room Shelton thought of his unpleasant duty. 3. (to inform) of their arrival the day before, he was better prepared to meet them than any one of us. 4. The carriage was almost full, and (to put) his bag up in the rack, he took his seat. 5. (to know) that she couldn’t trust Jim, she sent Peter instead. 6. (to do) all that was required, he was the last to leave the office. 7. (to return) home in the afternoon, she became conscious of her mistake. 8. He couldn’t join his friends (to be) still busy in the laboratory. 9. (to finish) his work, he seemed more pleased than usual. 10 (to get) out of bed, she ran to the window and drew the curtain aside. 11 .

He left the room again, (to close) the door behind him with a bang. 12. (to turn) to the main street, he ran into Donald and Mary (to return) from school. 13. (to return) from the expedition, he wrote a book about Central Africa .

Exercise 20. Replace the attributive and adverbial clauses in the following sentences by participial phrases (Participle I) .

Pattern:

1. We were tired and thirsty, for we had been on the road since eight o’clock in the morning, and it was a hot day. We were tired and thirsty, having been on the road since eight o’clock in the morning, and it was a hot day .

2. One day towards evening when both the old people were sitting in front of their cottage, they caught sight of a young girl with a bundle (пакет; свёрток) in her hand .

One day towards evening when sitting in front of their cottage, both the old people caught sight of a young girl with a bundle in her hand .

3. I hailed the first taxi that passed by and reached the station at ten minutes to three .

4. One morning, as Johnny was looking out of the window, he saw in his neighbour’s orchard a great number of fine red apples which had fallen from the trees. 5. “Villain!

(злодей, негодяй)” cried he, as he ran down to him. 6. “Oh, sir,” said the poor boy who was trembling with fear, “it isn’t my fault.” 7. “May I come in?” she said as she pushed the door a little wider open. 8. “I’m late,” she remarked, as she sat down and drew off her gloves. 9. As he did not know the way to the station very well, he often stopped to ask people who were passing by. 10. The path which was leading through the coppice (рощица) soon got lost in the high grass. 11. The old woman told me with pride that the healthy-looking child that was playing beside us was her grandson. 12 .

She returned presently and brought a tray with a jug of milk .

Exercise 21. Replace the participial phrases in the following sentences by attributive or adverbial clauses (Participle I) .

Pattern:

1. A middle-aged woman, wearing a print apron, stood at the door of the cottage .

A middle-aged woman, who was wearing a print apron, stood at the door of the cottage. 2. She looked down at the floor as though seeing something there. She looked down at the floor as though she saw something there .

3. On a sunny afternoon arriving at the house in Malta Street, Jacob found it deserted .

4. A snake sleeping in the grass will bite if any one treads upon it. 5. Suddenly, while watching the fear she was trying to hide, he believed her story. 6. The golden light, still lying in sheets upon the water, dazzled (ослеплять) Nan for a moment. 7. I felt a bitter envy towards the two small boys walking along the path with their mother at that moment. 8. The letter beginning with “Dear sir” was not signed. 9. Jim, not being sure of her real intentions, merely looked at her and paused for a moment. 10. Having satisfied himself that each guest had a plate of food and a glass of water, he was anxious to make conversation. 11. Returning home late at night, he found everybody in bed. 12. Reaching the top of the hill, my companion stopped. 14. Having filled his pockets with apples, the boy was about to run away when he saw the owner of the garden with a stick in his hand .

Exercise 22. Make one sentence from two. Use the information in brackets to make participial phrases with Participle I used as an attribute. Sometimes the participial phrase goes in the middle of the new sentence; sometimes it goes at the end .

1. I was woken up by a bell. (The bell was ringing.) … I was woken up by a bell ringing … .

2. 1 didn’t talk much to the man. (The man was sitting next to me on the plane.)

3. The taxi broke down. (The taxi was taking us to the airport.)

4. At the end of the street there is a path. (The path leads to the river.)

5. A new factory has just opened in the town. (The factory employs 500 people.)

6. The company sent me a brochure. (The brochure contained all the information I needed.) Exercise 23. Translate the sentences into English using Participle I .

1. Будьте осторожны, пересекая улицу. 2. Написав сочинение, она начала готовить другое задание. 3. Студенты, не уделяющие внимания грамматике, никогда не овладеют английским языком. 4. Мы сидели в саду и разговаривали о нашей поездке по Волге. 5. Сбежав с лестницы, она остановилась на мгновение, как бы колеблясь, в каком направлении пойти. 6. Объяснив всё подробно (in detail), он спокойно сел на свое место. 7. Очутившись одна на улице, она сразу пожалела о том, что случилось. 8. Схватив сына на руки, Элиза бросилась бежать. 9 .

Молодой человек, стоявший у окна, внимательно посмотрел на меня. 10. Проводив сына, они медленно возвращались с вокзала. 11. Театры Ист Энда часто показывают пьесы, затрагивающие различные современные проблемы. 12. Утопающий за соломинку хватается. 13. Заметив меня, она остановилась. 14. Строго говоря, это не совсем то, что я хотела сказать. 15. Приехав домой, он увидел, что его ждут. 16. Услышав шаги на пустынной улице, она насторожилась (to prick up one’s ears) .

Exercise 24. Join the pairs of sentences using Participle I as an adverbial modifier of time .

Pattern: The pilot was flying over the Channel. He saw what he thought to be a meteorite. While flying over the Channel, the pilot saw what he thought to be a meteorite .

1. He was travelling by air from New York to London. He was taken ill. 2. I visit a strange city. I like to have a guide-book with me. (Use: when) 3. He did his homework. Then he went to the skating-rink. 4. He was reading those books. He came across an old and valuable map. 5. He entered the room. He took off his hat.6. The workmen were digging the foundation of a new office block. They unearthed the remains of a Roman villa. 7. She looked out of the window. She saw the neighbour’s children planting a tree. 8. He seized a sheet of paper and a pen. He began to write. 9. The voice announced the arrival of the train at platform 3. The voice shut itself off with a click .

Exercise 25. Join the pairs of sentences using Participle I as an adverbial modifier of cause .

Pattern: They decided to re-visit Moscow. They were struck by the beauty of its buildings on their previous visit. Having been struck by the beauty of its buildings on their previous visit, they decided to re-visit Moscow .

1. Mrs. Smith came up to the platform just in time. Mrs. Smith did not miss her train .

2. We decided not to go any further that day. We put up at the nearest hotel. 3. I bear in mind the fact that he has never done anything wrong before. I think he should be let off. 4. He turned down the job he was offered. He was reluctant to commit himself to a long contract. 5. She had decided it was a proper thing to do. She was surprised when she got absolutely no results. 6. The champion decided to withdraw from the tennis tournament. He had decided that he had little chance of winning the competition. 7. We had heard nothing further from him .

We assumed he wasn’t coming. 8. My room-mate is studious (прилежный, старательный). My room-mate does not like the radio on all the time. 9. This cardigan was dyed at the dry-cleaner’s. It looks quite new now. 10. His friends are not very punctual. His friends were two hours late in keeping their appointment .

Exercise 26. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using Participle I as an adverbial modifier of time .

1. Просматривая старые газеты, он обнаружил интересную статью об университетах Англии. 2. Когда он был школьником, он играл в футбол. 3. Прочитав книгу, он вернул ее в библиотеку. 4. Придя домой, она обнаружила дверь открытой. 5. Выслушав его объяснение, мы решили, что он прав. 6. Когда мы были в Санкт-Петербурге, мы посетили Эрмитаж. 7. Попрощавшись с друзьями, он уехал на вокзал. 8. Будьте осторожны, переходя улицу. 9. Приехав в Лондон, мы сразу же пошли осматривать достопримечательности. 10. Когда будете обсуждать этот вопрос, не забудьте коснуться этих фактов .

Exercise 27. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using Participle I as an adverbial modifier of cause .

1. Не зная, что ответить, она покраснела. 2. Прожив в этом городе двадцать лет, он знал здесь каждую улицу. 3. Они не могли попасть в дом, потому что потеряли ключ. 4. Я не смогла ее навестить, потому что не знала ее адреса. 5. Не зная языка, он не понимал, о чем говорили. 6. Так как у нас было много свободного времени до начала представления, мы решили пойти в театр пешком. 7. Увидев свою ошибку, он перестал спорить. 8. Будучи уверенным, что он прав, он чувствовал себя спокойным и безмятежным .

Exercise 28. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using Participle I as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances .

1. Он шел медленно, время от времени останавливался и что-то спрашивал у прохожих. 2. Она стояла и думала, что ответить. 3. Он смотрел на дверь, ожидая, когда она откроется. 4. Она провела все утро за уборкой квартиры. 5. Он смотрел на нее, улыбаясь. 6. Она закрыла глаза, стараясь вспомнить, где она видела эту девушку. 7. Я провела весь вечер, перечитывая письма. 8. Они гуляли в саду и любовались цветами. 9. Наконец мы все собрались, ожидая, когда подадут обед. 10 .

Она отвечала на мои вопросы спокойно, стараясь выглядеть безразличный .

Exercise 29. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using Participle I as an adverbial modifier of comparison .

1. Она задумчиво посмотрела на меня, словно всерьез воспринимая то, что я сказал. 2. Он двигался очень медленно, как будто плыл. 3. Он сидел один, оперев голову на руки, словно слушая музыку. 4. Девушка продолжала читать, как будто не слышала, что звонит телефон. 5. Она прекратила говорить, как будто ждала, когда я заговорю. 6. Она странно посмотрела на меня, как будто видела в первый раз. 7. Девушка медлила, словно не знала, что делать. 8. Они разговаривали очень громко, словно старались перекричать друг друга. 9. Она не отвечала, как будто не понимала мой вопрос .

Exercise 30. Use the words in brackets to make sentences using ‘there is/there was/were’ + Participle I .

1. That house is empty. (nobody/live/in it) …….. There’s nobody living in it. …

2. The accident wasn’t serious. (nobody/injure)…. There was nobody injured. …

3. I can hear footsteps. (somebody/come)……….. There …………….……….…

4. The train was full. (a lot of people/travel) ……………………………………

5. We were the only guests at the hotel. (nobody else/stay there) ………………

6. The piece of paper was blank. (nothing/write/on it) …………………………

7. There are regular English courses at the college. (a course/begin/next Monday)… .

–  –  –

Exercise 32. Rewrite the sentences. Put the quoted speech first, and use a Participial phrase with Participle I .

1. As I grabbed Don by the arm, I said, ‘Look, it’s Tim’s car.’ … ‘Look, it’s Tim’s car,’ I said, grabbing Don by the arm .

2. As she pointed to the empty table, Sandra said, ‘It was here a moment ago.’.. .

3. As she turned over in bed, Helen groaned, ‘I’ll get up in an hour or so.’ …

4. As Mark smiled cheerfully at them, he exclaimed, ‘Well, I’m back.’ … Exercise 33. Complete the sentences with the ‘having + participle II’ form of one of these verbs. In which is it also possible to use an -ing form with a similar meaning .

arrive climb spend take work 1. … Having taken (not Taking) the wrong bus, Tony found himself in an unfamiliar town .

2. … a tree, Lee was able to see a way out of the forest .

3. … as a clerk, painter and bus driver, Neil decided to go back to university .

4. … all morning working in the garden, Betty took a short lunch break .

5. … early for his appointment, Ron spent some time looking at the magazines .

Exercise 34. Match the sentence halves and write new ones beginning with an -ing, having been (+ past participle) or being + past participle phrase (or ‘Not + -ing, etc.’) .

1. She was a doctor

2. I didn’t expect anyone to be in the house

3. The room had been painted in dark colours

4. Dave was unemployed

5. I don’t speak Italian

6. Barbara had been a teacher for 14 years a. she knew how to keep children interested .

b. I found life in Sicily difficult .

с. I walked straight in .

d. she knew what side effects the medicine could have .

e. he had time to consider what job he really wanted .

f. the room needed some bright lights .

Example: 1 + (d) Being a doctor, she knew what side-effects the medicine could have .

Exercise 35. Translate the following sentences into English. Participle I .

1. Услышав чьи-то шаги и голоса, дети спрятались за деревом. 2. Человек, вошедший в комнату, представился. 3. Покажите нам список студентов, изучающих французский язык. 4. Я никогда не слышал об актрисе, сыгравшей главную роль в этом фильме. 5. Так как меня пригласили в театр, я не смог отказаться. 6 .

Они разговаривали громко, словно старались перекричать друг друга. (to shout one another down) 7. Он подал мне письмо и попросил отправить его немедленно. 8 .

Так как письмо было написано карандашом, его трудно было прочитать. (in pencil) 9. Закончив лекцию профессор, оглядел аудиторию, ожидая вопросов. 10 .

Все студенты, изучающие английский язык, могут принять участие в этом вечере .

11. Все служащие, работающие в нашем отделе (office), должны знать иностранные языки. 12. Все знают имя человека, сделавшего это открытие. 13. Когда я шел на завод, я встретил своего друга. 14. Так как она не хотела разбудить свою маленькую дочь, она не стала включать свет. 15. Так как этот план был обсужден, он известен всем. 16. Когда мы были в Москве, нам дважды удалось побывать в Большом театре. 17. Спрашивая, какой фильм идет в кино, мы говорим: «Что идет сегодня?» 18. Потеряв квитанцию (receipt), он не смог получить посылку. 19. Не зная, что делать, она обратилась к нам за помощью. (to refer to smb. for help) 20. Они сидели молча и смотрели на заходящее солнце. 21. Не видев ее много лет, он не узнал ее сначала. 22. Она остановилась, как будто не знала дороги домой .

–  –  –

I. Participle II as an attribute .

a broken cup - разбитая чашка • the problem discussed at the meeting - вопрос, обсужденный на собрании/ обсужденный на собрании вопрос a house built two years ago - дом, построенный два года назад/ построенный два года назад дом • a child properly looked after - ребенок, о котором хорошо заботятся • things never heard of before - факты, о которых никогда не слышали прежде • a man talked about - человек, о котором говорят/говорили •

–  –  –

A broken vase lay on the floor. A vase broken by the children lay on the floor .

• The story told by the hostess amused everybody. История, рассказанная хозяйкой, развеселила всех .

Why don’t we believe stories told by hunters and fishermen? Почему мы не верим историям, рассказываемым охотниками и рыбаками?

It is a book much talked about. Это книга, о которой много говорят. (=It is a book which • is much talked about.) A most unlooked-for incident occurred. (unlooked-for = unexpected, sudden- неожиданный, • непредвиденный, внезапный) It is an unhoped-for pleasure to see you with us again. (unhoped-for = unexpected, sudden - внезапный, неожиданный) The portrait was lovely. The portrait was painted by my brother. The portrait • which was painted by my brother was lovely. The portrait painted by my brother was lovely .

• Note: An attribute expressed by Participle II may be detached; in this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier. When Participle II or a Participial phrase is detached, its position is not fixed. It may occupy the initial position, the mid-position or the final position in the sentence. Detached attributes are separated from the noun by a comma in writing and by a pause in speech .

They are confined to literary style only .

Greatly excited, the children followed her into the garden .

• Johnson, left in charge of both officers, marched about for a little while .

• And people hurried by, hidden under their dreadful umbrellas .

• Attracted by the heart-breaking cry, the young man rushed to the river bank .

• Faced with a bill for 10, 000, John has taken an extra job .

• Seated at his desk, Mel put his head in his hands .

• Formed 25 years ago next month, the club is holding a party for past and present • members. (or: The club, which was formed 25 years ago next month, is holding a party for past...)

o In formal English, that and those can be used before a participle adjective:

The office temperature is lower than that (that = the temperature) required by law .

• Here is some advice for those (those = people) invited to go on holiday .

II. Participle II as an adverbial modifier:

a) of time .

Participle II is introduced by the conjunction when, till, until .

When questioned, you should answer. Когда вас спрашивают, следует отвечать .

• When questioned, he suddenly burst into tears. (=When he was questioned, he suddenly burst into tears.) She won’t stop arguing until interrupted .

• The car was stolen while parked in the street .

• He spoke when spoken to. (=He spoke when he was spoken to.) • He is very affable when spoken to, but naturally silent. (affable - приветливый; вежливый, • любезный) When left to herself, she spent her time reading .

–  –  –

If sent immediately, the telegram will certainly be delivered by eight o’clock .

• Even if posted now, the letter could not reach John till Monday .

• I shall certainly give evidence on your behalf if required .

• John will speak for hours unless interrupted .

• If asked about my plans, please say that I’ll spend my holiday in town .

• If accepted for the job, I’ll have to start at the beginning of next month. (=If I am • accepted for the job, I’ll have to start at the beginning of next month .

c) of comparison .

Participle II is introduced by the conjunctions as if or as though .

We stood motionless as if depressed by something. (=We stood motionless as if we • were depressed by something.) Мы стояли неподвижно, как-будто были подавлены чем-то .

I looked at him as if surprised to see him there. (=I looked at him as if I were surprised to see him there .

“Does he know it?” said David Rubin, as though surprised .

• “I’ll get off the train,” he repeated as if hypnotized .

• She continued staring at the screen as if fascinated by the first sight of television .

d) of concession .

Participle II is introduced by the conjunction though, although .

Though tired, he tried to smile. (= Though he was tired, he tried to smile.) • Though impressed by the news, she didn’t show it .

• Though frightened, he carried it off very well. Хотя он и испугался, но не показал вида .

• The dress was not hopelessly damaged though badly stained in one or two places .

–  –  –

e) of cause .

He kept silent for a moment surprised by my question .

• He fell asleep exhausted by his journey .

• Sent to the wrong address, the letter didn’t reach him. Так как письмо было отправлено по • неверному адресу, оно не дошло до него .

III. Participle II as a predicative .

In this function Participle II denotes a state .

He was greatly impressed by the story .

• I didn’t feel inclined for guessing-games .

• I couldn’t get used to things changing like this .

• Jim got too depressed to listen to their talk .

• He seemed interested .

• His coat was dirty and torn .

• The window remained closed .

• He felt thoroughly disappointed .

• The poor woman sat amazed .

• IV. Participle II as part of a complex object .

I saw Jane addressed by a stranger .

• Seeing our afternoon broken, Margaret and I were cross .

• I heard these topics argued between the scientists for years .

• He wanted the work done in time. Он хотел, чтобы работа была сделана вовремя .

• I never heard him spoken of badly. Я никогда не слышал, чтобы о нем плохо говорили .

• We found the door locked .

• I must have my watch mended. Мне нужно починить часы .

• V. Participle II as part of a complex subject/part of a compound verbal predicate .

The problem is considered solved .

• The door was found locked .

• The dog was found tied to a tree .

–  –  –

A. Participle II as an attribute. Translate the following sentences into Russian .

1. I found this broken plate in the kitchen cupboard .

2. I looked at the ceiling painted by some 18th century artist who was now forgotten .

3. She told me of the parcel delivered in the morning .

4. They let him know of the decision taken by the committee .

5. She was wearing a knitted cap pulled low over her eyes .

6. He had suits, and coats, and shirts made to order .

7. Spanish is one of the foreign languages taught at our University .

8. These are cities inhabited by their creators .

9. There was a big red car parked outside the house .

10. The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. (the boy was injured in the accident)

11. The frozen ground was hard as stone .

12. I haven’t yet considered the question raised in your letter .

13. I searched the desk and discovered the letter hidden under a pile of papers .

o An attribute expressed by Participle II may be detached; in this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier .

