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203. Markus Huss, Male Historians in Exile: Constantly Relating to Their Background, Baltic Worlds 3, no. 1 (2010): 1718 .

204. Some of the more prominent examples are found in the writings of Mykola Riabchuk, according to whom Ukraine is not just a normal nation, but rather, a postcolonial country shared near equally by the aboriginal and settler communities. Riabchuk juxtaposes the aboriginal Ukrainains to the Sioux population with (non-Ukrainian) settlers and invokes Hollywood images of Dances with Wolves. Under these conditions, Riabchuk argues that a part of Banderas legacy remains relevantthat of patriotism, national solidarity, self-sacrifi ce, idealistic commitment to common goals and values. Mykola Riabchuk, Banderas Controversy and Ukraines Future, Russkii vopros, no. 1, 2010:

http://www.russkiivopros.com/?pag=one&id=315&kat=9&csl=46#_edn13 (accessed April 28, 2010); idem, Ukraine: Revisiting a Success Story? Transitions Online, issue 10/17/2006: 4. On Riabchuks use of postcolonial rhetortic in the service of nationalism, see Rudling, Iushchenkiv fashyst, in Amar, Balynskyi, and Hrytsak, Strasti za Banderoiu, 254, and Roman Dubasevych, Dity rozpachu, zakhid. net, December 20, 2010: http://zaxid.net/article/82258/ (accessed December 20, 2010) .

205. Following president Yushchenkos designation of Stepan Bandera as Hero of Ukraine in January 2010, CIUS director Zenon Kohut defended Bandera and denied the fascist nature of the OUN. Zenon Kohut, Ukrainskyi natsionalizm, 145146, and Rudling, Iushchenkiv fashyst.

206. Only in the past few years have scholars started to give these institutions serious attention. See, for instance, OConnor, The Munich Institute for the Study of the USSR; Holian, Anticommunism in the streets; Julia Delande, Building a Home AbroadA Comparative Study of Ukrainain Migration, Immigration Policy and Diaspora Formation in Canada and Germany after the Second World War, Ph. D .

Dissertation, Hamburg University, 2006; Huss, Male Historians in Exile;

Rossoli#ski-Liebe,Celebrating Fascism.

207. Frank Golczewski, Besprechung, Jahrbuch fr Geschichte Osteuropas, 44, no. 4 (1996): 592 ff, cited in Bruder, Den ukrainischen Staat,12 .

208. Berkhoff and Carynnyk, The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, 149; Himka, War Criminality, 11; Bruder, Den ukrainischen Staat, 1213; Krzysztof Lada, Creative Forgetting: Polish and Ukrainian Historiographies on the Campaign against the Poles in Volhynia during World War II, Glaukopis, no. 2/3 (2005): 346; Himka, First Escape: Dealing with the Totalitarian Legacy in the Easrly Postwar Emigration, paper presented at the Workshop on National Politics and Population Migrations in Central and Eastern Europe, Center for Austrian Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 78 April, 2006, 7; idem, Central European Diaspora, 22; Jeffrey Burds, Access Restrictions in Central European Archives, round table discussion at the fortieth national convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, Philadelphia, November 23, 2008 .

209. Thus, only in 1996 did a complete version of Stetskos Akt of June 30, 1941, retaining the statement that the Ukrainian state would cooperate closely with Nazi Germany, appear in print. Volodymyr

Serhiichuk, ed., OUN-UPA v roky viiny: Novi dokumenty i materialy (Kyiv:





NAN Ukrainy, 1996), 239240. Confronted with primary documents that establish the anti-Semitic nature of the OUN, pronationalist historians have sometimes dismissed them as Soviet forgeries. See, for instance, Taras Hunczak, Problems of Historiograhy: History and Its Sources, Harvard Ukrainian Studies 25 (2001): 129142. For a discussion of this, see Himka and Kurylo, Iak OUN stavylasia do ievreiv? 253 .

210. Burds, Access Restrictions, 2008 .

211. Himka, War Criminality, 924; idem, Central European Diaspora,1731; Rudling, Iushchenkiv fashyst, 237309; Rossoli#skiLiebe, Celebrating Fascism.

212. Lew Shankowsky, Pro problemu antysemityzmu v Ukraini, Svoboda, February 3, 1960, cited in Himka, War Criminality, 10 .

213. Berkhoff and Carynnyk, The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, 152, citing Bohdan Osadczuk, Curesy i cymesy, Zustriczi 9 (1995): 30. Yet, during the war, Osadczuk (19202011) published antiSemitic material in the collaborationist press in occupied Poland .