1. Alfred, left alone, stood motionless for some minutes .

2. At last the Colonel, accompanied by his two daughters, made his appearance in the park .

3. Shocked by the poverty of my own vocabulary, I went to the library .

4. Suddenly touched, she came over to the side of his chair and kissed his cheek .

5. I went out of the court, determined to show them a good play .

6. Alison watched them, relieved and suddenly full of affection .

B. Participle II as an adverbial modifier of time. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. When dressed, I sat a long time by the window, looking out over the silent grounds and silvered fields .

2. When given a dictionary, he translated this article easily .

3. When asked about the accident, Tom began to cry .

4. When seen in this light, the matter doesn’t seem quite so serious .

5. When told how much the trip would cost, they decided to stay at home .

6. When challenged, he denied it .

7. When annoyed, he went to his room and locked himself in .

8. When told to go, he seemed to change his mind and left the room .

9. Lamont bowed to him when introduced .

C. Participle II as an adverbial modifier of condition. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. If invited, I will come tomorrow .

2. He did not usually utter a word unless spoken to .

3. If taken literally, the sentence is nonsensical. (бессмысленный, абсурдный)

4. If given an opportunity, he would make a good pianist .

5. Rex assured her that the blind man was quite peaceful if left undisturbed .

6. It was clear to him that she would go back on the whole thing if given half a chance .

7. If done prematurely (преждевременно), your move might provoke opposition .

8. It was a dreadful thing which if discovered would bring them into the police court .

9. He had never known to refuse to see a patient at any hour or to fail to make a house call if sent for .

10. Unless urged, he never mentioned his wound or his decoration. (to urge - убеждать, настаивать, заставлять) D. Participle II as an adverbial modifier of comparison. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. He kept silent as if deeply impressed by my words .

2. She suddenly stopped as if struck by the news .

3. Her new dress fitted her as though made to her measurements .

4. The letter was illegible as though written in s hurry .

5. I looked at him as if surprised to see him there .

6. She screamed as if badly hurt .

7. “Minister?” said David Rubin, as though surprised .

8. Douglas, still smiling sweetly, as though determined to prove that he was right reminded him of his promise .

E. Participle II as an adverbial modifier of concession. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. Though shocked by his words, she didn’t show it .

2. Though hurt by her attitude, he didn’t utter a word .

3. Though annoyed by his failure, he continued to work hard .

4. Though deeply moved by these words, she couldn’t agree to her friend’s suggestion .

F. Participle II as a predicative. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. James grew more and more alarmed .

2. We were compelled to spend the night at Winchester. (to compel - заставлять, вынуждать, принуждать)

3. A window of the hotel was lighted; he saw a shadow move across the blinds .

4. The old woman’s face was wrinkled .

5. “He is not a schoolmaster (устаревшее: школьный учитель) now. – He is retired.”

6. All the staffs were cheap and shabby; all the furniture was cracked or broken .

7. He just seemed bored with what he was doing .

8. She did not sound convinced .

9. Freddy felt very relieved .

10. I was quite prepared for a disagreeable surprise .

11. She was not so convinced as she tried to sound .

12. It was their last reception before Easter and the house was even more crowded than usual .

13. Finch looked suddenly detached, lost in his own thoughts .

14. I was greatly annoyed with Monica for interfering .

G. Participle II as part of a complex object. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. Turning into Green Street, she heard her name called .

2. I have my hair cut once a month .

3. Why don’t you get your hair waved?

4. I don’t want Diana or anybody warned .

5. I want these letters typed at once .

6. I must get the parcel sent tomorrow .

7. Why don’t you have your shoes cleaned every day?

8. The police found the money hidden in s disused garage .

9. Have you ever heard this opera sung in Italian?

10. We want the work finished by Saturday .

11. Please have these letters translated into English .

12. They found the house deserted .

13. I’d like my hair waved .

H. Participle II as part of a complex subject/part of a compound verbal predicate .

Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1. The house was found deserted .

2. The mountains have never been seen covered with snow .

3. Dogs have often been seen killed on the roads .

I. Participial phrase as parenthesis .

1. All things considered, there was nothing to be done now .

Exercise 37. Point out Participle II and state its functions in the sentence .

1. His name was well known among the younger writers of France. 2. London, like most cities which have a long history behind them, is not really one single city, but rather a collection of once separated towns and villages, which in the course of time have grown together. 3. The broad thoroughfare which runs between Trafalgar Square and the Houses of Parliament is known as Whitehall. 4. The child kept silent and looked frightened. 5. He lived in a little village situated at the foot of a hill. 6. He fell asleep exhausted by his journey. 7. If you hadn’t caught sight of him at the door, he might have slipped out unnoticed. 8. In the coppice (рощица; подлесок) they sat down on a fallen tree. 9. Locked in her room, she flung herself on the bed and cried bitterly .

10. She entered the drawing-room accompanied by her husband and her father .

11. Presently I grew tired and went to bed .

–  –  –

Exercise 39. Место определения, выраженного причастием .

(1) Причастие с пояснительными словами в английском языке стоит только после определяемого существительного. В русском языке оно может стоять как после определяемого существительного, так и перед ним .

Мы обсуждаем статью, написанную вами .

• We are discussing the article written = Мы обсуждаем написанную вами статью .

by you .

The man standing at the window is Мужчина, стоящий у окна, наш препо

–  –  –

We had to pay for the rooms used.

(or...the rooms that were used.) • (4) A few participles are used immediately after nouns, but rarely before them:

• None of the candidates applying was accepted (but not...the applying candidates...) .

• My watch was among the things taken (but not...the taken things) .

• We could not resist all of these people combined .

Participles like this include: taken, caused, found, provided, used, added, obtained, combined, applying (5) Some participles can be used before or immediately after nouns:

• Rub the area infected with this antiseptic cream, or Rub the infected area with this antiseptic cream .

Participles like this include: affected, broken, chosen, identified, interested, remaining, resulting, stolen, suggested, required (6) The participles concerned, involved have different meanings when they are used before a noun and immediately after it .

• The doctor concerned is on holiday. (concerned = responsible - занятый чем-л.; связанный с чем-л.; имеющий отношение к чему-л.) The concerned doctor rang for an ambulance. (concerned = worried - озабоченный) • The party was excellent, and I’d like to thank all the people concerned (=involved) .

• Cars drive too fast past their school and concerned teachers (=worried) have complained to the police .

New regulations have come into force on the storage of dangerous chemicals. All • the companies concerned have been notified of these .

I did not want to go to a club for lunch in case I met Douglas or anyone involved • (=connected with him) .

Most of the people involved in the battle are now dead .

• The boy involved has left. (the boy involved =connected with this) • It was a very involved explanation. (involved explanation =complicated) • persons involved - участвующие лица • an involved problem - запутанная проблема • (7) The participle left in post-position undergoes a change of meaning and its use becomes structurally restricted. It is found in the construction - it modifies nouns (or pronouns) in sentence patterns with there is (are). Left in this kind of sentences is rendered in Russian with the help of ‘осталось’ .

• There was no evidence left .

• Jones sucked in more whiskey, and I warned him, “There is only a quarter of a bottle left.”

• There is almost no time left .

• There is nothing left for him to do but wait .

Exercise 40. Replace the attributive clauses in the following sentences by phrases with Participle II .

1. By a residential college we mean a college with a hostel which is usually situated on the same grounds as the principal building. By a residential college we mean a college with a hostel usually situated on the same grounds as the principal building .

2. The slogan which was made by Mike’s brother attracted everybody’s attention .

3. The child that was left alone in the large room began to scream. 4. I have a letter for you which was received two days ago. 5. They were all pleased with the results which were achieved by the end of the month. 6. His words, which he uttered in an undertone, reached my ears. 7. He said that the book which I had chosen belonged to his grandfather. 8. I asked the librarian to show me the magazines which were sent from Germany. 9. Everybody felt that in the farewell dinner there was sadness which was mingled with festivity (веселье; праздничность). 10. We were all looking at his smiling face which was framed in the window of the railway-carriage. 11. There was another pause which was broken by a fit of laughing of one of the old men sitting in the first row. 12. There lay a loaf of brown bread which was divided into two halves. 13. The English people love their green hedges (живая изгородь, барьер, преграда) which are covered with leaf and flower in summer, and a blaze (яркий цвет) of gold and red in autumn .

14. From his essay we learn about various goods which are produced in Birmingham and the adjoining manufacturing towns. 15. The teacher told us that the centre of the cotton industry is Manchester, which is connected with Liverpool by a canal. 16. In the South of England we find fertile valleys which are divided by numerous hedges .

17. Tennis is one of the most popular games in England which is played all the year round. 18. They say that in their college, as well as in ours, the students have lots of exams which are held at the end of each term .

Exercise 41. Make one sentence from two, beginning as shown. Each time make participial phrases with Participle II used as an attribute .

1. A boy was injured in the accident. He was taken to hospital .

…… The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. …

2. A window was broken in the storm last night. It has now been repaired .

The window …………………………………………………………. repaired .

3. A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical. Most of the suggestions.………………………….………………… .

4. Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven’t been found yet .

The …………………………………………………………………………… .

5. A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?

What was the name…………………………………………………………… .

Exercise 42. Translate the following word-groups into English. Pay attention to the place of Participle II .

иллюстрированный журнал; журнал, иллюстрированный известным художником;

разбитое стекло; стекло, разбитое накануне; сломанный карандаш; ветка, сломанная ветром; взволнованные голоса; дети, взволнованные происшедшим; потерянный ключ; ключ, потерянный вчера; газеты, полученные из Лондона; письмо, написанное незнакомым почерком; закрытая дверь; дверь, запертая изнутри; девушка, приглашенная на вечер; упавшее дерево; книга, упавшая со стола; украденные документы; документы, украденные у секретаря; оконченное сочинение; сочинение, оконченное в спешке; мальчик, испуганный собакой; высокоразвитая индустриальная страна Exercise 43. Translate the following into English using Participle II as an attribute .

1. Мэри села на упавший ствол дерева. 2. Оркестр, видимый на экране телевизора в гостиной, исполнял музыку Моцарта. 3. Там было шесть коробок, туго завернутых в старые газеты. 4. Она подошла к письменному столу и вынула запечатанный конверт. 5. Женщина вышла из магазина и пошла к машине, оставленной чуть ниже по улице. 6. Упавшие листья спокойно лежали в пруду. 7. Оставшись один, я огляделся. 8. Застигнутые врасплох, они не знали, что сказать. 9. В коробке было несколько негативов (negative), свернутых в тугой виток (a tight coil) .

Exercise 44. Translate the sentences into English using Participle II .

1. Я взглянул в ее испуганное лицо и увидел слезы на глазах. 2. Англия - высокоразвитая индустриальная страна. 3. Ист Энд - район Лондона, населенный рабочими. 4. Опавшие листья устилали (to cover) дорожки парка .

5. Окна их квартиры были ярко освещены. 6. Сколько времени хранятся вещи, оставленные в камере хранения (left-luggage office)? 12. Тронутый ее слезами, он изменил свое решение. 13. Директор подписал бумаги, принесенные секретарем. 14. Вы должны выучить наизусть текст, записанный на пленку (to record) .

17. Его взгляд упал на зонтик, оставленный кем-то на крыльце .

18. Последние строчки письма, написанные небрежно (carelessly), показывают, что он спешил .

Exercise 45. Supply the appropriate conjunctions for the participles used as adverbial modifiers in the following sentences (Participle II) .

until though as though if if if unless even if when when when when as if

1. He had never been known to refuse to see a patient at any hour, or to fail to make a house call... if … sent for. 2. The furniture was to be stored in Quebec... sent for. 3 .

She has the heart of a tigress... roused. (выводить из себя; раздражать) 4. A re-check,... decided on, would take most of half an hour. 5.... told to go, Maxwell hesitated at the door. 6.... released, he told me of his trouble. 7. He remembered that he should not smoke... invited to do so. 8. “I suppose you understand you would have to go to Canada... engaged,” he went on. 9. Lamont bowed to him... introduced. 10. She stopped in the doorway... surprised to see me sitting there. 11.... ordered two weeks ago, the books haven’t been delivered yet. 12.... starved for exercise, he usually began to scrape the sidewalks with a shovel. 13.... bored with a book, I find it difficult to leave it unfinished .

Exercise 46. Complete these sentences with the past participle form of an appropriate verb and one of these phrases .

stolen from the jeweller; printed on the label; given to the players;

carried out on the motorway; chosen to represent Britain;

made at today’s meeting; damaged in the storm

1. The road repairs...carried out on the motorway... might delay traffic .

2. The decisions

3. The building

4. Jack Sullivan was the man

5. The warning

6. All the rings and necklaces

7. The instructions

Exercise 47. Translate the following sentences into English. Participle II .

1. Дом, построенный на нашей улице, очень красив. 2. Когда его спросили, он ответил тот час же. 3. Полученное вчера известие, напугало нас. 4. Хотя книга была посвящена узкой теме, она представляла интерес для многих читателей. 5 .

Дети играли в разрушенном коттедже. 6. Книга, взятая из библиотеки, должна быть возвращена вовремя. 7. Он посмотрел на меня так, словно был удивлен, видя меня здесь. 8. Было ясно, что он выиграет, если ему будет дан шанс. 9. Хотя она была усталой, она выглядела счастливой. 10. Она не перестанет спорить, пока ее не остановят. (to interrupt) 11. Словарь, на который ссылаются, можно найти в нашей библиотеке. (to refer to). 12. Мы хотели, чтобы вы посмотрели картины, написанные этим молодым художником. 13. Романы, написанные этим писателем, очень популярны. 14. Я думаю, что полученные сегодня утром новости, интересны всем. 15. Вы должны выучить все слова, данные на странице

20. 16. Мы старались передвинуть упавшее дерево. (to move). 17. Хотя статья была написана трудным языком, ее легко можно было перевести. 18. Он показал мне ручку, купленную в Москве. 19. Его имя было хорошо известно среди (among) молодых писателей Франции. 20. Дети были слишком взволнованы, чтобы сказать что–либо. 21. Он молчал, как будто напуган до смерти. 22. Построенный на вершине холма дом, был виден издалека. 23. Когда его спросили об этом, он не знал что ответить. 24. Нужно выбросить увядшие цветы. (to fade вянуть). 25. Овощи, выращенные в теплице (hothouse/greenhouse), не очень вкусные .

–  –  –

Exercise 48. Change the Participial Phrases into subordinate clauses. (Participle I, Participle II)

1. Having listened to the radio, I decided to go for a walk .

2. The work being done will soon be finished .

3. The man, pleased with his success, decided to do the same thing again .

4. The water in the pool, having stood too long, is stagnant (застоявшийся) .

5. Being thoroughly tired, I decided to go to bed earlier .

6. Having taken several photos, I closed my camera .

7. The tune being played is quite familiar to me .

8. Having presented her ticket to the guardian at the gate, she passed to her first-class carriage .

9. Having been tired with day’s feverish shopping, she preferred the first-class carriage .

Exercise 49. If possible, change the relative clause in these sentences to an -ing, past participle or being + past participle as appropriate. If it is not possible, write (X) after the sentence .

1. The people who are being asked to take early retirement are all over the age of 60 .

… The people being asked to take early retirement … .

2. The book that she wanted to borrow wasn’t available in the library .

3. The hospital has recently obtained new equipment which will allow far more patients to be treated .

4. The children who are being moved to another school all have learning difficulties .

5. The man who died in the accident came from Bulgaria .

6. An agreement has been signed to protect the forests which are being cut down all over the world .

7. I ran through the crowd of people who were hurrying to get to work .

8. If you know of anyone who would like to buy Maggie’s car, let me know .

9. The trees that were blown down in last night’s storm have been moved off the road .

10. The woman who visited us last week has sent us a present .

Exercise 50. Translate the following sentences into English .

1. В этом магазине вы можете купить вещи, сделанные в разных городах России. 2. Я всегда с большим интересом читаю книги, описывающие жизнь замечательных людей. 3. Я живу в доме, построенном десять лет назад. 4. Кто нашел потерянный вами ключ? 5. Инженер, ожидавший вас вчера, только что звонил. Вы можете принять его? 6. Мы должны поговорить со всеми людьми, приславшими нам эти письма. 7. Писатель, написавший этот роман, много путешествовал. 8. Гости, сидевшие за столом, громко разговаривали и смеялись .

Exercise 51. Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs in the correct form: Participle I and Participle II as an attribute .

blow call invite live offer read ring sit study work

1. I was woken up by a bell … ringing… .

2. A lot of the people …… invited …… to the party cannot come .

3. Life must be very unpleasant for people ……… near busy airports .

4. A few days after the interview, I received a letter ……. me the job .

5. Somebody …………………… Jack phoned while you were out .

6. There was a tree ………………… down in the storm last night .

7. When I entered the waiting room, it was empty except for a young man …… by the window ……… a magazine .

8. Ian has got a brother …….… in a bank in London and a sister ……….... economics at university in Manchester .

Exercise 52. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mark the difference between Participle I Passive and Participle II .

1) The film now being demonstrated in our cinema is much spoken about. The film demonstrated in all the central cinemas was worth seeing. 2) The houses being built in our district are said to be comfortable. One of these days they are going to move into the new house built not far from the underground. 3) The snow cleared away only yesterday began to fall again. The snow being cleared away by the machine is very dirty. 4) I left the hall being mocked at by everybody. Mocked at by everybody, he couldn’t but feel ill at ease .

Exercise 53. Translate the following sentences into English .

1. Дом, выходивший на улицу, был старый. 2. Мы все смотрели на смеющегося мальчика. 3. Приблизившись к станции, мы услышали шум моторов. (engine) 4 .

Опустив письмо, я поспешил домой. (to post a letter) 5. Так как я был усталым, я рано лег спать. 6. Хотя мой друг был усталым, он не мог не улыбнуться. 7. Когда я был очень усталым, я выключал свет и ложился спать. 8. Получив сообщение, моя сестра немедленно выехала в Москву. 9. На листе бумаги было несколько строчек, написанных карандашом. 10. Мальчик, потерявший родителей, был отправлен в детский дом. 11. Когда правило объяснили еще раз, оно оказалось совсем легким. 12. Вы должны выучить слова, данные на странице 20. 13. Выписав все ошибки, сделанными студентами в последней контрольной работе, преподаватель написал несколько упражнений для тренировки забытых студентами грамматических правил. 14. Приехав на вокзал, Петр купил билет, и, видя, что у него достаточно времени в распоряжении, пошел посмотреть на новый театр, построенный недалеко от вокзала. 15. Я не мог переодеться, так как оставил свои вещи на вокзале .

Exercise 54. Transform the clauses italicized into Participial Phrases. Preserve the corresponding conjunctions where possible. (Participle I, Participle II)

1. It was a thin piece of metal, which when it was shaken produced a mysterious rumbling noise. It was a thin piece of metal, which when shaken produced a mysterious rumbling noise .

2. While she was waiting, she thought of her sealskin (котиковый мех) coat, and decided that for the coming season its shoulders should be taken in a little .

3. The horse stamped its foot and nodded its head as if it agreed to a peace treaty .

4. He glanced over his shoulder as though he was trying to make sure there was nobody there .

5. Though she was deeply moved by these words, she couldn’t agree to her friend’s suggestion .

6. Since I’m late for the 5 o’clock train, I can stay at home a little longer .

7. All along, I had been far from comfortable when I speculated as to what this Othello’s reactions would be .

8. Granny found her spectacles while she was looking for something different .

9. He will certainly come if he is asked .

Exercise 55. Insert the correct form of Participle I or Participle II .

1. Once when he came back to their room, he found Dmitri (to lie) in front of the fireplace .

2. I don’t want my hair (to wash) .

3. Look here, Jack. Do get me (to invite) to your house .

4. He had heard their orders (to give) .

5. She felt herself (to vibrate -дрожать) all over with resentment. (негодование)

6. I had heard it (to say) that the cost of keeping a dog was over five pounds a week .

7. I saw Mr. Honey (to go) home each evening to cook for his little girl .

8. Then she heard the chairs (to push) back and across the floor .

Exercise 56 Rewrite the sentences beginning with an -ing or past participle phrase (or ‘Not + -ing / past participle’) .

1. Marie left work early because she didn’t feel too well….Not feeling too well, Marie left work early… .

2. The manager was impressed by Jo’s work so he extended her contract for a year .

3. He had acquired the money through hard work, so he was reluctant to give it away .

4. Because he had started the course, Alan was determined to complete it .

5. As we didn’t want to offend him, we said nothing about his paintings .

6. As I haven’t seen all the evidence, I am reluctant to make a judgement .

Exercise 57. Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the underlined phrase with a suitable participial phrase .

0 As they hadn’t been arrested, they were able to leave the police station .

…Not having been arrested, they were able to leave the police station .

1 She fell asleep while she sat in the armchair .

2 Because I can speak Finnish I was able to follow their conversation .

3 Because my brother has split up with his wife, he wants to move in with me .

4 So far nobody has claimed the money we discovered under the floorboards .

5 After he had moved out, Danny found it difficult to find a nice place to stay .

6 The people who lived closest to the river bank were the worst affected .

7 The sea was very rough, which made me feel sick .

8 As I am not very good at figures I’ll let you do the accounts .

9 This is a house which has been built to last forever .

10 If you wash it at a cool temperature, this garment will not shrink .

11 People who play loud music late at night can be a real nuisance .

12 Because he had been unemployed for so long, Jack despaired of ever finding a job .

13 If you give them enough time, the engineers will be able to find the fault .

Exercise 58. Translate into English. Pay attention to the position of Participial Phrases in English and Russian. (Participle I, Participle II) Pattern: Шедший мимо них офицер приветливо улыбнулся им. – The officer going past them smiled at them .

1. Он подписал все принесенные ему секретарем документы. 2. Говорят, что в находящемся в двух километрах от города лесу много змей. 3. Мерцавший (to glimmer) в темноте фонарик (torch) показывал, что впереди кто-то шел. 4. Дмитрий часто рассказывал ей о покрытых снегом сопках (hills), о море, о людях Дальнего Востока. 5. Она остановилась у ведущих к входу Центрального корпуса ступеней. 6. Раздававшийся неведомо откуда голос пел незнакомую песню. 7. Игравшие в углу комнаты дети очень шумели .

–  –  –

Exercise 60. In which sentence choosing from three would you use Participle I instead of the verb in brackets?

1. a) (to write) a letter, I usually look it through .

b) The students had to analyse the forms (to write) in italics .

c) The novel (to write) by a well-known author .

2. a) (to read) English books, you enlarge your vocabulary .

b) Books (to read) in English help you to learn the language better .

c) Students are supposed (to read) English books in the original .

3. a) Flights to the moon (to describe) by great writers of the past show that people began to dream about space travel hundreds of years ago .

b) I like to read books (to describe) the lives of famous scientists .

c) He (to describe) the method used by this engineer .

4. a) While (to translate) this article, he came across many difficulties .

b) When (to translate), this article was sent to the editor .

c) Who (to translate) this book into Russian?

Exercise 61. In your notebook, write the following text changing clauses to participial phrases where possible .

Vincent Van Gogh, who was born in Holland in 1853, is one of the world’s most famous painters. Although his talent was unrecognized throughout his life, it was much appreciated after his death .

After he had failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong religious feelings. After he had decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies (этюд) of peasants and miners. During the next few years, which are known as his ‘Dutch period’, he produced paintings with rather dark greenish-brown colours .

In 1886, when he went to Paris to visit his brother Theo, he was immediately attracted to the Impressionist work he saw there. He decided to stay in Paris and continued his painting there. He was encouraged by Pissaro (Писсаро; 1830-1903; французский пейзажист) to use more colour in his pictures and his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful .

After Van Gogh had moved to Aries in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically (безумно, неистово). This frenzied (бешеная) activity, which was interrupted by bouts (приступ) of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings. One of these, which is called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, shows Van Gogh: he was wearing a bandage after he had cut off his own ear. A year later, in 1890, he committed suicide .

A lot is known about Van Gogh’s life and his feelings because of the hundreds of letters which were written by him to his brother Theo and others. Because his brother believed in Van Gogh’s genius, he always encouraged him in his work. He was the person closest to Van Gogh .

Example:

Born in Holland in 1853, Vincent Van Gogh is one of the world’s most famous painters .

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–  –  –

Exercise 62. Read and study the Adjectivized Participle .

o The adjectivized participle may be modified, like a real adjective, by adverbs of

degree, such as:

• very, greatly (очень; весьма, значительно, сильно, чрезвычайно), slightly (мало, незначительно, слегка; еле-еле), rather (до некоторой степени, слегка, довольно; несколько), exceedingly (весьма, очень, сильно, чрезвычайно), extremely (чрезвычайно, крайне, в высшей степени; очень), so, too, as, really, much, more, most, quite (довольно; почти, до некоторой степени), how, so…as, not so…as .

• very amusing - очень забавный

• too boring - слишком скучный

• not greatly bothered - не сильно обеспокоенный

• slightly associated - со слабой связью

• greatly impressed - очень поражен My job is too boring to discuss .

• The road was as deserted as ever. Дорога была такой же пустынной, как и всегда .

• I am naturally very disappointed. Естественно, что я очень разочарован .

• I was cold but too excited to mind it. Мне было холодно, но я был слишком возбужден, чтобы • обращать на это внимание .

Suddenly, looking rather alarmed, she rushed out of the room .

• Is Mrs. White really very excited?

• She is always so amusing .

• The result which he obtained proved to be most striking .

• They found his ideas very upsetting .

• His erect, rather forbidding (суровая, неприступная) figure made him look oldfashioned .

I’ve never been so deceived in a man as I was in George .

• If anyone lived there, he would be as scared as we were .

• I am very pleased with you .

• The children were too excited to notice the newcomer .

• No man has ever had a more devoted sister than I .

• The men ran out of the house, like schoolchildren frightened of being late .

• I was frightened, but I was even more frightened of showing my fear .

• I had always found him one of the most puzzling men. (puzzling - приводящий в замешательство; сбивающий с толк) I’m sure this must be a very embarrassing conversation for Barbara .

• o It should be mentioned that if participles were not adjectivized, they would form, with the verb ‘to be’, the Passive Voice. The participle proper (i.e. the participle which is not adjectivized) cannot be used predicatively .

o Note: Some adjectivized participles, however, can be modified, like verbs, by ‘very much’ or ‘much’. This may be accounted for by their verbal origin .

• If Tom expected her to rush into his arms, he was very much mistaken .

• In a day or two the answer came back that he was very much opposed to the whole scheme .

o Note:

- Some participles have lost the idea of action and have become adjectives:

interesting, charming, alarming, amusing, boring, promising, coming, etc., complicated, distinguished, furnished, etc .

• an interesting book, a charming girl (=a very nice girl), the alarming news, an amusing story (=an interesting, funny story), a boring guest (=a dull guest), a promising writer (=a talented young writer), coming (будущий, грядущий, предстоящий);

a complicated problem (запутанный вопрос, сложная проблема), a distinguished writer (выдающийся писатель), a furnished apartment (меблированная комната) .

• The air was full of coming rain .

• Mr. Talbox started on a tour in view of the coming election .

o In some adjectives the ending -ed is normally pronounced [id] as in:

an aged parent (aged - пожилой, старый, престарелый) • a crooked path (crooked [krukid] - изогнутый, кривой; непрямой, нечестный), • a learned professor (learned [l nid] - учёный, эрудированный; знающий, сведущий, хорошо информированный) a naked man (naked - голый, нагой; обнажённый) • ragged and shapeless sentences - корявые, нескладные предложения, (ragged [rgid] зазубренный; шероховатый; с рваными краями; рваный, изорванный (в клочья); поношенный; оборванный, одетый в лохмотья (о человеке); shapeless – бесформенный, плохо выстроенный (о литературном произведении) a wicked witch (wicked – [wikid] злой, злобный; безнравственный) • o There are compound adjectives in English which are formed with a participle

following a noun, adverb, or another adjective, and connected by a hyphen:

a horse-drawn cart - повозка на конной тяге • a self-employed author - занятый собственным делом, работающий не по найму • a tree-lined avenue - дорога/аллея к дому, обсаженная деревьями • a grey-haired man - седоволосый человек • a fair-haired boy - светловолосый мальчик • a dark-eyed woman - темноглазая женщина • an entirely-forgotten song - совершенно забытая песня • a newly-hired servant - недавно нанятый слуга • a highly-educated person - высокообразованный человек • middle-aged woman - женщина средних лет • a long-playing record - долгоиграющая пластинка • a long-suffering patient – долготерпеливый/многострадальный пациент • a time-consuming job - отнимающая много времени/связанный с тратой времени/ требующий большого расхода времени/трудоёмкая работа a hard-working student - трудолюбивый, прилежный, работящий, усердный студент • a good-looking girl - привлекательная; красивая девушка • a pleasant-looking child - приятный; милый, симпатичный; славный ребенок • a tired-looking woman - усталая, утомлённая женщина • nice-looking people - привлекательные люди • at breath-taking speed - на умопомрачительной скорости • a breathtaking view - захватывающий, изумительный, поразительный, потрясающий, • удивительный, умопомрачительный, бесподобный, фантастический вид/пейзаж an English-speaking driver in Paris - англоговорящий водитель в Париже • a mind-reading dog - собака, читающая мысли • o Many compound adjectives can be formed with ‘well-’ and ‘badly-’ .

o Similarly, ‘ill-’ and ‘poorly-’ combine with some past participles .

a well-dressed person - хорошо одетый или одевающийся человек • a well-read person - начитанный человек (in), сведущий в (ч-л.), обладающий обширными знаниями (в какой-л. области) a well-known writer - известный писатель • well-built - хорошо построенный (о доме, городе); крепкий; хорошо сложённый (о человеке) a well-paid job - хорошо/высоко оплачиваемая работа • a well-behaved boy - послушный (о ребёнке); благонравный, хорошего поведения; соблюдающий приличия a well-done translation - хорошо выполненный перевод • a badly-done translation - плохо сделанный перевод • a badly-made chair - плохо сделанный стул/кресло • a well-made novel - роман с хорошо выстроенной фабулой • well-made - пропорциональный, соразмерный, хорошо сложённый (о человеке) • poorly-educated - плохо образованный; well-educated - хорошо образованный • ill-informed – неосведомлённый; well-informed - хорошо осведомлённый; знающий • ill-advised - неразумный, неблагоразумный; неосмотрительный, опрометчивый • You would be ill-advised not to invite both of them. Ты поступишь неблагоразумно, • если не пригласишь их обоих .

You would be ill-advised to sell your house now. Ты поступишь неблагоразумно, если продашь дом сейчас .

o Some compound adjectives are -ed words that look like participles although

they are formed from nouns:

• cross-eyed - косоглазый, косой

• open-minded - широких взглядов; отзывчивый, восприимчивый (к новым идеям, веяниям); объективный, непредвзятый; непредубеждённый an open-minded opinion - непредвзятое мнение • hard-hearted - жестокосердный; бесчувственный; чёрствый, нечуткий, бездушный • quick-witted - находчивый, понятливый, смышлёный, сообразительный • good-natured - добродушный, добрый • ill-natured - злобный; недоброжелательный; грубый • I hope it will be a money-making enterprise. Я надеюсь, это будет прибыльное предприятие .

They are well-behaved children. Они послушные дети .

• The newly-built ship is on its maiden voyage. У вновь построенного корабля - первое • плавание/первый рейс .

A worried-looking lawyer left the court. Взволнованный адвокат покинул суд .

• We walked past an evil-smelling pond. Мы прошли мимо дурнопахнущего/зловонного • пруда .

A slow-moving lorry was causing the delays. Медленно-двигающийся грузовик задерживал движение .

• Notice that we can use some participle adjectives only when they are used in this

pattern. For example, we can’t say:

‘...a making enterprise’, ‘...behaved children’, or ‘...a built ship’ as the sense is incomplete without the adverb or noun .

Exercise 63. Rewrite these sentences using a compound adjective which includes a participle .

1. The town in which I grew up made cars. … I grew up in a car-making town…

2. We hired a design team based in Singapore. …We hired.. .

3. Her performance at the Olympic Games broke a number of records. …It was a... .

4. The public square was lined with trees. …The public square.. .

These are a little more difficult. Can you suggest answers?

5. Tom is a builder who works for himself. … Tom is a... .

6. The new ‘Aircap’ is a device that saves a lot of effort and time. … The new ‘Aircap’ is... .

7. The dispute had been going on for a long time. … It was a.... .

8. The consequences of the proposals will have a great influence on many people .

… The consequences of the proposals are... .

Dangling Participle = Misrelated Participle (неправильно соотнесенное причастие) = Illogical Participial Modifier Exercises Exercise 64. Read and study Dangling Participle .

Placement: If a Participial Phrase is used in a sentence as an attribute or an adverbial modifier, it must be correctly related: used as an attribute, it should be placed immediately after the word it modifies. In the adverbial function the Participle should have logically the same subject as the predicate of the whole sentence. Misrelated Participles are a very bad mistake in English .

Compare:

Illogical: Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. (the sentence is wrong) Correct: Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step. (= While he was carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.) In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in the participle ‘carrying’. Certainly ‘foot’ can’t be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is an example of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the participial phrase) is not modifying any specific noun in the sentence and is thus left “dangling”. Since a person must be doing ‘the carrying’ for the sentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun that refers to a person must be in the place immediately after the participial phrase, as in the second sentence. (dangling висящий, свисающий, болтающийся) Illogical: Guiding us through the museum, a special explanation was given by the director .

Correct: Guiding us through the museum, the director gave us a special explanation. (= While the director was guiding us through the museum, he gave us a special explanation.) Illogical: Having apprehended the hijackers, they were whisked off to FBI headquarters by the security guards .

Correct: Having apprehended the hijackers, the security guards whisked them off to FBI headquarters. (= After the security guards had apprehended the hijackers, they whisked them off to FBI headquarters.) or: Having been apprehended, the hijackers were whisked off to FBI headquarters by the security guards. (After the hijackers had been apprehended, they were whisked off to FBI headquarters.) [to apprehend - арестовывать, задерживать; hijacker - угонщик самолёта; воздушный пират; to whisk off - быстро увозить; FBI - от Federal Bureau of Investigation - ФБР, Федеральное бюро расследований (США); headquarters - главное управление, центр; security guard - конвоир, охранник; телохранитель] Remember that the noun appearing after the comma must be the logical subject of the ‘verb + ing’ .

Exercise 65. Following the examples given above, correct these illogical participial modifiers. You may have to reword the principal clause and add a subject .

1. Being thoroughly dissatisfied with the picture, it was hidden in the closet .

2. Seeing the advancing army, all valuables were hidden under the stair well .

3. Plunging into the water, the drowning child was rescued .

4. Criticizing the defendant for his cruel behavior, the sentence was handed down by the judge .

5. After painting the car, it was given to the man’s wife by the man .

6. Being an early riser, it was easy for Edna to adjust to her company’s new summer schedule .

7. After winning the tennis match, the victory made Nancy jump for joy .

8. Having wandered through the mountain passes for days, an abandoned shack (хижина, хибара) where they could take shelter was discovered by the hikers .

9. Being very protective of its young, all those who approach the nest are attacked by the mother eagle .

10. Before playing ball, a two-minute period of silence was observed by the baseball players for their recently deceased teammate .

11. Before singing the school song, a poem was recited by the students .

12. Moaning with pain, a young doctor examined the victim .

13. When using the device, it must be remembered that it may be dangerous .

14. Getting up at five, an early start was possible for us .

15. Having been told to do it, there was not a moment to lose .

16. Starting out as an army officer, they frequently transferred Karen’s father .

17. Facing college standards, it was clear for the students that they hadn’t worked hard enough in high school .

18. Being asked for her opinion, her face blushed .

19. Coming along the street, an idea struck me .

–  –  –

Feeling tired, I went to bed early .

• Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed .

• Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles .

• Starting out as an army officer, Karen's father was frequently transferred .

• o (2) If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence .

Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep .

• The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt • Applicants must investigate various colleges, learning as much as possible about • them, before applying for admission .

Mrs. Sears, showing more bravery than wisdom, invited thirty boys and girls to a •

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o (3) If the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used .

The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special • award. (grade point average – GPA - средний балл) The guy wearing the white costume is my cousin .

• The crying boy angered by the bully began to fight. (bully - задира, забияка; хулиган, драчун) The student left in charge of the class was unable to keep order .

• o (4) If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifies an earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies .

Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence. (The phrase modifies • ‘Tom’, not ‘woman’.) The stars hung low over their heads, glaring brightly down .

• The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets. (The phrase modifies ‘Ken’, not ‘residents’.) Predicative Constructions with the Participle

In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the Participle:

The Objective Participial Construction The Subjective Participial Construction The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction

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Function: Complex Object The Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. In Russian it usually corresponds to a subordinate object clause .

I saw him crossing the street. Я видел, что он переходит улицу.•

(‘him crossing’ is the Objective Participial Construction, it is used in the function of a complex object. The participle ‘crossing’ is in predicate relation to the pronoun ‘he’ which is in the objective case - ‘him’; ‘him’ is the doer of the action expressed by the participle ‘crossing’.)

• Note: In many cases, however, the translation depends on the verb it refers to and on the requirements of the Russian usage .

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• (1) after the verbs denoting sense perception, such as:

to see, to hear, to feel, to watch наблюдать, to notice замечать, обращать внимание, to observe наблюдать, следить, to perceive воспринимать, ощущать, понимать, осознавать, to overhear подслушивать, to imagine воображать, понимать, представлять себе, to smell чувствовать запах; пахнуть, иметь запах, нюхать I saw John playing tennis. Я видел, как Джон играет в теннис .