Covering the Ustae press for Krakivski Visti, Osadczuk reported: The mass graves in Vinnytsia, Hrvatski Narod states, is new proof of the politics of destruction that the Jews from the Kremlin have conducted among the Ukrainian people. The murdered Ukrainians again throw guilt on Stalin and his Jewish collaborators and summon the world to an implacable struggle against the Jewish-Bolshevik threat, which would like to bring upon Europe the same fate that the defenseless vicitms in

Vinnytsia met. B[ohdan] O[sadchuk], Kryvava propahanda Ukrainy:

Vynnytsia v evropeiskii presi, Krakivski visti, August 7, 1943., cited in

John-Paul Himka, Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder:

Krakivski visti, the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnitsa Exhumation, paper presented at the University of Alberta Holocaust Workshop, January 14, 2005, 13 .

214. Taras Hunczak, Ukrainian-Jewish Relations during the Soviet

and Nazi Occupations, in Yuri Boshyk, ed., Ukraine during World War II:

History and Its Aftermath (Edmonton: CIUS, 1986), 42, 45 .

215. One of the initiators of the Waffen-SS division Galizien, Kubijovy% endorsed ethnic cleansing of Ukrainian lands and published anti-Semitic material during the Holocaust. Volodymyr Kubijovye, Pered maiestatom nepovynnoi krovy, Krakivski visti, July 8, 1941, cited in John-Paul Himka, The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Ukraine, in Joanna Michlic and John-Paul Himka, eds., Bringing to Light the Dark Past: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommununist Europe (forthcoming); John-Paul Himka, Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder, 19; Per A. Rudling, Organized Anti-Semitism in Contemporary Ukraine: Structure, Infl uence and Ideology, Canadian Slavonic Papers/Revue canadienne des slavistes 48, nos. 12 (MarchJune 2006): 96 .

216. Bohdan Wytwycky, Anti-Semitism, in Volodymyr Kubijovye, ed., Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Toronto: CIUS Press 1984), 1: 82. On Wytwyckys writings on Jews as communists and NKVD men, see Rudling, Organized Anti-Semitism, 9899, n. 81 .

217. Petro Mirchuk, My Meetings and Discussions in Israel: Are Ukrainians traditionally anti- Semites? (New York: Ukrainian Survivors of the Holocaust, 1982), 121 .

218. Bruder, Den Ukrainischen Staat, 167, n 69, citing Petro Mirchuk, In the German Mills of Death, 19411945, 2d ed. (New York, 1985), 17 .

219. Mirchuk habitually refers to Poles as degenerates, Jews as blood-suckers, Russians as Mongols and tyrants. Mirchuk, My Meetings and Discussions in Israel, 116, 118, 121, 122. He accused Jews of controlling the U.S. courts. What is Jewish justice doing in American courts? And why Jewish and not American justice? Are we a colony of theirs? Its not enough that our government gives Israel billions of our tax money each year for nothing, and now American courts must yield to Jewish demands?... Goebbels himself wouldnt have been able to turn the Americans against the Jews the way they did it themselves.... I repeat again and again, not as an anti-Semite but as your friend: the abuse of your infl uence in America for the purpose of persecuting innocent Ukrainians by accusing them of cooperation with the Germansis merely sowing the wind. And everyone is familiar with the proverb: Who sows in the wind, reaps the storm! Think over this carefully!... Im not threatening you with pogroms, Im only warning you .

All of those who have come to America from Eastern European counties, occupied by the Bolsheviks, know a great deal about the role of the Jews in the recent history of these landsa role which, for your own good, it would be better to cover-up before the American public. But with these trials of war criminalsthe so-called murderers of innocent Jews youre provoking them to reveal everything incriminating against the Jews. Is this what you want? These East-European migrs have children and grandchildren, born and raised as American citizens. When you maliciously and groundlessly accuse their forbearers of imaginary crimesand even generalize the accusation by claiming for example that all Ukrainians are anti-Semitesthen they, in turn, seeking to know the truth, learn from their parents about the role of the Jews in the apparatus of the bloody CheKa, GPU, NKVD, KGB; and they pass on this information to all their American acquaintances, co-workers, professors, journalists, et al. Tell me, do you really want that? Ibid., 124127 .

220. Mirchuk, My Meetings and Discussions in Israel, 66. (Srul is a derogarory term for Jews.)

221. Orest Subtelny, Ukraine: A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000), 489. This view came to have an impact also on Ukraine, as Subtelnys textbook, in Ukrainian translation, was widely used in Ukraine during the fi rst years of independence. Marples, Heroes and Villains, 7, 23, 4041 .