• We heard them singing. Мы слышали, как они поют .

• She felt the tears coming into her eyes .

• I watched him leaving the house .

• Did you notice anyone standing at the gate?

• We observed the accused man entering the bank .

• I was still looking after him when I perceived Florence approaching .

• Can you imagine me becoming a teacher? Ты можешь себе представить, что я стану учителем?

I can smell something burning .

• • (2) after the verbs: to listen to, to catch заставать; обнаруживать, to find находить; заставать, to keep вынуждать, заставлять (к-л ч-л делать), to leave оставлять, to discover узнавать, обнаруживать, находить We opened the door for a moment and looked out at the windy night and listened • to the trees groaning .

Father was supposed to be working, but when I came in I caught him napping. Я • думал, что отец работает, но когда вошел, то застал его спящим .

When he arrived, he found the boy reading .

• Don’t keep me waiting. I’m in a hurry .

• They left me waiting outside .

• • (3) after the verbs of causative meaning: to have довести до, заставить, добиться, won’t have не допущу, не позволю, can’t have не допущу, не позволю (we refer to circumstances we are not prepared to tolerate), to get … going взяться за дело, начать действовать, заставить, to set довести до, заставить, to start запускать; пускать в ход; вводить в действие He had us laughing. Он смешил нас. (Он заставлял нас смеяться.) • I’ll have you swimming in a week. Ты у меня будешь плавать через неделю. (Я сделаю так, • что ты будешь плавать через неделю) .

I won’t have them speaking like that about your father. Я не допущу, чтобы они так • говорили о вашем отце .

We can’t have him teasing the child. Мы не позволим ему дразнить ребенка .

• She got all her guests going the moment she felt sleepy. Она заставила всех своих гостей уйти, как только ей захотелось спать .

My joke set everybody laughing .

• Please, help me to start these mechanisms working .

• Can you start that engine going?

• Note 1: Cf. somebody doing – somebody do o I saw him crossing the street. (the -ing form generally refers to an action in progress.) I saw him cross the street. (= I saw the action from beginning to end.) o I saw him running. Я видел, как он бежал (Я видел его бегущим) .

Cf. I saw him run. Я видел, как он пробежал .

o I watched a pavement-artist drawing a portrait in crayons. (i.e. the action was probably in progress when I arrived) I watched a pavement-artist draw a portrait in crayons. (i.e. I saw the action from beginning to end) (crayon - цветной карандаш; мелок (белый или цветной) o I heard someone unlock the door/unlocking the door. (Either the bare infinitive or ing form can describe a short action.) o I could hear him cough. (once) Cf. I could hear him coughing. (repeatedly) (We do not use -ing form for very short actions.) o The crowd watched the fireman climb the ladder, break a window on the first floor, and enter the building .

(For a series of actions, we prefer the bare infinitive.) Если некоторое законченное действие воспринималось с начала и до конца, то обычно употребляется конструкция с инфинитивом без частицы ‘to’ .

•I saw him cross the street. Я видел, как он перешел улицу .

•We watched him draw the portrait. Мы наблюдали, как он нарисовал портрет .

Если важно, что некоторое действие, необязательно законченное, воспринимается (воспринималось) в его развитии, то употребляется конструкция с Present Participle:

•I saw him crossing the street. Я видел, как он переходил улицу .

Note 2:

The passive -ing form (being done) may also be used though it is not very common. Its reference is the same as that of the active voice. (Сложное дополнение при глаголе восприятия может содержать причастие настоящего времени страдательного залога (being done) .

(The passive -ing form but not the passive infinitive can follow a verb of perception.) o I saw him being taken away by the policeman. Я видел, как его уводил полицейский .

o I could hear furniture being smashed .

o I noticed Rubin being shouted at hilariously (весёло, шумно) by Sammikins .

o “Have my wild flowers been watered this afternoon?” Joanna said. “Freddie, did you see them being watered at all? (wild flowers - полевые цветы)

Note 3:

Конструкции to have somebody doing something и to have somebody do something употребляются в значении ‘заставить кого-либо делать что-то; сделать так, чтобы некоторое событие произошло (происходило)’ .

Isn’t it funny to have me writing to you a letter when I see you every day?

• You should have the doctor look at your ear. Ты должен показать свое ухо доктору (Ты должен сделать так, чтобы доктор посмотрел твое ухо) .

The teacher had us call out seven random words. Учитель попросил нас произнести • семь произвольных слов .

Конструкции won’t have somebody doing something и won’t have somebody do something употребляются в значении ‘не допущу’ .

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Exercise 66. Point out the Objective Participial Construction with Participle I. State the syntactical function and translate the sentences into Russian .

1. I saw him running across the field. (‘him running’ is the Objective Participial Construction in the function of a Complex Object.)

2. I looked up and saw him watching my reflection in the looking-glass. 3. When Mary opened her eyes, she saw Nina standing by her side. 4. Have you ever seen him playing football? 5. I saw him taking the book. 6. Then he looked out of the window and saw clouds gathering. 7. We saw the troops marching along the road. 8. As soon as I was outside the door, I heard her talking to herself. 9. She heard her heart beating. 10. We heard the door closing. 11. I heard the people exchanging their impressions of the play. 12. I have never heard them speaking English. 13. I heard the visitor walking restlessly (постоянно, с беспокойством) backwards and forwards. 14. Then in the complete silence of the night he heard somebody opening the door quietly. 15. As I was looking this over, I heard the doors which led on to the main corridor being opened. 16. As I looked out at the garden, I heard a motor-truck (грузовой автомобиль) starting on the road. 17. I’ve never heard you talking like this about him. 18. I felt him looking at me now and again. 19. He felt the bridge shaking under his feet. 20. The woman stood at the door and watched the children playing. 21. At that moment I noticed Charles sitting a little farther in the hall. 22. I can’t imagine her cooking. 23. Do you smell something burning? 24 I found the child crying bitterly. 25. When he arrived, he found me reading a book. 26. He found Dora reading a novel in their bedroom. 26 We’ll keep the old house going somehow. 27. Don’t shout. You will have the neighbours complaining. 28. One afternoon in August I saw something that surprised me and set me thinking. 29. What has set the dog barking? 30. You words set me thinking. 31. They soon got (started) things going. 32. He won’t have them going out so late .

Exercise 67. Re-word these sentences so as to use the Objective Participial Construction with Participle I .

Pattern: He could feel that his heart was throbbing weakly. He could feel his heart throbbing weakly. (to throb-сильно биться)

1. It was a black day when London heard how the enemy was bombarding Chatham. (Chatham – Чатем, город в Великобритании, графство Кент, Англия) 2. In the evenings I used to hear how he was playing passages of his own compositions. 3. He saw that drinks were being served an hour after the permitted hours. 4. They noticed that the two small children were playing in the yard. 5. The flight attendant watched how the passengers were climbing the ramp. (ramp=boarding ramp-посадочный трап) 6. They heard how the public-address system announced it was necessary to fasten the safety-belts. 7. He felt how the plane was losing altitude on the approach to the aerodrome 8. I noticed that you were looking at the drawings upstairs. 9. He was allowed to watch how the instruments were being prepared for the operation .

Exercise 68. Use Participle I of the verbs in brackets to form a Complex Object:

Pattern: A moment later they heard her bedroom door (to shut) with a bang. A moment later they heard her bedroom door shutting with a bang .

1. She watched him (to work) for a long time. 2. I’ve never heard your canary (to sing). Is there anything the matter with the bird? 3. She watched him (to pass) the gate and (to walk) down the street. 4. Through the chink (щель) in the shutters (ставни;

мн. жалюзи) she watched Emma (to pick) cherries in the orchard. 5. You can see him (to work) in his little garden every day. 6. She had never heard philosophy (to pass) those lips before. 7. Together they watched the old oak (to drop) its leaves. 8. He found them (to sit) together and (to talk) peacefully. They did not notice him (to approach). 9. He felt the water (to reach) his knees. 10. She felt her voice (to tremble) and tried to control herself. 11. We saw him (to open) the envelope and (to read) something hastily. 12. I saw him (to unfold) the telegram slowly and hesitatingly (нерешительно) as though he expected it to contain some bad news. 13. He heard the young people (to sing) and (to shout) from the opposite bank .

Exercise 69. Use the Objective Participial Construction instead of the Russian subordinate clause with Participle I .

1. Once in the plane he saw (как его жена и дети махали ему на прощание) .

2. Those who stayed outside watched (как самолет набирал скорость) .

3. It is very pleasant to find (что эти проблемы обсуждаются в вашем журнале) .

4. They were surprised to hear (что письмо читали уже второй раз) .

5. They observed (как он осторожно входил в комнату) .

Exercise 70. Answer the questions using Participle I as part of a complex object:

1. Did you hear voices calling for help? 2. Did you notice anyone standing at the gate? 3. Did you hear them calling each other names? 4. You don’t like to see animals being treated cruelly, do you? 5. Can you smell something burning? 6. Did you see Mary looking into a shop window? 7. Did they leave you waiting outside? 8. Did you see them being carried off by the police? 9. Did the news leave you wondering what would happen next?

Exercise 71. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English

1. Он наблюдал, как люди торопились к поездам. 2. Он слышал, как течет вода .

(to flow) 3. Он видел, что я смотрел на фотографию. 4. Он нашел/обнаружил Фокса разговаривающим в кухне. (to find; Fох) 5. Я видел, что Джон играет в теннис .

6. Она открыла окно и наблюдала, как ее дети играли в саду. 7. В детстве я часто слышал, как моя мать пела эту песню. 8. Кто-нибудь видел, как он уходил? 9 .

Я застал его в слезах. (to find) 10. Она спала, когда я уходил. (to leave) 11. Мы видели, как он искал что-то на земле. (on the ground) 12. Он заметил, что кто-то следит за ним и, поняв это, решил изменить свой путь. 13. Я никогда не слышала, как он говорит по-английски. 14. Я никогда не видел, как вы танцуете. 15. Вы слышите, что я к вам обращаюсь? 16. Я не слышала, что он задавал мне вопрос. 17 .

Я не заметила, как поезд тронулся. 18. Они наблюдали, как мальчики прыгали в воду. 19. Не беспокойтесь. Я добьюсь, чтобы она все делала как надо. (to have)

20. Я не могу представить, чтобы она варила или шила. 21. Джон не хотел оказаться играющим роль учителя. (to find oneself) 22. Он видел, как Артур наливал себе чашку кофе. (to pour) 23. Он чувствовал, как у него дрожали руки. 24. Когда Жорж увидел, как Том пересекал улицу, он помахал ему рукой. 25. Полли работала в саду и не слышала, как звонил телефон. 26. Ты когда-нибудь видел, как они играют в шахматы.27. Я вздрогнул (to start), когда почувствовал, как кто-то прикоснулся к моему плечу. 28. Стены нашего дома очень тонкие, и я слышу, как соседка играет на пианино .

Exercise 72. Say that you won’t allow them to do it .

Моdel: to do it I won’t (can’t) have you doing it. Я не допущу, чтобы вы делали это .

Prompts: to force your views on everyone else, to take away reference books from the study, to tell lies, to cheat at the lesson, to miss your lessons, to put off till tomorrow what you can do today, to speak to me in such a tone, to be rude to me, to act unwisely, to keep bad companies .

Exercise 73. Have a talk with your instructor .

Model: to swim How long will it take me to learn to swim? - I’ll have you swimming by the end of the next month. Сколько времени мне потребуется, чтобы научиться плавать? - Ты у меня будешь плавать к концу следующего месяца. (Я сделаю так, что ты будешь плавать к концу следующего месяца./Я добьюсь, что ты будешь …) Prompts: to skate, to dance, to dive, to sail, to ski, to write shorthand, to type, to cook, to play the flute, to speak English, to knit .

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a) after the verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch I have never heard him spoken of badly. Я никогда не слышал, чтобы о нем плохо отзывались .

Have you ever heard this opera sung in Italian? Ты когда-нибудь слышал, чтобы эту • оперу пели по-итальянски?

Despite himself Maurice felt his attention caught .

• I felt myself seized round the neck from behind. Я почувствовал, как кто-то сзади схватил меня за шею. (After ‘feel’ the object is often a reflexive pronoun)

b) to find, to leave, to keep She found the picture damaged .

• On arriving at the cottage she found it locked .

• He was annoyed to find his door unlocked. Он забеспокоился, обнаружив, что дверь была не заперта .

We have left the things undone .

c) after the verbs of mental activity: to think, to believe, to consider, to understand I consider myself engaged to Mr. Brown. Я считаю себя помолвленной с мистером • Брауном .

Some people I met during that period thought themselves destined to become historical figures .

And yet, no one can believe himself utterly foredoomed (обречен). (to foredoom - предрешать (судьбу), предопределять; обрекать на что-л.)

d) after the verbs denoting wish: to want, to wish, to desire, to prefer, would like

• I want it done quickly. Я хочу, чтобы это было сделано быстро .

• Be careful washing those glasses! I don’t want them broken .

• None of their community desired him deceived like that. Никто из их круга не испытывал желания, чтобы его так обманули .

If he is good, we ought to take him. But I would like that proved .

e) after the verbs of causative meaning: to have, to get, to make, won’t have не допущу, не позволю, can’t have не допущу, не позволю I had my tooth pulled out yesterday. (= My tooth was pulled out.) • You should have your blood pressure tested .

• You’ll never guess where I had the suit made .

• They had coffee brought out into the garden after lunch .

• I got the piano tuned. (= I made someone tune the piano.) • As I was busy finishing the article, I got the new fellow sent instead of me .

• I couldn’t make myself heard .

• I had been thinking of some way of escaping but the thought of their chasing me • made me frightened .

I won’t have him spoken to like that. Я не допущу/не позволю, чтобы с ним разговаривали • таким образом .

I can’t have my friend laughed at .

Notes:

o to have something done o to get something done After the verbs to have and to get the Objective Participial Construction shows that the action expressed by the participle is performed at the request of the person denoted by the subject of the sentence .

We had/got the car delivered to the airport. (= it was delivered) • While I was in Singapore, I had/got my eyes tested. (= they were tested) • (Got in this pattern is normally only used in conversation and informal writing.) I had my coat altered. Я переделала пальто (т.е. поручила кому-то переделать его) .

• In interrogative and negative sentences the auxiliary verb to do is used (in the

Present Indefinite Tense):

When did you have your hair done? – I had my hair done yesterday .

• Why don’t you have your hair waved? Почему вы не завьетесь (не сделаете завивку? – I • don’t usually have my hair waved .

Have you ever had your hair waved? Вы когда-нибудь делали завивку?

• In colloquial English the verb to have may be substituted by to have got .

• He has got his country house painted inside and out .

Non-causative ‘have’ and ‘get’ can be used for accidents, disasters, etc. that happen beyond our control or if it is clear that the person referred to in the subject of the

sentence is not responsible for or has no control over what happens:

In informal speech some people use get in sentences like this .

King Charles had his head cut off .

• I’ve recently had my appendix removed .

• She had her house destroyed in an earthquake .

• They had their car broken into again .

• Don’t join in their argument or you might get your nose punched. (i.e. that’s what • might happen to you.) (to punch - нанести удар кулаком) Sue got her fingers trapped in the bicycle chain. (= Sue trapped her fingers) • Though ‘have’ and ‘get’ are often used interchangeably; in the causative ‘get’ is more limited .

But even if you work hard, it takes a long time to write a novel. And you have to • get it published .

How did she get herself invited?

• ‘Get’ is stronger than ‘have’ .

We use ‘get’ when we say that the person referred to in the subject of the sentence does something themselves, causes what happens, perhaps accidentally, or is to

blame for it:

I’ll get the house cleaned if you cook the dinner. (= I’ll clean the house) • I must get this car serviced soon .

• With ‘get’ there is a suggestion of difficulty, which would not be conveyed by ‘had’ .

I finally got my roof repaired .

• Do you have time to get the car washed this morning? У тебя есть время с утра съездить помыть машину? (to get- сделать; вызывать некоторое действие) ‘Get’ sounds more natural than ‘have’ in the imperatives:

• Get your hair cut!

• Get your eyes tested!

In suggestion with: Why don’t you…?, ‘get’ is much stronger than ‘have’:

Why don’t you have your hair cut? (neutral suggestion) • Why don’t you get your hair cut? (almost an order) •

We prefer have if we want to focus on the result of the action rather than the action itself:

I’ll have the house cleaned by the time you get home .

• Sue had her fingers trapped in the bike chain for half an hour .

• We use won’t have or will not have = не допущу, не позволю, ( not get) if we want to

say that we won’t allow something to happen to someone or something:

I won’t have my name dragged through the dirt by the press .

• Once and for all, Salter, I will not have a barrier erected between me and my •

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Notice that the word order is important. Compare:

• We had the car delivered to the airport. (=Someone else delivered the car) and

• We had delivered the car to the airport. (= Past Perfect; we delivered the car)

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Exercise 74. Point out the Objective Participial Construction with Participle II .

State the syntactical function and translate the sentences into Russian .

1. I saw Jane addressed by a stranger. (‘Jane addressed’ is the Objective Participial Construction in the function of a Complex Object.)

2. I heard my name mentioned. 3. Turning into Green Street, she heard her name called. 4. I haven’t heard the piece played before. 5. Despite himself, Maurice felt his attention caught. 6. Mrs. Mooney watched the table cleared and the broken bread collected. 7. I found the texts published. 8. I found the article typed. 9. They found the door locked. 10. I found her dressed for the party. 11. We found the village burnt to the ground. 12. Bernard found himself compelled to read and give his opinion on one or two books. 13. We consider the boat lost. 14. I want these letters typed at once. 15 .

I want to have my photo taken. 16. He did not want his name mentioned. 17. He wanted the article translated. 18. I want my article published. 19. He wants his watch mended. 20. I want it done as soon as possible. 21. I want my photo taken. 22. I would like it done right away. 23. The speaker made himself heard with the help of a microphone. 24. I have my shoes cleaned every morning. 25. Where does she have her dresses made? 26. I’d like my house painted. 27. You should have your chest Xrayed. 28. But what if he had his money stolen? 29. But this friend of yours looks odd to me and he gets himself talked about .

Exercise 75. Point out the Complex Object with Participle II. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. He had his luggage sent to the station. (‘luggage sent’ is a Complex Object with Participle II expressed by the Objective Participial Construction.)

2. How often do you have your carpets cleaned? 3. Have you got your watch repaired? 4. We decided to have our photos taken after the final exam. 5. Get the rooms dusted and aired by the time they arrive. 6. I haven’t had my nails polished yet. 7. I’m having a new dress made. 8. He thought it necessary to have the ceiling of the room whitewashed. 9. I have to have my shoes cleaned every morning. 10. I must have my dress altered. 11. Why don’t you have your shoes mended? 12. When did you have your hair waved? 13. She had the drawing-room redecorated. 14. I had my room papered. (i.e. somebody papered the room for me.) 15. We have just had our house decorated. 16. You’ll never guess where I had my suit made. 17. I had (got) the job done .