222. In a discussion at the Fifth Annual Danyliw Research Seminar in Contemporary Ukrainian Studies, the Chair of Ukrainian Studies, the University of Ottawa, October 30, 2009, Potichnyj argued that Jews, killed by the UPA, were killed because they were communists .

Interviewed by the Washington Post, he elaborated on this idea. As for the killings of Jews and Poles, Potichnyj argues that no matter where guerillas fi ght for liberation, its a messy affair. The Poles provoked the Ukrainians, he said. With respect to Jews, he said, obviously, in the situation there must have taken place some killing of the Jews, although in 1943, when the UPA was quite strong, there were hardly no Jews left because the Germans had, unfortunately, killed them all off. But there were some remnants, and the remnants were either working with the Ukrainian underground or they were working with the Soviets. Those allied with the Red partisans were obviously enemies of the underground, he said. John Pancake, In Ukraine, movement to honor members of WWII underground sets off debate, Washington Post, January 6, 2010: A7; John Paul Himka [Ivan-Pavlo Khymka], Chy ukrainski studii povynni zakhyshzhaty spadshchynu OUN-UPA?, in Amar, Balynskyi, Hrytsak, Strasti za Banderoiu, 163 .

223. What is also indisputable is that many Jews served in the Soviet secret police during that period of Soviet rule in Western Ukraine .

Naturally, Himka fails to mention the Jewish complicity which may have pointed to the motive of any number of oppressors.... While being Jewish in and of itself, certainly, was not reason to be killed, being Jewish was not immunity from being attacked when you sided and fought with the enemy. Askold S. Lozynskyj, Rewriting history: An

evidentary persepective, KyivPost, February 16, 2010:

http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/59650/print/ (accessed February 22, 2010) .

224. Volodymyr Serhiichuk, Nasha krovna svoii zemli (Kyiv:

Ukrainska vydavnycha spilka, 2000), 5657; Volodymyr Serhiichuk, Trahediia Volhyni: Prychynyi perebih polsko-ukrainskoho konfl iktu v roky druhoi svitovoi viiny (Kyiv: Ukrainska vydavnycha spilka, 2003). For a discussion on Serhiichuk, see Marples, Heroes and Villains, 232233, 236237 .

225. See the interview with Volodymyr Viatrovych, to which we will return to later. Masha Mishchenko, Pratsivnyk SBU: My izdyly v Izrail pobachaty dose proty Shukhevychaa ioho prosto ne isnue, UNIAN, March 25, 2008: http://unian.net/news/print.php?id=242913 (accessed April 8, 2008) .

226. For instance, on November 10, 2010 during the trial in Kyiv regarding the legality of Yushchenkos collective designation of the OUN and the UPA as Heroes of Ukraine, Petro Mykytovych Perepust, representing the Sumy chapter of the far-right Ukrainian National Assembly-Ukrainian National Self Defense (UNA-UNSO), justifi ed the murder, dismemberment, and slaughter [i ubyvaty, i pyliaty, i rizati]that is done all across the world when one people fi ght for their independence, they kill other people .

Legal argument, case 2a-6732/10, Za Pozovom Vitrenko Natalii Mykhailivni do Prezydenta Ukrainy shchodo vyznannia nezakonnym Ukazu Prezydenta Ukrainy vid 28 sichnia 2010 roku No. 75/2010 Pro vshanuvannia uzhastnykiv borotby za nezalezhnist Ukrainy u XX stolitti, Okruzhnyi Administratvnyi sud mista Kyeva, November 10, 2010. Press release, November 12, 2010 .

The proceedings are also available online:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znQjFCNCAXg (accessed November 12, 2010). Thanks to Krzysztof Janiga for this material .

227. In an interview, the 87-year-old Volhynian UPA veteran Ivan Hnatevych Kisliuk (b. 1923) presses the book Armiia bez Derzhavy, by the founder of the original UPA, into my hands, and told me to open to page 253. It reads: In the end of July 1943 the General Staff of the UNRA issued an appeal to the Ukrainian people, in which it protested against all those measures, which were condemned as the disreputable acts of blinded totalitarians, and emphasized that the full responsibility for the crimes falls upon the leader of the OUN Bandera, Mr. Mykola LebedRuban. See, Ruban, Jew! [zhyd!], Mr. Kisliuk said, pointing at Lebeds Ashkenazi-sounding nom de guerre, which to him proved Jewish responsibility for the Volhyn massacres. Bulba-Borovets, Armiia bez derzhavy, 253. Personal interview, Kyiv-Troishchina, Ukraine, September 23, 2010 .

228. Weiner, Making Sense of War, 161172 .

229. V. R. Nakhmanovych, Bukovynskyi Kurin i masovi rozsteli evreiv Kyiva voseni 1941 r., Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal no. 3 (474), (MayJune 2007): 90 .

230. John-Paul Himka, The Reception of the Holocaust.

231. Himka, War Criminality; idem, Central European Diaspora;

Glenn Sharfman, The Quest for Justice: The Reaction of the UkrainianAmerican Community to the John Demjanjuk Trials, Journal of Genocide Research 2, no. 1 (2000): 6587 .

232. Petro J. Potichnyj was one of the few exceptions among the pronationalist scholars. He reached out to the Jewish community, aiming at a dialogue. Howard Aster and Peter Potichnyj, Jewish-Ukrainian Relations: Two Solitudes (Oakville, ON: Mosaic Press, 1983); idem, eds., Ukrainian-Jewish Relations in Historical Perspective (Edmonton: CIUS and University of Alberta, 1990) .

233. Berkhoff and Carynnyk, The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, 149, 151, 152, citing Mykola Lebed, Orhanizatsiia protynimetskoho opouru OUN, 19411943 rokiv, Suchasnist, no. 12 (JanuaryFebruary 1983): 154 .

234. Berkhoff and Carynnyk, The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, 151, citing Wolodymyr Kosyk, Problems of the History of OUN and UPA, Ukrainian Review 40 (Spring 1993): 2627 .

235. Petro J. Potichnyj, in Yevhen Shtendera and Petro J .

Potichnyj, eds., Litopys UPA, vol. 17, English-Language Publications of the Ukranian Underground (Toronto: Litopys UPA, 1988), 140 .

236. Taras Hunczak, Between Two Leviathans: Ukraine during the Second World War, in Bohdan Krawchenko, ed., Ukrainian Past, Ukrainian Present: Selected Papers from the Fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, Harrogate, 1990 (New York: St .

Martins Press, 1993), 99 .

237. Alexander Motyl, The Turn to the Right: The Ideological Origins and Development of Ukrainian Nationalism, 19191929 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980), 166 .

238. Alexander Motyl, Ukraine, Europe, and Bandera, Cicero

Foundation Great Debate Paper, 10/05 (March 2010), 6:

http://www.cicerofoundation.org/lectures/Alexander_J_Motyl_Ukraine_Eu rope_and_Bandera.pdf 6 .

239. It makes no sense to refer to Eastern Europeans, who were regarded by the Germans as subhumans, as Nazi war criminals; they were not allowed to join the Nazi Party. Myroslav Yurkevich, in Discussion, in Bozhyk, Ukraine in World War II, 158. Yet, National Socialism attracted many Eastern Europeans. In fact, Nazi Germany categorically banned any use of swastikas and other Nazi symbols in the migr press, as well as prohibited the use of the term National Socialist in the names of any Slavic migr organizations in Germany .

Iury Hrybouski, Belaruski rukh i Niamechchyna napiaredadni i u pachatku Druhoi susvetnai vainy, ARCHE No. 5 (80), (May 2009): 152 .

240. Hunczak, Ukrainian-Jewish Relations, 4445. Similarly Mykola Riabchuk describes the OUNs collaboration and anti-Semitism as rather disputable and relies on Motyls defi nition, in which collaborators are individuals or groups who abandon their sovereign aspirations and serve another powers goals. Mykola Riabchuk, Banderas Controversy and Ukraines Future, citing Motyl, Ukraine, Europe, and Bandera, 6 .

241. Daniel Ursprung, Faschismus in Ostmittel- und Sdosteuropa: Theorien, Anstze, Fragestellungen, in Der Einfl uss von Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus auf Minderheiten in Ostmittel- und Sdosteuropa, ed. Mariana Hausleitner and Harald Roth (Munich: IKGSVerlag, 2006), 22 .

242. Alexander Motyl, Is Putins Russia Fascist? National Interest Online, December 3, 2007: http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/insidetrack-is-putins-russia-fascist-1888 .

243. Motyl, Is Putins Russia Fascist? and idem, Surviving

Russias Drift to Fascism, Kyiv Post, January 17, 2008:

http://www.kyivpost.com/opinion/oped/28182/ (both accessed January 15, 2011) .

Andreas Umland has taken Motyl to task over his use of this terminology. If we would apply Motyls loose conceptualization of fascism to contemporary world history, we might fi nd so many fascisms that the term would lose much of its heuristic and communicative value. .