(someone else did it) 18. I do not intend to have my professional reputation compromised. 19. I’d like my photo taken.20. I was pleased to get the dress cleaned. 21. She was eager to get her room papered.22. I must have my hair washed .

Exercise 76. Complete the sentences with an object from (a) and the past participle form of one of the verbs in (b), as in l. (Complex Object with Participle II)

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1 It was disappointing to see … the team beaten … by weaker opposition .

2 She wants …... in the gallery, but we don’t think they’d be very popular .

3 I want …… before I can go very far .

4 We heard …... on the radio a few years ago .

5 I’d like …... before I get home from work. It’s in a terrible mess .

6 She felt …... by the wind and thrown to the ground .

Exercise 77. Change the following sentences by using the pattern with ‘have smth done’ instead of the pattern with the Passive Voice .

Example:

o My radio set was repaired. I had my radio set repaired .

o Mr West’s clothes must be cleaned. Mr. West must have his clothes cleaned .

o Where can my umbrella be mended? Where can I have my umbrella mended?

1. My suit was cleaned last month .

2. Mary’s nails will be manicured before the concert .

3. Nora’s carpets were beaten before the birthday party .

4. Mr. West’s article was translated into French .

5. Mr. Brown’s advertisement was printed in the newspaper .

6. Their luggage was brought to their room .

7. Peter’s hair must be cut .

8. Roger’s bicycle must be repaired .

9. His bad tooth must be pulled out .

10. Mr. Green’s house must be painted .

11. I should like my suit to be pressed .

12. I should like the ticket to be delivered to the hotel .

13. A new fence was made around Mr. West’s garden .

14. When was your car painted?

15. Would you like your parcel to be wrapped?

16. Would you like this parcel to be sent to your house?

17. Where can my suit be cleaned?

18. Where can my car be repaired?

19. Where can my shoes be polished?

20. Has your refrigerator been repaired?

21. When will a telephone be installed in your flat?

Exercise 78. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using The Objective participial construction (with participle II) .

1. Я никогда не видела, как это делают. 2. Мы слышали, как сигнал повторился .

3. Она слышала, как назвали её фамилию. 4. Я не хочу, чтобы для него перевели эту статью. 5. Она не хочет записывать свой голос на пленку. 6. Он не хотел, чтобы его портрет нарисовали. 7. Я хочу, чтобы все было сделано сегодня. 8. Я хочу, чтобы статья была напечатана сегодня. 9. Вы хотите, чтобы письмо было написано сегодня? 10. Мы нашли его сильно изменившимся. 11. Он оказался в положении человека, о котором все говорят. (to find oneself; to talk about) 12. Когда вам оклеили комнату обоями? (to paper the room)13. Все эти годы я хранил их письма под замком. (to keep; to lock) 14. Он был полон решимости заставить уважать себя. (to make) 15. Мне чинят ботинки в этой мастерской. (to mend; in this shop) 16. Я переделала свое зимнее пальто. (to alter) 17. Вам уже побелили потолок? (to whitewash the ceiling)18. Ты должен подстричься. 19. Я должен почистить свои ботинки .

(to clean one’s shoes) 20. Она сшила себе новое платье. 21. Где вам сшили это платье? 22. Где вам починили велосипед? (to repair a bicycle) 23. Вы починили часы? (to mend a watch) Exercise 79. Here are some verbs commonly used in the pattern get/have something done. Do you know what they mean? Read and translate .

get/have a prescription filled = take a prescription (a piece of paper on which a doctor writes the details of a medicine needed) to a chemist and exchange it for medicine get/have something fixed = repaired get/have a job costed = have someone calculate how much a job will cost get/have something overhauled (отремонтированный) = examine something in detail (e.g. machinery, plans) and repair or improve them if necessary get/have your house done up = repaired or made to look more attractive get/have your hair permed = have your hair made curly using chemicals (to cost-costed-costed - назначать цену, определять цену; рассчитывать стоимость (чего-л.); расценивать (товар) We’ll get the plan costed before presenting it to the board. Прежде чем представлять этот план правлению, мы рассчитаем стоимость его осуществления.) Exercise 80. Re-word these sentences using ‘have (or get) + the Objective Participial Construction’ .

1. Mr. Jackson decided to hire a builder to build him a garage. Mr. Jackson decided to have a garage built .

2. The boy took his exercise to the teacher and asked him to correct it .

3. Can’t you take this tea-pot back to the shop and ask them to change it?

4. This is a good story. You ought to ask somebody to print it .

5. Her winter coat looks very shabby. She must ask somebody to alter it .

6. My sweater is quite dirty. Could you ask somebody to wash it?

7. Jane’s watch gains. She ought to go to the watchmaker’s and ask them to clean the watch .

Exercise 81. Ask your friend when it took place .

Pattern: When did John have his appendix removed? He had his appendix removed three days ago .

Prompts: to have their photograph taken (yesterday), to have their house painted (last year), to have her bag stolen (two days ago), to have all our windows broken by hooligans (last week), to have his leg amputated (in 2010), to have the house broken into by the thieves (the day before yesterday), to have her medicine prepared (an hour ago), to have my eyes tested (two months ago), to have a street named after him (in 1987), to have the matter seen to (yesterday), to have his car repaired (a fortnight ago), to have your blood pressure tested (two hours ago) .

Exercise 82. Complete these sentences using had/got + it + past participle as in 1 .

Select from the verbs below and use each word once only. In these sentences you can use either had or got .

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1. Karen’s car wasn’t starting well and seemed to be using too much petrol so … he had/got it serviced. …

2. Peter bought a new bed, but couldn’t fit it in his car so … .

3. The poster Sue had brought back from Brazil was getting damaged so … .

4. In the storm the roof was blown off our shed and a wall fell down so … .

5. Janet spilt coffee on her silk dress. It couldn't be washed by hand, so … .

6. I needed a copy of my driving licence for my insurance company so … .

7. When Bill’s watch broke, he decided he couldn’t afford to buy a new one, so … .

8. Our bedroom was in a mess, with the wallpaper and paint peeling off, so … .

Exercise 83. Complete these sentences with the most likely form of have or get. Give possible alternatives .

1. Carl had food poisoning and had to … his stomach pumped .

2. She left the lights on overnight and in the morning couldn’t … the car started .

3. We always … the car cleaned by the children who live next door .

4. When they … it explained to them again, the students could understand the point of the experiment .

5. I won’t … my valuable time taken up with useless meetings!

6. We … the painting valued by an expert at over $20,000 .

7. When he tried to tidy up his desk, he … all his papers mixed up .

8. I won’t … Richard criticised like that when he’s not here to defend himself .

Exercise 84. Translate the following into English using The Objective Participial

Construction (Complex Object with Participle II):

1. Мне пришлось прождать два часа в больнице, чтобы мне запломбировали зуб. (to have) 2. Я слышал, как в связи с этим упоминалось его имя. (to hear) 3 .

Она с шумом задвинула ящик стола. (to slam) 4. Я оставил жену вполне обеспеченной. (to leave; to provide for) 5. Все эти годы я хранил их письма под замком. (to keep) 6. Он был полон решимости заставить уважать себя. (to make) 7. Я не мог допустить, чтобы моего единственного сына исключили (to expell from) из колледжа. (to have) 8. Когда они подошли к дому, они увидели оставленный перед ним “Бьюик”. (Buick - марка легкового авто фирмы “General Motors Corp.”) (to see) 9 .

Ты мог бы добиться, чтобы его уволили. (to get) 10. Ему было досадно, когда он услышал, что имя его жены упоминается перед незнакомым человеком. (to hear)

11. Было тяжело видеть его побежденным. (to see) 12. Я полагаю, что у твоей матери все цыплята были пересчитаны каждый вечер. (to have) 13. О чем ты хочешь меня предупредить? - О том, что ты окажешься в положении человека, о котором все говорят. (to find oneself) 14. Он сказал ей, что нельзя заполнить бланк без предварительного заявления. (to have) 15. Если бы он сделал это, он мог бы оказаться отрезанным от своей семьи. (to find oneself) 16. Я знал, что могу ему помочь только, если буду держать язык за зубами. (to keep) 17. В нашем доме невозможно добиться, чтобы что-нибудь было сделано. (to get) 18. Они хотели, чтобы комитет был созван (to convene) в понедельник. (to want) 19. Мы хотим, чтобы кое о чем была договоренность. (to get) 20. Он видел, что в плане их общественного положения ученые были разделены на две неравные группы .

(to see)

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Exercise 85. Point out the Objective Participial Constructions (with Participle I and Participle II.) Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. I fancied I could hear a baby screaming. (‘a baby screaming’ is the Objective Participial Construction (with Participle I) in the function of a Complex Object.)

2. She doesn’t want her sister worried. (‘sister worried’ is the Objective Participial Construction (with Participle II) in the function of a Complex Object.)

3. I found myself wondering about what he was going to do. 4. You must get him attended to at once! 5. People who had come on a late train slowed their cars to see the Weeds being photographed for their Christmas card. 7. I won’t have you staying in a hotel. 8. Jane watched her grandmother and her aunt unpacking her mother’s clothes .

9. Nothing will surprise her more than to hear this said of her. 10. Glancing over his shoulder, he could see the dog chasing him. 11. The moon came fully through a cloud, and he was startled as he suddenly saw her face looking at him. 12. His face clouded when he heard his name spoken. 13. We heard her walking on the stairs to the cellar. 14. I felt myself thrown forward. 15. Just as I got to the end of the corridor, I heard my telephone ringing again. 16. We found the safe locked and the papers stolen. 17. He felt his irritation mounting. 18. I want the answer sent at once. 19. “I want it proved,” he roared. 20. I noticed him working in the garden. 21. I imagined her sitting by the fire-place, alone and in tears. 22. I have my hair cut once a month. 23. For the first time she found herself wondering about him. 24. It’s time we set the machinery going. 25. She has her dresses made here. 26. Where did you have your watch mended?

Exercise 86. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mark the Russian equivalents of the verbs ‘to have’ and ‘to get’ in combination with the Objective Participial Construction .

A. 1. He expects to have her promising to dance at our wedding. 2. The pram had its hood folded down. (pram=perambulator - детская коляска) 3. He was inclined to get as many of his friends invited as he pleased. 4. I couldn’t follow her reasoning. She had me puzzled. 5. She got herself invited to all those fashionable houses. 6. Mrs. Jones won’t have him teasing the child. 7. We can’t have him messing around .

B. 1. He wanted to have his shoes reheeled. 2. She had her mail sent to some friend of hers, I suppose. 3. The one thing my uncle dislikes most is having the house he is holding broken into. 4. You must get your watch fixed. 5. She is going to have her dress fitted. 6. The man wished to have his hair trimmed at the whiskers. 7. Mrs .

Honey will have the ceiling of her room whitewashed. 8. I’ll have this letter typed for you .

Exercise 87. Choose Participle I or Participle II in the Objective Participial Construction .

1. I don’t want to see anyone... (to hurt) 2. Roger gave such a boisterous (шумный, громогласный) laugh that I saw other people... towards our table. (to glance) 3. “I won’t have anything... against her,” he said unexpectedly. (to say) 4. Diana had the table.. .

on. (to lay) 5. Edward soon made his views... (to know) 6. One man had got himself... in the accident. (to kill) 7. Light was coming through in the corner room, and he could hear a piano... (to play) 8. I’ll have someone... on to keep a watch on the house. (to put) 9. There are people who would like to see him... a fair chance. (to give) 10. I want a telegram... at once. (to send) 11. The picture always left me... sad .

(to feel) 12. I have often heard it... (to say) 13. In fact I found myself... that I would have to do something about it immediately. (to think) 14. It was easy to imagine Kate... silent. (to sit) 15. Next morning he got his cheque... (to cash) 16. Suddenly they saw him... his temper and were uncomfortable. (to lose) Exercise 88. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

1. Он вышел и увидал, что машина ждет его. 2. Я слышал, как зазвонил звонок .

3. Я видел, что подходит мой автобус. 4. Вы не видели, как он брал книги? 5. Я видел, как они шли по берегу реки. (along the bank of the river) 6. Я могу себе легко представить, что она откажется от этой работы. 7. Я услышал шаги в саду, которые приближались со стороны бассейна. 8. Как только я увидел, как муха садилась на стол, я сильно ударил ее свернутой газетой. (to land on the table; to swat; a rolled up newspaper) 9. Ты слышишь, что ребенок плачет? 10. Откуда ты знаешь, что я взял деньги? - Я знаю, потому что видел, как ты их брал. 11. Я никогда не видел, как вы играете в шахматы. 12. Они наблюдали, как пароход приближается к берегу. 13. Я не заметила, что она смотрит на меня. 14. Вы слышите, что я к вам обращаюсь?

15. Было тяжело видеть его побежденным. (to see; to defeat) 16. Я хочу, чтобы моя просьба была выполнена. 17. Я не хочу, чтобы этот вопрос обсуждался. 18. Мы нашли стекло разбитым. 19. Почему ты оставил дверь незапертой. (to unlock) 20 .

Ей удалили два зуба. (to pull out) 21. Ей выкрасили кухню в светло-зеленый цвет .

22. Она ушла мерить давление. (to test one’s blood pressure) 23. Вам надо сфотографироваться. 24. Где вы фотографировались? 25. Когда вам настроили пианино? (to tune)

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Function: Complex Subject or according to another point of view – the nominal component is ‘the subject’, the verbal component is ‘part of a compound verbal predicate’ .

The Subjective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case .

In the sentence the Subjective Participial Construction has the function of a complex subject (or another point of view: one component of the construction has the function of the subject, the other component is part of a compound verbal predicate.) In Russian it usually corresponds to a complex sentence .

He was seen crossing the street. Видели, как он переходил улицу .

• (‘He … crossing’ is the Subjective Participial Construction in the function of a Complex Subject or according to another point of view – the nominal component ‘He’ is the subject, the verbal component ‘saying’ is part of a compound verbal predicate.) The door was heard shutting. Было слышно, как дверь закрывалась. (‘The door … • shutting’ is the Subjective Participial Construction.) But I hear you are constantly seen drunk in the middle of the afternoon. (‘You … • drunk’ is the Subjective Participial Construction.)

The Subjective Participial Construction may be found:

• (1) after the verbs denoting sense perception, such as: to see, to hear, to notice, to watch, to observe (with Participle I and Participle II ) She was seen trying on hats. Было видно/видели, как она примеряет шляпы .

• A minute ago he was seen engaged in a lovely conversation with a charming girl .

• But I hear you are constantly seen drunk in the middle of the afternoon .

• They were heard talking together. Было слышно/слышали, как они разговаривают .

• Sometimes she can be heard called Lady. Иногда можно услышать, что её называют Леди .

• He went out and was heard laughing in the hall .

• She could be observed rather alarmed at what had occurred .

• • (2) after the verbs to find, to leave, to keep, to catch, to report, to show (with Participle I and Participle II) She was found waiting for her turn. Её застали ожидающей свою очередь .

• She was found dressed for the party .

• Then he was found barricaded in a little hut .

• He was left reading .

• The things were left undone .

• They were kept waiting. Их заставили ждать .

• I felt I had been caught boasting .

• Many houses were damaged, but no one was reported hurt .

• About that time a hurricane was reported moving out of the Caribbean in our di

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• (3) after the verbs of mental activity: to consider, to believe, to think, (with Participle II ) The picture was considered stolen .

• The problem is believed solved .

–  –  –

1. He was heard saying this before. Слышали, как он говорил об этом прежде. (‘He … saying’ is the Subjective Participial Construction in the function of a Complex Subject or according to another point of view – the nominal component ‘He’ is the subject; the verbal component ‘saying’ is part of a compound verbal predicate.)

2. Smoke could be seen rising from the village. 3. Through the window Florence was seen packing a suitcase. 4. The taxi could be seen waiting outside. 5. The children were seen running to the water. 6. He was seen following her with his eyes. 7. My elder sister was seen laying the table. 8. A man could be seen going from the outskirts towards them. 9. The ship was seen approaching the coast. 10. They were seen leaving the room. 11. The flight attendant was heard explaining the conditions of our flight .

12. “Go home, Joan,” people could be heard saying in one house or another. 13. It was some ten minutes later that a voice was heard calling his name. 14. Jane was heard playing the piano. 15. At that moment footsteps were heard coming across the hall. 16 .

The students were heard discussing a new film. 17. The old man was heard talking to himself. 18. This night my aunts could be observed running back and forth in the hall .

19. The baby was found sitting on the floor. 20. The man was found grovelling on the floor. (to grovel-лежать ниц, ползать; пресмыкаться, унижаться) 21. In the evening Gertrude was found sitting on the porch (крыльцо) of the neighbouring house. 22. Peter was found working in the garden. 23. When the door closed, Monteith and I were left looking at each other. 24. They were caught stealing peaches. Их поймали крадущими персики./Они были пойманы за кражей персиков. 25. These very important details were found missing from a later description of the manuscripts. 26. His name was often heard mentioned .

Exercise 90. Re-word the following sentences into sentences with the Subjective Participial Constructions .

1. I could see the visitor walking restlessly backwards and forwards. The visitor could be seen walking restlessly backwards and forwards .

2. We have often heard his name mentioned. His name was often heard mentioned .

3. I’ve often heard his sister singing some popular tune .

4. We observed them walking down the street .

5. One summer morning they found him painting the door of his house green .

6. I hope she hasn’t noticed me leaving the house so late .

7. The girl watched him going slowly and cautiously up the stairs .

8. The rescue helicopters found the ship drifting in the North Sea .

9. They considered the picture stolen .

10. They consider her cured .

11. They found her dressed for the party .

12. We have often seen dogs killed on the road .

13. They found the door locked .

Exercise 91. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

(A) The Subjective Participial Construction. (with Participle I)

1. Видели, как он шел по Красной площади. 2. Видели, что машина ожидала кого-то у входа. 3. Видели, как она поднимались по лестнице. 4. Эти пожилые люди живут внизу, и иногда слышно, как они о чем-то разговаривают. 5. Слышали, как Джейн открывает дверь. 6. Слышали, как она пела в соседней комнате. 7 .

Меня заставили ждать. (to keep) 8. В последний раз его видели, когда он читал книгу в читальном зале. 9.Через окно можно было видеть, что водитель ждет у машины. (through the window) 10. Они остались разговаривать в гостиной (to leave) 11 .

Фокса нашли ожидающим нас на террасе. (Fox; terrace) 12. Видели, как люди торопились к поездам. 13 Можно было слышать, как течет вода (run) 14. Видели, как Джон наливал себе кофе. ( to pour himself; a cup of coffee) (B) The Subjective Participial Construction (with Participle II)

1. Вазу нашли разбитой. 2. Сейф нашли закрытым. (safe) 3. Все документы были найдены изорванными в клочья. (to tear to scraps) 4. Чемодан считали украденным. 5 .