.. Motyls comment is in so far unconstructive as he deprives researchers of Russian nationalism of an important analytic tool. Andreas Umland, Is Putins Russia Really Fascist? A Response to Alexander Motyl: http://www.globalpolitician.com/print.asp?id=4341 (accessed January 15, 2011) .

244. Motyl, Ukraine, Europe, and Bandera,14 .

245. Wilfried Jilge, Competition Among Victims? The Image of the Other in Post-Soviet Ukrainian Narratives on World War II, in Heorhii Kasianov, ed., Obraz inshoho v susidnikh istoriakh: mifi, stereotypy, naukovi interpretatsii: Materialy mizhnarodnoi naukovi konferentsii, Kyiv, 1516 hrudnia 2005 roku (Kyiv: NAN Ukrainy, Instytut istorii Ukrainy, 2008), 66 .

246. This interpretation has found a receptive audience among some pro-OUN and UPA diaspora historians. See, for instance, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Director Zenon Kohuts reply to John-Paul Himka Re: Should Ukrainian Studies Defend the Heritage of OUN-UPA? February 12, 2010. Dominique Arels Ukraine List, UKL 441 (Bandera-OUN and Famine Debates), February 16, 2010:

http://www.ukrainianstudies.uottawa.ca/pdf/UKL441.pdf .

247. For instance, public intellectual Mykola Riabchuk sees no diffi culty with the UPA cult, as long as the focus remains on their ethical rather than ideological values and as long as their ideology, ethnic cleansing or mass murders are not celebrated. The UPA fi ghters.. .

are praised fi rst of all for their patriotism and commitment to the nationalliberation cause, for their idealism and dedication, for spiritual strength and self-secrifi ce. Mykola Riabchuk, Ukraine: Neither Heroes nor Villains: Review of Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine, by David Marples (Budapest: Central European Press, 2007), Transitions Online, 6 February 2007 .

248. See, for instance, the interview with Volodymyr Viatrovych, .

Masha Mishchenko, Pratsivnyk SBU.

249. See, for instance Peter J. Potichnyj and Yevhen Shtendera, eds., Political Thoughts of the Ukrainian Underground, 19431951 (Edmonton: CIUS and University of Alberta, 1986); Himka, War Criminality, 11. See Rudling, Theory and Practice; &ada, Creative Forgetting; Marples, Heroes and Villains, 298301; Dietsch, Making Sense of Suffering, 147176; Grzegorz Rossolinski-Liebe, Der polnischukrainische Historikerdiskurs ber den polnisch-ukrainischen Konfl ikt, 19431947, Jahrbcher fr Geschichte Osteuropas 57, no. 1 (2009):

5485 .

250. Howard Aster, Refl ections on the Work of Peter J .

Potichnyj, Journal of Ukrainian Studies 21, no. 12 (1996): 226227 .

Potichnyj largely limits his focus to the period during which OUN and UPA took a more liberal and open position to national minorities. See, for instance, Potichnyj and Shtendera, Political Thoughts of the Ukrainian Underground, a collection of essays partly based upon Mykola Lebeds archives. Unsurprisingly, there is next to nothing in the Litopys UPA on the topic of the Volhynian massacres in 1943, and total silence on UPA murders of Jews .

251. Andreas Umland, Die andere Anomalie der Ukraine: ein Parlament ohne rechtsradikale Fraktionen, Ukraine-Analysen, no. 41 (2008): 710. migr nationalists who reestablished contacts in Ukraine, used to clandestine work, were often disappointed the organization and nature of the nationalists in the old country. See, for instance, Sukhoverskyi, Moi Spohady, 237 .

252. For examples of this narrative, see Petro Sodol, Foreigners in the UPA, Ukrainian Quarterly 58, no. 4 (2002): 342348; Volodymyr Kosyk, Organizational Conditions and the Initial Struggle of the

Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), Ukrainian Quarterly 58, no. 4 (2002):

310325; Volodymyr Viatrovych, [Viatrovych] The Communist Alliance against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), Ukrainian Quarterly 58, no .

4 (2002): 326341; Herbert Romerstein, The KGB Disinformation Campaign Against Ukrainians and Jews, Ukrainian Quarterly 58, no. 4 (2002): 349360 .

253. Serhiichuk, Nasha krovna svoii zemli, 3, 42, 77 .

254. Vasyl Derevinskyi, Stavlennia OUN(b) i UPA do susidnikh narodiv ta natsionalnykh menshyn (Kyiv: Natsionalna Akademiia nauk Ukrainy, Instytut istorii Ukrainy, 2006), 44 .