Собаку нашли привязанной к дереву (to tie to a tree). 6. Считали, что книга распродана. (to sell out) 7. Нашли, что он сильно изменился. 8. Дверь нашли закрытой (to lock) 9. Дом нашли покинутым. (to desert) 10. Считалось, что проблема решена (to solve the problem) 11. Чай остался нетронутым. (to leave; untouched) 12. Его никогда еще не видели таким возбужденным. (excited) 13. Теперь можно считать наше исследование завершенным. (research; to complete) Exercises The Objective Participial Construction The Subjective Participial Construction (with Participle I and Participle II) Exercise 92. Point out the Component Parts of the Objective Participial Construction and the Subjective Participial Construction. State the function. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. She had her kitchen painted light green.2. His face clouded when he heard his name spoken. 3. All the while she felt her heart beating with a vague fear. 4. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. 5. The darkness found Mr .

and Mrs. Plornish knocking at his door. 6. Somewhere a long way off a telephone bell rang and a voice could be heard speaking. 7. For their New Year’s Eve party she had all the furniture moved out of the parlour. (гостиная) 8. Get your things packed. 9. The two men were heard descending. 10. Two days later she heard sleigh bells coming up the drive. 11. They wanted the Committee convened at the weekend. 12. She had her bed moved to the corner of the porch .

(веранда) 13. Mary could feel Elizabeth reviewing their hopes and dreams, their relationship as sisters. 14. She averted her eyes each time she found herself being stared at. 15. The din (шум) in the entrance hall continued, and more vehicles could be heard arriving at the door. 16. They were seen dancing in the street .

17. She heard the musicians tuning up in the back parlour. 18. She went downstairs and he was left feeling a little uneasy, even guilty .

Exercise 93. Translate the sentences into English using the Complex Object or Complex Subject with Participle I .

1. Она слышала, как ее отец ходит взад и вперед по террасе. 2. Том увидел, что в воде что-то быстро движется. 3. Было слышно, как где-то вдалеке играла музыка. 4. Видя, что собираются тучи, мы решили отложить прогулку. 5. Дойдя до середины, я почувствовала, что мост дрожит. 6. Было слышно, как больной стонет от боли. 7. Войдя в сад, я увидела, что дети мирно играют, как будто ничего не случилось. 8. Я наблюдала за тем, как внимательно он читал письмо .

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (Самостоятельный’ причастный оборот// ‘независимый’// ‘абсолютный’ причастный оборот) Function: Adverbial modifier .

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence; in the sentence this construction has the function of an adverbial modifier. In Russian it usually corresponds to an adverbial clause. In the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction Participle I (in all its forms) or Participle II is used .

(Причастный оборот может иметь собственное подлежащее, не совпадающее с подлежащим главного предложения. В этом случае причастный оборот называется абсолютивным причастным оборотом и выполняет функцию сложного обстоятельства.) The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction can be

an adverbial modifier:

a) of time The sun having risen, they continued their way. (=After the sun had risen, they • continued their way.) После того как взошло солнце, они продолжили свой путь .

The work being finished, the two girls brushed the shreds (лоскуток ткани) and threads • from their dresses and went into the shop. (=When the work was finished, the two girls brushed …) Когда работа была закончена, девушки отряхнули платья и вошли в мастерскую .

The engineer testing the motor, the committee came to see the work of the motor. Когда инженер испытывал мотор, комиссия приехала посмотреть работу этого двигателя .

The goods having been unloaded, the workers left the port. После того как товары • были разгружены, рабочие ушли из порта .

The experiment carried out, we decided to have a rest. Когда опыт был проведен, мы • решили отдохнуть .

The work finished, they went home. Когда работа была закончена, они пошли домой .

• The signal given, the train started. После того как сигнал был дан, поезд тронулся .

• Friendship restored, we walked along together .

• The choice made, she ran up to him .

b) of cause The professor being ill, the lecture was put off. (= Because the professor was ill, • the lecture was put off.) Так как профессор был болен, лекция была отложена .

A dark cloud having appeared in the sky, we decided to stay at home .

• I was a little on edge, there being something to report. Я нервничал, так как было что • сообщить .

There being no vacant seats, I had to stand. (= As there were no vacant seats, I had • to stand.) Так как не было свободных мест, мне пришлось стоять .

It being late (= As it was late), we made up our minds to finish testing the new motor. Так как было поздно, мы решили закончить испытания нового двигателя .

There being a severe storm at sea (=As there was a severe storm at sea), the steamer couldn’t leave the port. Так как на море был сильный шторм, пароход не мог выйти из порта .

The weather being fine, they went for a walk. Так как погода была хорошая, они пошли • погулять .

o Cf. Knowing English well, my brother was able to translate the article without any difficulty. (‘knowing’ выражает действие, относящееся к подлежащему ‘my brother’) Зная хорошо английский язык, мой брат смог перевести статью без всякого затруднения./ = Так как мой брат знал хорошо английский язык, он смог перевести статью без всякого затруднения .

o The student knowing English well, the examination did not last long. (‘knowing’ имеет свое подлежащее ‘the student’) Так как студент хорошо знал английский язык, экзамен продолжался недолго .

o Cf. Having lost the key, he couldn’t enter the house. (‘having lost’ выражает действие, относящееся к подлежащему ‘he’) Потеряв ключ, он не смог войти в дом./ Так как он потеряла ключ, он не смог войти в дом .

o My sister having lost the key, we couldn’t enter the house. (‘having lost’ имеет свое подлежащее ‘my sister’) Так как моя сестра потеряла ключ, мы не могли войти в дом .

c) of attendant circumstances The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction in this function usually stands in postposition and is widely used in literature. It is translated into Russian by a compound sentence with the conjunctions: а, и, причем, но .

He turned and went out, we following him. Он повернулся и вышел, а мы последовали за • ним .

We were both standing leaning against the mantelpiece, she admiring her fan of • blotting paper, I staring at her. Мы оба стояли у камина; она любовалась веером из промокательной бумаги, а я глядел на неё .

The plant produces large quantities of pig-iron, most of the pig-iron being turned • into steel. Завод производит большое количество чугуна, причем большая часть чугуна перерабатывается в сталь .

We spent the summer in their cottage, they occupying the front room and we • having the verandah at our disposal. Мы провели лето на даче, причем они занимали комнату, а мы имели в нашем распоряжении веранду .

On the average some 30 per cent of solar energy reaches the land surface each • year, the share being somewhat bigger in southern latitudes and slightly less in northern latitudes. В среднем ежегодно около 30 процентов солнечной энергии достигает поверхности земли, причем количество солнечной энергии бывает несколько больше в южных широтах и несколько меньше в северных широтах .

He sat on the sofa, his eyes closed, his legs crossed .

• Jimmy fell forward on to the bed, his face buried in the covers .

• Lord Easterfield sat down, wiping his forehead and smiling • complacently(самодовольно), his good humour quite restored .

She rose from the bed and stood motionless, her head bent, her hands clasped .

• They set off, George swinging along with downcast eyes, his hands thrust deep • in his pockets. (downcast - потупленный (о взоре) The two guards listened, their faces turned to the rifle (винтовка) .

d) of condition (this use is rare, exclusively with the participles: permitting, failing.)

–  –  –

(The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction very often occurs in fiction and scientific language; the use of this construction in colloquial English is rare. В английском языке есть причастный оборот, не имеющий полной аналогии в русском языке. Он называется:

‘самостоятельным’ причастным оборотом, а также ’независимым’ или ’абсолютным’ причастным оборотом. Эти обороты надо переводить придаточными предложениями, а иногда и самостоятельными предложениями. Чтобы узнать ‘самостоятельный’ причастный оборот в тексте, надо обратить внимание на его формальные признаки: 1) перед причастием стоит существительное без предлога или местоимение в именительном падеже; 2) ‘самостоятельный’ причастный оборот всегда отделен запятой.)

–  –  –

Exercise 94. The Functions of The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction in the Sentence. Read and translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction:

(A) as an adverbial modifier of time

1. The door being opened, and Bunter having produced an electric torch, the party stepped into a wide stone passage .

2. The lamp having been lit, Mrs. White took her son’s letter. (=When the lamp had been lit, Mrs. White took her son’s letter.) Когда зажгли лампу, миссис Уайт взяла письмо от сына .

3. The patient’s leg having been amputated, there was no doubt of his recovering soon. (= When the patient’s leg had been amputated, there was no doubt of his recovering soon.)

4. Ice having been broken, the two former rivals grew still more affectionate .

5. Independence having been achieved, attention could be given to the foundation of a national culture .

6. The table cleared, we sat at it again. (=When the table was cleared, we sat at it again.)

7. This question settled, the reunion was on again .

8. Then, arrangements made, the apologies and thanks started over again .

9. All questions answered, they went home .

10. The drinks ordered and the men settled on the verandah of the clubhouse, Haydock repeated his question .

11. This done, Margot travelled back to fetch the boy .

(B) as an adverbial modifier of cause

1. Each of them being my friend, the news that they were engaged had interested me very much. (=Because each of them was my friend, the news that they were engaged had interested me very much.)

2. The door and window of the vacant room being open, we looked in. Так как дверь и окно пустой комнаты были открыты, мы заглянули в нее .

3. The room being dark, I could not at first see where the speaker was .

4. The score being level after 90 minutes, a replay will take place .

5. Thomas being away, John had to do his work .

6. The season being over, there were few people on the beach .

7. It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs. Так как было довольно поздно, мы взяли свечи, и пошли наверх .

8. It being very cold, they made a fire .

9. The ship’s band did not play in the morning, it being Sunday .

10. There being a strong wind that day, it was dangerous to go boating .

11. The last train having gone, we had to walk home. (=Because the last train had gone, we had to walk home.) Так как последний поезд ушел, нам пришлось идти домой пешком .

12. The key having been lost, they couldn’t enter the cottage .

13. The window having been closed, there was little air in the room .

(C) as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances

1. He read several books in English, the latest being a biography of Shakespeare .

(=He read several books in English, and the latest was a biography of Shakespeare.) Он прочитал несколько книг на английском, и последняя была биография Шекспира .

2. He turned and went, we, as before, following him. Он повернулся и вышел; как и прежде мы последовали за ним .

3. They all sat and kept silent, Peter telling the story .

4. She looked through the window, her glance travelling towards the bridge .

5. Finally she stood back and looked at him, her face radiantly smiling .

6. “But it’s so ridiculous that we don’t know what to do,” William told them, his voice rising in indignation .

7. She kept on running, her heart thumping (биться с глухим шумом) furiously, her steps quickening in pace with her heartbeats .

8. English words can be classed as variable (изменяющийся) and invariable (неизменяемый), the latter being much more numerous than in the other European languages .

9. The three stood in a triangle before the fire, the two men smoking, and the woman sniffing at an October rose .

10. He gave a pleasant smile, some of the freshness returning to his face .

11. Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi, in 1897, his father being a business manager of the University there .

12. She was smoking now, her eyes narrowed thoughtfully .

Note: A peculiar feature of Absolute Constructions with the Participles is that occasionally we find constructions which could be described as structurally condensed. They are generally unextended and the nouns in them are used without any articles .

1. She advanced two more strides and waited, head half turned .

2. Out in the open, crossing the path beside the Park, Douglas, black hat pulled down, gave a grin of surreptitious kindness. (surreptitious - тайный; сделанный тайком, исподтишка)

3. Joe sat hunched in the corner of the seat, elbow propped on window frame, chin cupped in hand, trying hard to keep awake. (to hunch - сгибаться; горбиться, сутулиться)

4. Two days later, Davidson walked, head bent, across the floor of my office .

(D) as an adverbial modifier of condition

1. Time permitting, we will visit him one of these days .

2. The solution failing this afternoon, the problem will have to wait until Monday .

Exercise 95. Point out the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction in the following sentences. State the function. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. John having left the room to ring for a taxi, Mary sat down again to wait for him. (‘John having left the room to ring for a taxi’ is the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction in the function of an adverbial modifier of time)

2. They all sat and kept silent, Peter telling the story. 3. Mabel hurried out of the car and walked away, tears streaming down her face. 4. The next morning, it being Sunday, they all went to church. 5. Then she left, Eddie following her. 6. All the essays having been written and collected, the teacher sent the class home. 7. I ran very lightly, my toes hardly touching the ground. 8. You don’t respect me,” said Dora, her voice trembling. 9. Another time when we were going through Ferne Bay on our way back from a long excursion, it being a hot day and all of us thirsty, she suggested that we should go into the Dolphin and have a glass of beer. 10. The voices had receded (удаляться); and James was left alone; his ears standing up like a hare’s, and fear creeping about his inwards. 11. Peter being away, John had to do his work. 12. The game having ended, the crowd went home. 18. The play being a great success, the actors were presented with flowers. 19. It being one of those situations where you must think quickly, I decided that I had better plunge into the burning house. 20. She had sunk into a chair and was sitting there, her small fingers curling and uncurling themselves nervously. 21. Heated words followed, quite a few of them being contributed by my friend. 22. Together they ran back down the road, Мог still gripping her arm in a tight grip. 23. The negotiations between the American and British representatives were conducted behind closed door, measures having been taken that no correspondent should receive any information. 24. Men, their caps pulled down, their collars turned up, passed by. 25. Finella glanced up at the top of the hill. High in the air, a little figure, his hands thrust in his short jacket pockets, stood staring out to sea. 26 .

She rose from the bed and stood motionless, her head bent, her hands clasped. 27. He sat on the edge of the bed, his face buried in his hands .

Exercise 96. Use the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction for the Russian clauses .

1. I put on a warm coat, (так как был сильный ветер) .

2. (Так как было очень рано), we had to wait .

3. (Когда поезд приближался к станции), they saw a crowd of people trying to get on .

4. The red car was upside down, (а ее колеса все еще вертелись) .

5. (Так как только что подошел поезд), the platform was crowded .

6. We continued our discussion, (причем ораторов постоянно прерывали вопросами) .

7. (После того как срок его службы (the duration of his engagement) подошел к концу), he was demobilized .

8. He put on his dark glasses, (так как солнце светило очень ярко) .

9. (После того как он зарегистрировал свой багаж), we rushed toward the ramp (трап) .

–  –  –

1. The best part ….. to another actor, Josh felt unwilling to continue his involvement in the show .

2. I’ve always treasured the watch ….. to me on my eighteenth birthday .

3. The police officers stood at either end of the hallway, …… Ray no chance of escape .

4. ….. our tickets to the attendant, we were ushered into the antechamber of the tomb .

5. We are dividing up the grant according to need, the largest amount ….. to the homeless .

6. ….. the mandatory month’s notice by the landlord, the tenant was able to stay on in the house .

Exercise 98. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction or Participial phrases .

1. Так как я была очень занята, я не смогла перевести эту статью. 2. Так как я была очень занята, моя подруга сама перевела статью. 3. Так как комната не была отремонтирована в прошлом году (to be repaired), она должна быть отремонтирована сейчас. 4. Так как комната не была отремонтирована я прошлом году, я думаю, что сделаю ремонт в этом году. 5. Так как мы не купили билеты на концерт, мы не услышали этого пианиста. 6. Так как моя подруга купила лишний билет, я смогу сходить на концерт. 7. Так как экзамен был легкий, он долго не продлился. 8. Так как студенты знали английский язык хорошо, экзамен долго не продлился. 9. Так как покупки были сделаны, она больше не спешила. (to do the shopping) 10. Когда покупки были сделаны, она пошла на автобус. 11. Так как не было никаких возражений, план был принят. (to adopt) 12. Последовала тишина, и никто не произнес ни слова. 13. Так как солнце село, начало быстро темнеть. 14. Сигнал был дан, и конькобежцы ринулись вперед. (to rush forward) 15 .

Если погода позволит, спортсмены смогут показать хорошие результаты. 16 .

Мы долго разговаривали: он задавал мне вопросы, я охотно на них отвечал. 17 .

Mы вымокла до нитки, а дождь все лил и лил. (to be soaked to the skin; to pour) 18. Так как было довольно поздно, мы взяли свечи (candles) и пошли наверх. 19. Когда стол был накрыт, мама позвала гостей. 20. Так как дверь была открыта, он вошел без стука. 21. После обеда наступило долгое молчание: Анна думала о детях, а дети - о ней. 22. Так как никого не было, кто мог бы мне помочь, мне пришлось потрудиться самому .

The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction Function: Adverbial modifier .

The Absolute Participial Construction may be introduced by the preposition ‘with’ and is then called the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. It is not necessarily set off by a comma. This construction is rendered in Russian by a coordinate clause or деепричастный оборот .

Prepositional absolute constructions are less common than non-prepositional ones .

In most cases it used in the function of an adverbial modifier:

a) of attendant circumstances .

Andrew went into the house with his heart beating fast. Эндрю вошел в дом, а его • сердце сильно билось .

The man was leaning forward in his seat, with his head resting in his hands .

• The den was a nice room with books lining the walls .

• I remained silent, with my lips compressed tightly. Я молчал, и мои губы были крепко • сжаты .

She sat for a while with her eyes shut .

• She went on reading with her eyes fixed on the pages of the book .

b) of cause .

With a hurricane approaching, we prepared to stand a siege. Так как приближался • ураган, мы приготовились выдержать осаду .

With the temperature falling rapidly and the wind getting stronger, we were • not able to carry on scientific investigations. Так как температура быстро падала, и ветер становился сильнее, мы не в состоянии были проводить научные исследования .

With the prices going higher and higher and the wages frozen, it is becoming • increasingly difficult for our housewives to make both ends meet. Так как цены продолжают расти, а зарплата заморожена, нашим домохозяйкам становится все труднее сводить концы с концами .

I won’t speak with him staring at me like that .

• I can’t walk with my leg broken .

• It is unhealthy to sleep with the windows shut .

• With the Romans gone, Britain became a prey to invasion from all sides. (to become aprey - стать жертвой) Summary The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction

Function: Adverbial modifier of:

a) attendant cir- • Andrew went into the house with his heart beating fast .

cumstances • I can’t walk with my leg broken .

b) cause • With Louise living in Spain, we don’t see her often .

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Exercise 99. Point out the Prepositional Absolute Participial Constructions. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. Now we could see the wood ahead of us, huge and dark, with the sun going down behind the trees. (‘with the sun going down behind the trees’ is the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances)

2. I can’t write with you standing there. 3. He went into the house, with a curious sadness pressing upon him. 4. He read the gossip in the expressions of acquaintances, without a word spoken. 5. With sunshine streaming through the window, Hugo found it impossible to sleep. (=Because sunshine was streaming through the window, Hugo found it impossible to sleep.) 6. We stood there for a while with the water lapping our feet. (lapping our feet - с плеском набегавшим на ноги) 7. Madge watched me as I sat there, with my head drooping (поникший). 8. It was a lovely morning, with a keen (резкий) breeze whipping the water. 9. With the experiments having been carried out, they started new investigations. 10. She stood with her arms folded, smoking, staring thoughtfully. 11. With her income so much reduced and so many dividends not being paid, that proposition (предложение) was indeed something to take into consideration.12. On Fifth Avenue, passing Atlas with his shoulders bent under the weight of the world, Francis thought of the bracelet he had bought. 13. He left the office early the next morning and played a set of tennis, but, with his body toned up (повышать тонус, укреплять) by exercise and a shower, he realized that he might better have stayed at his desk. 14. He wore a turtleneck sweater (водолазка) and a brown cloth cap with the peak pulled down low over his eves. (turtleneck - высокий, плотно облегающий шею воротник (как на водолазке) 15. She looked even prettier, with most of the make up gone from her face. 16. She went on reading, with her eyes fixed on the pages of the book.17. I lay idly in a big chair, talking now and then, listening; listening sometimes with my eyes closed .