255. Serhii Hrabovskyi, Tak proty koho zh voiuvav Shukhevych u

Bilorusi? Ukrainska Pravda:

http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2007/11/13/66774.htm (accessed November 18, 2007). On Hrabovskyis celebration of OUN-UPA and Waffen-SS division Galizien, see Marples, Heroes and Villains, 231232 .

256. Hunczak, Problems of Historiograhy, 136 .

257. Morton Weinfeld, Like Everyone Else... but Different: The Paradoxical Success of Canadian Jews (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2001), 213214; Daniel Mendelsohn, Lost A Search for Six of Six Million (London: HarperCollins, 2007), 99; Golczewski, Shades of Grey, 114155 .

258. See, for example, Himka, The Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Holocaust, 15, citing the USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education, 20586 Jack Glotzer, 1215; Spector, The Holocaust of Volhynian Jews, 358; Ahron Weiss, Jewish-Ukrainian Relations in Western Ukraine During the Holocaust, in Peter J. Potichnyj and Howard Aster, eds., Ukrainian-Jewish Relations in Historical Perspective (Edmonton: CIUS and University of Alberta, 1990), 409420;

Weiner, Making Sense of War, 270271 .

259. See Mykola Lebed, UPA: Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia (n.p .

1946), 3536; for other early claims on Jews in UPA, see Petro Mirchuk, Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia,19421952 (Munich: Cicero,1953),6972 .

260. Lebed, Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia, 3536, cited in Friedman, Ukrainian-Jewish Relations, 204 .

261. Leo Heiman, We Fought For Ukrainethe Story of Jews Within the UPA, Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 2 (Spring 1964):3344 .

262. Dr. Stella Krentsbakh, Zhyvu shche zavdiaky UPA, in Petro Mirchuk and V. Davydenko, eds., V riadakh UPA: Zbirka spomyniv buv .

Voiakiv Ukrainskoi Povstanskoi Armii (New York: Nakladom T-va b .

Voiakiv UPA v ZDA i Kanadi, 1957), 342349 .

263. The questionable source mentioned here is the memoir, allegedly by a Jewish woman named Stella Kreutzbach, in Nasha Meta, Toronto 27 and December 4, 1954; Ukrainske Slovo (Buenos Aires), October 10, 1954; Kalendar Almanakh na 1957 Rik (Calendar Almanac for 1957) (Buenos Aires): 9297. Kalendar also features an article by Dmitry Andreyewsky (pp. 8891), in which he states that Stella Kreutzbach went to Palestine after the war, where she was later employed as a secretary in the foreign ministry, and that several weeks after the publication of her memoirs in the Washington Post (which the Ukrainian publication credited for fi rst releasing the memoirs) she was mysteriously shot and killed. I checked the Washington Post of that period and did not fi nd the memoirs. At my request, Dr. N. M. Gelber of Jerusalem made inquiry in the foreign ministry there; the reply was that the ministry had never had an employee by that name and that such a case of homicide was entirely unknown. Moreover, a careful analysis of the text of the memoirs has led me to the conclusion that the entire story is a hoax. Similarly, the Ukrainian writer B. Kordiuk labels the story a mystifi cation; he states that none of the members of the UPA known to him ever met or heard of her. Philip Friedman, Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust, ed. Ada June Friedman, introduction by Salo Wittmeyer Baron (New York: Conference on Jewish Social Studies, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1980), 203204 .

264. The Krentsbakh/Kreutzbach forgery was also discussed in the Ukrainian migr press, where the writer Bohdan Kordiuk concorded with Friedmans conclusions: The careful historian Friedman give the story of Dr. Stella Krentsbakh, who Thanks UPA for her Life, which has been reprinted so many times, his attention, but fi nds nothing about her. And rightly so, since none of the UPA veterans, known by the author of these lines, either heard or knew of this legendary Stella Krentsbakh. Neither have any Jews heard of her. Hardly any one of the tens of thousands of Ukrainians refugees claim to have met this Stella Krentsbakh. The biography, attributed to her in certain places, does not hold up to critical scrutiny; claims that she would have been working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs do not correspond to the truth. And some were nonsensical claimsthat she would have been killed on the streets of Jerusalem from a shot to the nape of her neck, supposedly due to her favorable memories of the UPA. That nonsense constitutes a jungle of the prejudices which so burden Ukrainian-Jewish relations. It seems to us, that as long as there is still no independent evidence, the stories of Dr. Stella Krentsbakh need to be regarded as a mystifi cation. Bohdan Kordiuk, Retsenzii: Pro liudei, spovnennykh samoposviaty: Their Brothers Keepers by Philip Friedman. With a Foreword by Father John A. OBrien. Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1957, pp. 224, Suchasna Ukraina (Munich) 15 (194), July 20, (1958): 7 .

265. Tatiana Zhurzhenko, The Geopolitics of Memory, Eurozine, May 10, 2007. Available online: http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2007zhurzhenko-en.html (accessed November 9, 2010) .

266. Dietsch, Making Sense of Suffering, 223226 .

267. Andreas Umland and Anton Shekhovtsov, Pravoradikalnaia partiinaia politika v postsovetskoi Ukraine: zagadka elektoralnoi marginalnosti ukrainskikh ultranatsionalistov v 19942009 gg., Ab Imperio, no. 2 (2010): 219247 .

268. Johan Dietsch, Imagining the Missing Neighbor: Jews and the Holocaust in Ukrainian History Textbooks, in Heorhii Kasianov, Obraz inshoho v susidnikh istoriakh: mifi, stereotypy, naukovi interpretatsii: Materialy mizhnarodnoi naukovi konferentsii, Kyiv, 1516 hrudnia 2005 roku (Kyiv: NAN Ukrainy, Instytut istorii Ukrainy, 2008), 202, citing David Levy and Nathan Sznaider, Memory Unbound: The Holocaust and the Formation of Cosmopolitan Memory, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 5, No. 1 (2002): 100 .

269. Wilfried Jilge, Zmanannia zhertv, Krytyka, vol. 10, no. 5 (May, 2006): 1417. 270. Ihor Yukhnovskyi (b. 1925) is a physicist, not a trained historian. An enthusiastic admirer of Bandera and Shukhevych, the OUN and UPA, Yukhnovskyi has occasionally voiced anti- Semitic views. Aleksandr Burakovskyi, Key Characteristics and Transformation of Jewish-Ukrainian Relations during the Period of Ukraines Independence, 19912008, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 15, no. 1 (2009): 121; Zenon Zawada, Kyiv conference focuses on World War II and hisotrical memory, Ukrainian Weekly, no. 44, November 1, 2009,

18. On Yukhnovskyis sympathies for the Social Nationalists, see Lilia Kuzik, Ihor Iokhnovskyi: Ta derzhava zh mala utvorytysia. I ia robiv, shchob vona utvorylas, Zaxid.net, August 11, 2011 .

http://zaxid.net/home/showSingleNews.do?igor_yuhnovskiyta_derzhava_ zh_mala_utvoritisya_i_ya_vse_robiv_shhob_vona_utvorilas&objectId=12 33429 (accessed October 2, 2011) The Social-Nationalist Party of Ukraine (SNPU) mobilized the neo-fascist right and used an SS symbol as party emblem. In 2004 it was renamed the All-Ukrainian accociation Svoboda. Anton Shekhovtsov, The Creeping Resurgence of the Ukrainian Radical Right? The Case of the Freedom Party, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 63, No. 2, (March 2011): 213 .

271. Lypovetskyi, OUN banderivtsi, 84 .

272. OUN(b) veteran Volodymyr Kosyk serves as its honorary director, and Petro Sodol (b. 1935), aformer president of the OUN(z)-affi liated publishing house Prolog in New York and a senior member of the Ukrainian nationalist youth organization Plast .

http://upa.in.ua/book/?page_id=5#zabilyj (accessed December 15, 2010) .

On Plast and SUM in the diaspora, see Per A. Rudling, Multiculturalism, Memory, and Ritualization: Ukrainian Nationalist Monuments in Edmonton, Alberta, Nationalities Papers, Vol. 39, no. 5 (September, 2011): 738739 .

273. For a list of the TsDVRs intellectual collaborators and partners, see http://cdvr.org.ua/content/ (accessed October 1, 2011)

274. News release of the Center for the Research of the Liberation Movement, TsDVR, Informatsiina dovidka;

http://upa.in.ua/book/?page_id=7 (accessed December 15, 2010) .

275. Sofi a Hrachova, Unknown Victims: Ethnic-Based Violence of the World War II Era in Ukrainian Politics of History after 2004, paper presented at the Fourth Annual Danyliw Research Seminar in Contemporary Ukrainian Studies, Chair of Ukrainian Studies, University of Ottawa, October 2325, 2008, 9 .

276. Endorsement by Ihor Yukhnovskyi, Academician, head of the Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, in Volodymyr Viatrovych, ed., Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia: Istoriia neskorenykh (Kyiv: Tsentr doslidzhen vyzvolnoho rukhu, 2007), back cover .