–  –  –

There are two types of absolute constructions in which we find no participle. The second element of the construction is an adjective, a prepositional phrase, or an adverb .

<

–  –  –

It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier:

a) of time In this function The Nominative Absolute Construction is rendered in Russian by an adverbial clause .

Breakfast over, he went out. (=When breakfast was over, he went out.) Когда закончили завтракать, он вышел .

The dress ready, I went to the dressmaker to get it .

• Note: Mind the difference between the meaning of the following constructions:

The lesson (concert, lecture) over … and The lesson (concert, lecture) being over.. .

The lesson over has a temporal meaning, • whereas The lesson being over has as a rule a causal meaning .

• Cf.: The lesson over, he went home. Когда урок закончился, он пошел домой .

• The lesson being over, he went home. Так как урок закончился, он пошел домой .

b) of attendant circumstances In this function the Nominative Absolute Construction is rendered in Russian either by a coordinate clause, деепричастный оборот, or a noun (pronoun) with the preposition ‘с’ .

There he stood, his face to the south-east, his cap in his hand. Он стоял, • повернувшись к юго-востоку, … с шапкой в руке .

Manson went home alone, his heart full of strange emotions. Мэнсон отправился • домой один, душа его была переполнена странными чувствами .

I looked at her, her face expressionless .

• He stopped and turned about, his eyes brightly proud .

–  –  –

It is mostly used in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. It is rendered in Russian either by a coordinate clause or деепричастный оборот .

I found him ready and waiting for me, with a stick in his hand. Он был готов и ждал • меня; в руке у него была палка .

She looked a different girl, with her face pale, her smile listless. (безразличный, вялый) • He rushed forward, with fury in his looks, and fire in his eyes .

• She sat there in silence, with pain in her heart .

–  –  –

Exercise 100. Point out Absolute Constructions without a Participle in the following sentences. (1) The Nominative Absolute Construction; (2) The Prepositional Absolute Construction. State their functions. Translate the sentences into Russian .

(1) 1. Mrs Baddle made the round of the room, candle in hand, to point out all its beauties. (‘candle in hand’ is the Nominative Absolute Construction in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances)

2. Before he moved himself, Bertrand said, his eyes on Dixon: “That’s quite clear, is it?” 3. Constantia lay like a statue, her hands by her sides, the sheet up to her chin .

She stared at the ceiling. 4. Four seconds later Dixon was on the way out of the hotel into the sunlight, his shilling in his pocket. 5. Dinner over, Carrie went into the bathroom where they could not disturb her, and wrote a little note. 6. The strain of his indecision over, he felt like a man recovering from an illness. 7. They were on the porch (веранда) and Rhett was bowing right and left, his hat in his hand, his voice cool and soft .

8. A policeman came up to Soapy, club in hand. 9. He entered the kitchen, his boots awfully muddy. 10. She waited a moment, her eyes full of alarm. 11. She stopped, a red spot on each cheekbone. 12. And, cigar in mouth, Old Jolyon said: “Play me some Chopin.” 13. He stood, his hands behind him .

(2) 1. She sat facing the door, with her elbow against the sharp edge of the table .

(‘with her elbow against the sharp edge of the table’ is the Prepositional Absolute Construction in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances)

2. Celia watched it all, with a fixed smile on her face. 3. Lanny spoke with a note of doubt in his voice. 4. She ran on and on with her eyes full of tears and her heart full of helpless misery (страдание) .

Exercise 101. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using Absolute Participial Construction without a participle .

1. Джейн шла на небольшом расстоянии от всех с кожаной сумкой в руках. 2 .

Она продолжала слушать своих друзей с широко открытыми глазами. 3. Она спокойно ждала друзей около театра, спрятав подбородок в меховой воротник .

4. Он шел быстро, с опущенной головой, не гладя по сторонам. 5. Он спокойно лежал на диване с книгой в руках. 6. Он вошел в комнату с чемоданом в руке. 7 .

Отец с трубкой во рту встал из-за письменного стола и подошел к книжному шкафу. [курительная трубка - (tobacco) pipe] Exercise 102. Point out Absolute Constructions: the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction, the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction, the Nominative Absolute Construction, the Prepositional Absolute Construction. State their functions. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. My task having been finished, I went to bed. 2. With Philip snoring all night, and the heavy rain, I didn’t sleep a wink. 3. It being difficult to answer the question, I had to think for a moment. 4. He stepped forward, with a desperate sadness on his face. 5 .

The play being a great success, the actors were presented with flowers. 6. Adela entered the drawing-room, with her lip set tightly together and her heart beating at twice its usual speed. 7. He stopped and turned about, his eyes brightly proud. 8. The officer sat, with his long fine hands lying on the table perfectly still. 9. He looked thoughtfully across the table at Beatrice who was sitting with her lips compressed tightly .

10. She sat there, her mind deep in thought. 11. Edwin was advancing through the undergrowth (подлесок), his gaze fixed upon the ground. 12. By twelve o’clock, with the sun pouring into the room, the heat became oppressive. 13. The season over, there were few people on the beach. 14. The season being over, there were few people on the beach. 15. The girl ran into the room, a book in her hand. 16. He stood on the doorstep, water running from his coat. 17. The horse stood quietly eating the soft grass, and the boy sat, half in a dream. 18. There being nobody at home, the boy had to stay out-of-doors. 19. The door being locked, we couldn’t get in. 20. It being pretty late, she lit a lamp. 21. There being nothing eatable within his reach, Oliver replied in the affirmative .

Revision Exercises Exercise 103. State the form and function of Participle I, II .

1. Translating from Russian into English, you should know well both languages .

2. Being translated into many languages, the novel is known all over the world .

3. Having translated the text into Russian, we handed it in to the teacher .

4. Having been translated long ago, the novel is had to find .

5. Do you know the students translating the text?

6. Have you read the text being translated by the students?

7. Have you read the text translated by the students?

8. Being very tired, he soon fell asleep .

9. While speculating on the problem, he sat closer to the window .

10. Much of the afternoon I looked out of the window as though thinking .

11. If left to myself, I wouldn’t let the chance slip .

Exercise 104. Point out Participle and Participial Constructions. State their functions. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. The girl hesitated, as though not quite knowing what to do. 2. He hardly looked at her while talking. 3. Having got what he wanted, he took his hat and went away. 4 .

Having read the novel, Jane put it aside. 5. The novel having been read, Jane put it aside. 6. He held the child, looking at the woman, his mouth moving. 7. One evening he was seen going into this very house, but was never seen coming out of it. 8. And she sat there, her hands lying in front of her, staring at the wall. 9. He sat on the sofa, his legs crossed. 10. The letter written, he went out to post it. 11. The letter having been written, he went out to post it. 12. Knowing English well, my brother was able to translate the article without any difficulty. 13. My brother knowing English well, the teacher asked him to translate the article. 14. Dinner over, he left the room. 15 .

Dinner being over, he left the room. 16. He was heard talking to his friend. 17. Having finished dinner, he sat with his cigar, turning over weekly papers. 18. He rose very carefully, as if fearing to find every bone broken. 19. A good child was not supposed to speak unless spoken to. 20. I want everything done today. 21. She was silent, again looking at her hands. 22. She could feel his hands trembling. 23. When questioned, she answered after the slightest hesitation. 24. Generally speaking, I don’t like football. 25. Being studied by many students, this material is known to the students of our group 26. I had heard these topics argued between the scientists for years

27. Seeing our afternoon broken, Margaret and I were angry. 28. Entering the room, he saw his friends waiting for him. 29. A book taken from the library must be returned in time. 30. She soon re-entered the room, some flowers on her bosom .

Exercise 105. Point out Participle and Participial Constructions. State their functions. Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. He reached out across the table, his hand covering Marsha’s. 2. Iris stared out over the landscape, her chin cupped in her hand. 3. The concert over, the lottery came next. 4. The concert being over, the lottery came next. 5. I slept, the sun pouring into the room. 6. Being ill, I couldn’t go to the concert. 7. My mother being ill, I couldn’t go to the concert. 8. My mother having fallen ill, I couldn’t go to the concert. 9. I saw the sweet blue eyes of little Emily peeping after us, and heard her soft voice calling to us to be careful. 10. I thought my mother was sorry to see me standing in the room so scared and strange, but the word was not spoken, and the time for it was gone. 11 .

Maggie sat down again, her heart beating heavily. 12. I hope you’ll soon find everything settled. 13. She stood in silence, with her head bent. 14. Where did you have your bicycle repaired? 15. We saw them laying the table. 16. They were seen laying the table. 17. Getting into the train, she remembered that she had left the ticket at home. 18. Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise. 19. Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river. 20. In the west of the island of Great Britain one can see Cumbrian Mountains occupying the greatest part of Wales; in the North – the Cheviot Hills separating England from Scotland. 21. Do you wash your linen yourself or do you have it washed? 22. He came in quietly, cap and coat on, and sat down, looking at the candles. 23. When next he comes, he’ll find everything settled .

24. They now had all her telephone calls intercepted. (перехватывать; подслушивать) 25. She sat on the steps, with her bare arms crossed upon her knees .

Exercise 106. Choose the correct form of the participles used as adjectives in the following sentences .

1. The … dishes lay on the floor .

a. breaking b. broken

2. The … children were given a blanket for warmth .

a. trembling b. trembled

3. Compassionate (сочувствующие) friends tried to console (утешать) the … victims of the accident .

a. crying b. cried

4. The … tennis match caused a great deal of excitement .

a. interesting b. interested

5. When James noticed the … building, he notified the fire department immediately .

a. burning b. burnt

6. The … passengers jumped into the lifeboats when notified that the ship was sinking .

a. exciting b. excited

7. The … Mona Lisa is on display in the Louvre in Paris .

a. smiling b. smiled

8. The wind made such … noises that the children ran to their parents’ room .

a. frightening b. frightened

9. The … hostages (заложник) only wanted to be left alone .

a. frightening b. frightened

10. We saw the … army from across town .

a. advancing b. advanced

11. Mrs. Harris’s … smile let us know that our speeches were well done .

a. approving b. approved

12. Our representative presented the … plan to the public .

a. approving b. approved

13. The … wind of the hurricane damaged the waterfront (район порта) property .

a. blowing b. blown

14. We were going to see the film at the Centre Theatre, but our friends told us it was a … film .

a. boring b. bored

15. Mary’s … service comes every Wednesday .

a. cleaning b. cleaned

16. The … shoes were placed in the sun to dry .

a. cleaning b. cleaned

17. We found it difficult to get through the … door without a key .

a. closing b. closed

18. As we entered the … room, 1 noticed my cousins .

a. crowding b. crowded

19. Dr. Jameson told my brother to elevate his … foot .

a. aching b. ached

20. The police towed (буксировать, тащить (автомобиль) away the … cars because they were blocking the entrance .

a. parking b. parked Exercise 107. Complete the sentences with the present or past participle of the verbs in brackets .

1. The (steal) … stolen … jewelry was recovered (возвращать, получать обратно) .

2. Success in one’s work is a (satisfy) … satisfying … experience .

3. The dragon was a (terrify) … sight for the villagers .

4. The (terrify) … villagers ran for their lives .

5. I found myself in an (embarrass) … situation (затруднительная ситуация) last night .

6. A kid accidentally threw a ball at one of the school windows. Someone needs to repair the (break) … window .

7. I elbowed my way through the (crowd) … room .

8. The thief tried to pry open the (lock) … cabinet. (to pry - вскрывать, взламывать при помощи рычага) (cabinet - шкаф с выдвижными ящиками)

9. The (injure) … woman was put into an ambulance .

10. That (annoy) … buzz is coming from the fluorescent light .

11. The teacher gave us a (challenge) … assignment, but we all enjoyed doing it .

12. The (expect) … event did not occur .

13. A (grow) … child needs a (balance) … diet .

14. No one appreciates a (spoil) … child .

15. There is an old saying: Let (sleep) … dogs lie. (Cf.: Не буди лиха, пока лихо спит.)

16. We had a (thrill) … but hair-raising (страшный) experience on our backpacking (туристический поход) trip into the wilderness (дикая природа; глухомань) .

17. The (abandon) … car was towed away by a tow truck .

18. I still have five more (require) … courses to take .

19. (Pollute) … water is not safe for drinking .

20. I don’t have any furniture of my own. Do you know where I can rent a (furnish) … apartment?

21. The equator is the (divide) … line between the Northern and Southern hemispheres .

22. We all expect our (elect) … officials to be honest .

23. The invention of the (print) … press (печатный станок) was one of the most important events in the history of the world .

24. (Experience) … travellers pack lightly. They carry little more than necessities (предметы первой необходимости) .

25. The psychologist spoke to us about some of the (amaze) … coincidences in the lives of twins living apart from each other from birth .

–  –  –

Exercise 111. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

1. Я видела, как они открывали дверь. 2. Мы наблюдали, как дети играли в футбол. 3. Через год вы будете читать английские книги в оригинале. 4. Они спросили, не заметил ли я, чтобы кто-нибудь выходил из дома. 5. Я видеть не могу, когда плохо обращаются с животными. 6. Я не позволю тебе так разговаривать со мной. 7. Я слышала, как Джон приглашал их на пикник. 8. Мы слышали, как водитель извинялся перед пассажирами. 9. Он чувствовал, как у него дрожали руки. 10. Когда решение было принято (to take the decision), она выглядела другим человеком. 11. Так как не было свободных мест (vacant seats), мне пришлось стоять. 12. Туристы смотрели в окно; перед ними проносились хорошо знакомые места. (to rush by; familiar places) 13. Так как уже поздно, мы должны поспешить. (to make haste) 14. Так как она заболела, вызвали скорую помощь. (ambulance; to send for) Exercise 112. Translate the sentences into English using the Complex Object with

Participle II:

1. Как часто вам натирают (to polish) полы? 2. Где вам сшили это платье? 3. «Мне еще надо сходить сделать маникюр (to manicure one’s nails) и уложить волосы», сказала она. 4. Закажите это лекарство немедленно. 5. Я встретила их, когда они шли фотографироваться. 6. Где вам шили этот костюм? 7. Мне нужно запломбировать (to have one’s tooth filled) два зуба. 8. Мне покрасили эту дверь только на прошлой неделе. Вам нравится цвет?

Exercise 113. Read the text. Analyse all the Participial Phrases and Constructions .

State the difference between them. Retell the text .

He travelled to the airport on Sunday night. He had to wait a little in the assembly hall. Then, his name being called out on a list, he had to walk a few steps to the motor-coach (автобус) which took him straight to the aeroplane. When ushered into the cabin of the aircraft (самолёт), he was received by one of the two stewardesses serving the passengers upon their flight. She showed him to his seat, pulled out the safetybelt from behind the seat, and showed how to clasp it round his body when the time of taking off came .

He settled down comfortably in his reclining chair (откидывающееся кресло) and then screwed round in his seat to look down the wide cabin. There were not too many passengers. The chief steward was seen passing by to the flight deck (кабина экипажа) carrying a black briefcase (портфель) and with a sheaf (большое количество) of papers flapping in his hand. The forward door having closed behind him, the engines started one by one, with deep rumbles (грохот) heard as though from a great distance. Presently he felt the cabin stirring beneath him. He looked out of the window and saw the lights of the airport buildings passing by as the aircraft moved towards the runway’s (взлетнопосадочная полоса) end. Then before he realized what was happening, the runway lights were seen sliding past his window in acceleration and the airport was below and behind. He never felt the machine leaving the ground .

He leaned back and sat relaxed in his reclining chair. The stewardess walked down the aisle (проход между рядами), with the second pilot following behind her. They came up to him and said that the captain invited him to see the pilot’s cabin .

When he returned to the long saloon, the lights were dimmed for sleeping. He made himself comfortable in his seat and tried to go to sleep. He woke up when the aircraft started on a slow descent (снижение), losing height at about two hundred feet a minute. He sat looking out of the window as they circled the airport. Then he saw the ground coming closer and closer .

In the saloon the stewardesses were busy waking the passengers and making them do up their safety-belts for the landing .

Soon the surface of the runway was quite close beneath them. They sped over it, and suddenly a forward tilt (наклон) of the fuselage (корпус самолета) told them they were down .

It was quite early. The stewardess disembarked (высаживать) the passengers and took them to the restaurant for breakfast .

Formation of Participle I (Spelling Rules) Participle I of both regular and irregular verbs is formed by adding the suffix -ing

to the stem of the verb. In writing the following spelling rules are observed:

–  –  –

(2) if a verb ends in a mute -e, the -e is dropped before adding -ing:

to live - living to smoke - smoking to hope - hoping to have - having to skate - skating to come - coming to write - writing to use - using to argue - arguing to rescue - rescuing (спасать) to continue - continuing to pursue – pursuing (преследовать; бежать за к-л.) to queue – queuing or queueing

• but verbs that end in -ee, -ye, -oe, -ge don’t lose the -e:

to agree - agreeing to flee - fleeing to guarantee - guaranteeing to see - seeing to free - freeing to dye - dyeing (красить, окрашивать) (to distinguish from: to die - dying) to hoe - hoeing (мотыжить, разрыхлять [землю]; копать) to canoe - canoeing (плыть на байдарке, на каноэ) to shoe - shoeing (обувать; подковывать) to toe - toeing (ударять носком) to singe - singeing (опалять; палить, подпаливать) (to distinguish from: to sing - singing) to swinge - swingeing (избить, поколотить) (to distinguish from: to swing - swinging)

• but: to age - ageing or aging (стареть; изменяться во времени)

• verbs ending in -ie drop the final -e and change i into y before taking -ing to lie - lying to tie - tying to die - dying to vie - vying (конкурировать, соревноваться) (3) if a verb of one syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by only one short

stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled:

to stop - stopping to drag - dragging to put - putting to run - running to beg - begging to drop - dropping to wrap - wrapping to sit - sitting

• Verbs of more than one syllable behave in the same way if the verb is stressed on the last syllable with one short vowel .

to begin – beginning to commit - committing to regret - regretting to forget – forgetting to permit- permitting to omit - omitting

• but: to want - wanting (the final consonant ‘t’ is not doubled because the verb ‘want’ ends in two consonants)

• to wait - waiting (the final consonant ‘t’ is not doubled because it is preceded by two vowels)

• to visit - visiting (the final ‘t’ is not doubled because the stress is not on the last syllable) to eat - eating to beat - beating to tread - treading to boat - boating to benefit - benefiting to profit - profiting to focus - focusing

–  –  –

(6) In British English, but not American English, the final ‘l’ is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel, stressed or unstressed:

to travel - travelling to compel - compelling to label - labelling (маркировать;

to quarrel - quarrelling (заставлять, принуждать) размечать; обозначать) to cancel - cancelling (анну- to libel - libelling (клеветать, пиto signal - signalling лировать, отменять) сать пасквили; дискредитировать) to instil (or Am. E. instill) - instilling (внушать; вселять (надежду, страх); вливать по капле) to instal or install (Br. E.; Am. E.) - installing (вставлять; устанавливать) to appal (or Am. E. appall) - appalling (ужасать; потрясать; приводить в смятение) to fulfil (or Am. E. fulfill) - fulfilling to enrol (or Am. E. enroll) - enrolling (вносить в список; регистрировать) to distil (or Am. E. distill) - distilling (дистиллировать, очищать; опреснять (воду)

• but: the final ‘l’ is not doubled if it is not preceded by a short vowel:

to reveal - revealing appeal - appealing to steal - stealing to squeal - squealing (визжать, пронзительно кричать) to conceal - concealing (7) In British English, but not American English, the final ‘p’ is doubled in the following verbs:

to handicap - handicapping (препятствовать, мешать; затруднять) to worship - worshipping (поклоняться, преклоняться, почитать, обожать, боготворить) to kidnap - kidnapping (похищать людей, особенно детей (с целью получить выкуп)

• Most verbs ending in -p, however, have the regular spelling in both Br.E. and

Am.E. The final ‘p’ is not doubled before -ing in:

to develop - developing to gallop - galloping (скакать галопом) to gossip - gossiping to envelop - enveloping (обёртывать; завёртывать) (8) -ic at the end of a verb changes to -ick when we add -ing:

to panic - panicking to picnic - picnicking (участвовать в пикнике, устраивать пикник) to traffic - trafficking to frolic - frolicking (проказничать, веселиться (9) The final consonants -g and -m are doubled after single unstressed vowels:

to humbug - humbugging (обманывать, надувать; вводить в заблуждение) to program(me) - programming (Br. E.) to program - programming (Am. E.)

–  –  –

o to want; to weigh; to borrow; to follow; to touch; to work o to change; to invite; to ride; to make o to hit; to let; to nod; to plan; to rob; to shut; to get o to admit; to upset; to submit o to count; to insist; to print; to collect; to help; to attempt; to clean; to remain; to limit; to expect; to vomit; to fidget; to shout; to dread o to remember; to utter; to suffer o to annoy; to destroy; to employ; to qualify; to satisfy; to hurry; to marry; to spy; to dry; to pay; to say; to lay; to slay; to occupy; to cry; to carry; to fry; to delay; to certify; to identify; to simplify o to control; to marvel (изумляться, восхищаться); to excel (отличаться, выделяться; превосходить;

быть лучше); to rival (соперничать; конкурировать, соревноваться); to repel (отталкивать; оказывать сопротивление, противостоять (противнику); to expel (исключать (из к-л. организации), выгонять (из дома), высылать (из страны); to level; to revel (пировать; кутить; наслаждаться (ч-л.); получать удовольствие от (ч-л.); to patrol (патрулировать; охранять) o to reveal; appeal; to steal; to conceal; squeal (визжать, пронзительно кричать) o to handicap; to worship; to kidnap o to develop; to gossip; to gallop; to envelop o to panic; to traffic; to picnic; to frolic

–  –  –

Exercise 18

1. Reading English books in the original, he usually uses a dictionary. 2. Reading Furmanov’s story “Chapaev”, I remembered the years of the civil war. 3. Reading this book, I will write out new words and expression. 4. Having read a book, I return it to the library at once. 5. Having read your book, I will give it to your friend at once .

6. Seeing a bus, I decided not to wait for a tram. 7. Hearing the whistle, the dog pricked up its ears .

Exercise 19

1. Looking 2.Going 3. Having been informed 4. putting 5. Knowing 6. Having done 7. Returning 8. being 9. Having finished 10. Getting 11. closing 12. Turning, … returning 13. Having returned Exercise 20

3. I hailed the first taxi passing by… 4. One morning, looking out of the window, Johnny saw in his neighbour’s orchard a great number of fine red apples falling from the trees. 5. “Villain! (злодей, негодяй)” cried he, running down to him. 6. “Oh, sir,” said the poor boy trembling with fear, “it isn’t my fault.” 7. “May I come in?” she said pushing the door a little wider open. 8. “I’m late,” she remarked, sitting down and drawing off her gloves. 9. Not knowing the way to the station very well, he often stopped to ask people passing by. 10. The path leading through the coppice (рощица) soon got lost in the high grass. 11. The old woman told me with pride that the healthy-looking child playing beside us was her grandson. 12. She returned presently bringing a tray with a jug of milk .

Exercise 22 2 I didn’t talk much to the man sitting next to me on the plane .

3 The taxi taking us to the airport broke down .

4 At the end of the street there is a path leading to the river .

5 A new factory employing 500 people has just opened in the town .

6 The company sent me a brochure containing all the information I needed .

Exercise 23

1. Be careful (when) crossing the street. 2. Having written the composition, she began to do another task. 3. Students not paying attention to grammar will never master English. 4. We sat in the garden talking about out trip along the Volga. 5. Running down the stairs, she stopped for s moment as if hesitating in what direction to go. 6 .

Having explained everything in detail, he calmly sat down on his place. 7. Having found herself out of doors, she felt sorry for what had happened. 8. Seizing her son in her arms, Eliza took to her heels. 9. A young man standing at the window looked at me attentively, 10. Having seen their sun off, they were returning slowly from the station. 11. The theatres in the East End often show the plays touching upon different of modern problems. 12. A drowning man will catch at a straw. 13. Noticing me, she stopped. 14. Strictly speaking, it is not just what I wanted to say. 15. Arriving home, he found them waiting for him. 16. Hearing the steps in a deserted street, she pricked up her ears .

Exercise 26

1. Looking through old newspapers, he found an interesting article about English Universities. 2. When a child, he used to play football. 3. Having read a book, he returned it to the library. 4. Coming home, she found the door open. 5. Having listened to his explanation, we decided that he was right. 6. When in St. Petersburg, we visited the Hermitage Museum. 7. Saying good-bye to his friends, he went to the station. 8. Be careful crossing the street. 9. Arriving in London, we went sightseeing at once. 10. While discussing this question, don’t forget to touch upon these facts .

Exercise 27

1. Not knowing what to say, she blushed. 2. Having lived in the city for twenty years, he knew every street here. 3. They couldn’t get into the house, having lost the key. 4 .

I couldn’t visit him, not knowing her address. 5. Not knowing the language, he couldn’t understand the conversation. 6. Having much free time before the beginning of the performance, we decided to walk to the theatre. 7. Seeing his mistake, he stopped arguing. 8. Being sure that he was right, he felt calm and undisturbed .

Exercise 28

1. He walked slowly, stopping from time to time and asking passersbys about something. 2. She stood thinking what to answer. 3. He looked at the door waiting for it to open. 4. She spent the morning tidying up the flat. 5. He looked at her smiling. 6. She closed her eyes trying to remember where she had seen the girl. 7. I spent the whole evening re-reading the letters. 8. They walked in the garden admiring the flowers. 9 .

At last we all gathered waiting for dinner to be served. 10. She answered all my questions calmly trying to look indifferent .

Exercise 29

1. She looked at me thoughtfully as if taking seriously what I had said. 2. He moved about very slowly as if swimming. 3. He sat alone with his head propped in his hands as if listening to music. 4. The girl went on reading as if not hearing the telephone ring. 5. She stopped speaking as if waiting for me to speak. 6 .

She looked at me in a strange way as if seeing me for the first time. 7. The girl hesitated as though not quite knowing what to do. 8. They spoke very loudly as though trying to shout one another down. 9. She didn’t answer as if not understanding my question .

Exercise 30 3 There’s somebody coming. 6 There was nothing written on it .

4 There were a lot of people travelling. 7 There’s a course beginning next MonThere was nobody else staying there. day .

Exercise 31

Most likely answers:

2. + c. The teachers attending the meeting decided to go on strike .

3. + a. The people driving past waved to us .

4. + b. The man operating the equipment was dressed in protective clothing .

5. + f. The girl waiting for the bus is Jack's daughter .

6. + d. The steps leading down to the river are dangerous .

Exercise 32 2. ‘It was here a moment ago,’ said Sandra (or Sandra said), pointing to the empty table .

3. ‘I’ll get up in an hour or so,’ groaned Helen (or Helen groaned), turning over in bed .

4. ‘Well, I’m back,’ exclaimed Mark (or Mark exclaimed), smiling cheerfully at them .

Exercise 33

1. Having climbed or Climbing 3. Having spent (not Spending)

2. Having worked (not Working) 4. Having arrived or Arriving Exercise 34 2 + c. Not expecting anyone to be in the house, I walked straight in .

3 + f. Having been painted in dark colours, the room needed some bright lights. (‘Being painted in dark colours...’ is also possible.) 4 + e. Being unemployed, Dave had time to consider what job he really wanted .

5 + b. Not speaking Italian, I found life in Sicily difficult .

6 + a. Having been a teacher for 14 years, Barbara knew how to keep children interested .

(Note: The -ing, being + past participle (-ed), etc. phrases could also come after the main clause in these sentences, and in spoken English it is more natural for them to come in this position.) Exercise 41 2 The window broken in the storm last night has now been repaired .

3 Most of the suggestions made at the meeting were not very practical .

4 The paintings stolen from the museum haven’t been found yet .

5 What was the name of the man arrested by the police?

Exercise 43

1. Mary sat down on a fallen tree trunk. 2. In the drawing-room the music of Mozart was being played by an orchestra seen on the TV screen 3. There were six boxes there, wrapped tight in old newspapers. 4. She came up to the writing desk and brought out a sealed envelope. 5. The woman went out of the store and went to a car parked down the street. 6. The fallen leaves lay quiet on the pool. 7. Left alone I looked around me. 8. Taken by surprise they had nothing to say. 10. In the box there were some negatives rolled up in a tight coil .

Exercise 45

1. if 3. when 5. when 7. unless 9. when 11. though 13. even if

2. until 4. if 6. as though 8. if 10. as if 12. when

–  –  –

Exercise 50

1. In this shop you can buy things made in different Russian cities. 2. I always read books describing the life of outstanding people with great interest. 3. I live in the house built ten years ago. 4. Who found the key lost by you? 5. The engineer who waited for you yesterday has just called. Can you see him? 6. We must talk to all the people who sent us all these letters. 7. The author who wrote this novel travelled a lot .

8. The guests sitting at table talked loudly and laughed .

Exercise 51

3. living 5. called 7. sitting... reading

4. offering 6. blown 8. working... studying Exercise 53

1. The house facing the street was old. 2. We all looked at the laughing boy. 3. Approaching the station, we heard the noise of engines. 4. Having posted a letter, I hurried home. 5. Being tired, I went to bed early. 6. Though tired, my friend couldn’t help smiling. 7. When tired, I used to switch off the light and go to bed. 8. Having received a message, my sister left for Moscow immediately. 9. There were a few lines on a sheet of paper written in pencil. 10. The boy who lost his parents was sent to a children’s home. 11. When explained once again, the rule turned out to be easy. 12 .

You must learn the words given on page 20. 13. Having written out all the mistakes made by the students in the last test, the teacher wrote several exercises to practice grammar rules forgotten by the students. 14. Arriving at the station, Peter bought a ticket and seeing that he had plenty of time at his disposal went to look at the new theatre built not far from the station. 15. I couldn’t change my clothes having left my things at the station .

–  –  –

Exercise 56

2. Impressed by Jo’s work, the manager extended her contract for a year .

3. Having acquired the money through hard work, he was reluctant to give it away .

4. Having started the course, Alan was determined to complete it .

5. Not wanting to offend him, we said nothing about his paintings .

6. Not having seen all the evidence, I am reluctant to make a judgement .

(Note: Rewriting these sentences with -ing or past participle (-ed) clauses makes them more formal and more natural in formal written contexts than in informal writing or speech.) Exercise 57

1. sitting in the armchair 2. Being able to speak Finnish 3. Having split up with his wife 4. discovered under the floorboards 5. Having moved out 6. The people living closest to the river bank 7. making me feel sick 8. Not being very good at figures 9 .

built to last forever 10. If washed at a cool temperature 11. People playing loud music late at night 12. Having been unemployed for so long 13. If given enough time

–  –  –

Exercise 61 Born in Holland in 1853, Vincent Van Gogh is one of the world’s most famous painters. Although unrecognized throughout his life, his talent was much appreciated after his death .

Having failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong religious feelings. Having decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peasants and miners. During the next few years, known as his ‘Dutch period’, he produced paintings with rather dark greenish-brown colours .

In 1886, having gone to Paris to visit his brother Theo, he was immediately attracted to the Impressionist work he saw there. Encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures, his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful .

After moving/having moved to Aries in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically. This frenzied activity, interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings. One of these, called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, shows Van Gogh wearing a bandage after having cut off his own ear. A year later, in 1890, he committed suicide .

A lot is known about Van Gogh’s life and his feelings because of the hundreds of letters written by him to his brother Theo and others. Believing in Van Gogh’s genius, his brother always encouraged him in his work. He was the closest person to Van Gogh .

Exercise 63

2. We hired a Singapore-based design team .

3. It was a record-breaking performance (at the Olympic Games) .

4. The public square was tree-lined .

5. Tom is a self-employed builder. (to be self-employed - быть самозанятым, заниматься самостоятельной деятельностью; self-employed - мелкий предприниматель; Лицо, которое занимается мелким бизнесом, без найма других работников)

6. The new ‘Aircap’ is a labour-saving device .

7. It was a long-running/ lasting dispute .

8. The consequences of the proposals are far-reaching. (far-reaching - далеко идущий; влекущий серьёзные последствия; имеющий большие перспективы) Exercise 65

1. Being thoroughly dissatisfied with the picture, Mary (or any other name) hid it in the closet .

2. Seeing the advancing army, the family (or any noun) hid all valuables under the stairwell (лестничный колодец). (valuables - ценные вещи; ценности, драгоценности)

3. Plunging into the water, the lifeguard (or any noun) rescued the drowning child .

4. Criticizing the defendant (подсудимый) for his cruel behavior, the judge handed down (официально объявлять) the sentence .

5. After painting the car, the man gave it to his wife .

6. Being an early riser, Edna adjusted easily to her company’s new summer schedule .

7. After winning the tennis match, Nancy jumped for joy .

8. Having wandered through the mountain passes for days, the hikers discovered an abandoned shack (хижина, хибара) where they could take shelter (приют, убежище) .

9. Being very protective of its young, the mother eagle attacks all those who approach the nest .

10. Before playing ball, the baseball players observed a two-minute period of silence for their recently deceased (умерший) teammate .

11. Before singing the school song, the students recited a poem .

12. Moaning with pain, the victim was examined by a young doctor .

13. When using the device, you must remember that it may be dangerous .

14. Getting up at five, we got an early start .

15. Having been told to do it, she couldn’t lose a moment .

16. Starting out as an army officer, Karen’s father was frequently transferred .

17. Facing college standards, the students realized that they hadn’t worked hard enough in high school .

18. Being asked for her opinion, she blushed .

19. Coming along the street, I had an idea .

Exercise 67

1. It was a black day when London heard the enemy bombarding Chatham .

2. In the evenings I used to hear him playing passages of his own compositions .

3. He saw drinks being served an hour after the permitted hours .

4. They noticed the two small children playing in the yard .

5. The flight attendant watched the passengers climbing the ramp .

6. They heard the public-address system announcing it was necessary to fasten the safety-belts .

7. He felt the plane losing altitude on the approach to the aerodrome .

8. I noticed you looking at the drawings upstairs .

9. He was allowed to watch the instruments being prepared for the operation .

Exercise 69 1. …his wife and children waving him goodbye .

2. …the plane gathering speed .

3. …these problems being discussed in your magazine .

4. …the letter being read for the second time .

5. …him entering the room cautiously .

Exercise 71

1. He watched people hurrying to the trains. 2. He heard the water flowing. 3. He saw me looking at the photograph. 4. He found Fox talking in the kitchen. 5. I saw John playing tennis. 6. She opened the window and watched her children playing in the garden. 7. In my childhood I often heard my mother singing this song.8. Did anybody see him leaving?/Has anybody seen him leaving? 9. I found him crying. 10. I left her sleeping. 11. We saw him looking for something on the ground. 12. He noticed somebody watching him and understanding it decided to change his way. 13. I have never heard him speaking English. 14. I have never seen you dancing. 15. Do you hear me addressing you? 16. I didn’t hear him asking me a question. 17. I didn’t notice the train starting. 18. They watched the boys jumping into the water. 19. Don’t worry. I will have her doing everything properly. 20. I can’t imagine her cooking and sewing. 21. John didn’t want to find himself playing the role of a teacher. 22. He saw Arthur pouring a cup of coffee for himself. 23. He felt his hands trembling. 24. When George saw Tom crossing the street, he waved his hand to him. 25. Polly was working in the garden and didn’t hear the telephone ringing. 26. Have you ever seen them playing chess? 27 I started when I felt somebody touching my shoulder. 28.The wall of our house are very thin, and I can hear my neighbour playing the piano .

Exercise 76

1. the team beaten 3. my bike repaired 5. your bedroom tidied

2. her paintings displayed 4. the play performed 6. herself lifted up Exercise 77

1. I had my suit cleaned last month .

2. Mary will have her nails manicured before the concert .

3. Nora had the carpets beaten before the birthday party .

4. Mr. West had his article translated into French .

5. Mr. Brown had his advertisement printed in the newspaper .

6. They had their luggage brought to their room .

7. Peter must have his hair cut

8. Roger must have his bicycle repaired .

9. He must have his bad tooth pulled out .

10. Mr. Green must have his house painted .

11. I should like to have my suit pressed .

12. I should like to have the ticket delivered to the hotel .

13. Mr. West had a new fence made around his garden .

14. When did you have your car painted?

15. Would you like to have your parcel wrapped?

16. Would you like to have this parcel sent to your house?

17. Where can I have my suit cleaned?

18. Where can I have my car repaired?

19. Where can I have my shoes polished?

20. Have you had your refrigerator repaired?

21. When will you have a telephone installed in your flat?

Exercise 80

1. Mr. Jackson decided to have a garage built .

2. The boy took his exercise to the teacher to have it corrected .

3. Can’t you take this tea-pot back to the shop and have it changed?

4. This is a good story. You ought to have it printed. / You ought to have somebody print it .

5. Her winter coat looks very shabby. She must have it altered. / She must have somebody alter it .

6. My sweater is quite dirty. Could you have it washed? / Could you have somebody wash it?

7. Jane’s watch gains. She ought to go to the watchmaker’s and have the watch cleaned. /… and have them clean the watch .

–  –  –

Exercise 84

1. I had to wait two hours in the hospital to have a tooth filled. 2. I heard his name mentioned in this connection. 3. She slammed the drawer shut. 4. I left my wife well provided for. 5. I have kept their letters locked all these years. 6. He was determined to make himself respected. 7. I couldn’t have my only son expelled from the college .



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