277. Instytut natsionalnoi pamiati zvernuvsia do Iushchenka, aby vin prysvoiv Romanu Shukhevychu zvannia Heroia Ukrainy, Zik: syla informatsii, July 2, 2007: http://zik.com.ua/ua/ news/2007/07/02/80305 (accessed October 15, 2010) .

278. On the state honoring of Stetsko, see Viktor Yushchenko, Ukaz prezydenta Ukrainy No. 416/2007 Pro vshanuvannia pamiati

Iaroslava Stetska i Iaroslavy Stetsko:

http://www.president.gov.ua/documents/6145.html (accessed April 10, 2008). On the cult of Shukhevych, see Per A. Rudling, The Shukhevych Cult in Ukraine: Myth Making with Complications, World War II and the (Re)Creation of Historical Memory in Contemporary Ukraine, Kyiv, September 25, 2009. Available online http://ww2histroricalmemory.org.ua/abstract_e.html (accessed October 11, 2009) .

On Bandera, see Amar, Balynskyi, and Hrytsak, Strasti za Banderoiu. In December 2010, the Kyiv city council declared that they will rename city streets after Shukhevych, Stestko, and Melnyk. Na Oboloni ziavytsia vulitsia Romana Shukhevycha, Ukrainska pravda: Istorychna pravda,

December 16, 2010:

http://www.istpravda.com.ua/short/2010/12/16/9227/ (accessed December 17, 2010) .

279. Swedish historian Gran B. Nilsson describes the Soviet practice of writing history from the perspective of a constantly changing present as chronological imperialism. Gran B. Nilsson, Historia som humaniora, Historisk Tidsskrift no. 1 (1989): 1, 4 .

280. To commemorate the centennial of the birth of the OUN poet Olena Teliha, President Yushchenko in 2006 issued a presidential decree to erect a memorial to her and her associates in Babin Yar, where her body had been buried in 1942. Aleksandr Burakovskyi, Istoriia memoralizatsii evreiskoi tragedii v Babem Iaru za god ee 70-letiia: pozor Ukrainy, My Zdes, no. 278:

http://www.newswe.com/index.php?go=Pages&in=view&id=2725 (accessed October 3, 2010), citing Yushchenko decree No. 416/2006. In Drohobych, a monument to Bandera has been erected at the site of the former ghetto. Omer Bartov, Erased: Vanishing Traces of Jewish Galicia in Present-Day Ukraine (Princeton, Conn.:Princeton University Press, 2007), 5253 .

281. Jilge, Zmanannia zhertv, 14 .

282. Viatrovych, Stavlennia OUN do ievreiv .

283. There is no shortage of such memoirs. See for example Shimon Redlich, Together and Apart in Brzezany: Poles, Jews and Ukrainians, 19191945 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002), 103104; Reuben Ainsztein, Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe: With a Historical Survey of the Jew as Fighter and Soldier in the Diaspora (London: Paul Elek, 1974), 252256. On the OUNs and the UPAs attitude to Jews during the war, see Weiner, Making Sense of War, 239297 .

284. A Wehrmacht intelligence report from April 1944 reports that the UPA has successfully taken up pursuit of the Jewish gangsters and up to now shot almost 100. Staatsanwaltschaft Dortmund 45 Js 24/62, Bd Reste von Gutachten und Dokumenten aus dem Bestand des Pz .

AOK 4, BA-MA, RH-21, Pz. AOK 4, Abt. Ic/AO, Ttigkeitsbericht, April 1944, as cited in Golczewski, Shades of Grey, 143. On this topic, see Weiner, Making Sense of War, 263264 .

285. Pres-tsentr Sluzhba bezpeki Ukrainy, U Sluzhby bezpeky Ukrainy vidbulys Hromadski istorychni slukhannia Evrei v Ukrainskomu Vyzvolnomu ruzi, April14,2008,http://www.sbu.gov.ua/sbu/control/uk/publish/article?art_id= 77689&cat_id=39574 (accessed April 14, 2008) .

286. Iryna Ehorova, Volodymy Viatrovych: Holovnym subektom istorychnoho protsesu v Ukra)ni XX stolittia bula ne URSR, a ukra)nskyi

vyzvolnyi rukh, Den, February 18, 2008:

http://www.ukrnationalism.org.ua/interview/?n=69 (accessed March 16, 2008) .

287. John-Paul Himka, True and False Lessons from the

Nachtigall Episode, Brama, March 19,2008:

http://brama.com/news/press/2008/03/080319himka_nachtigall.html (accessed March 19, 2008). See also Kurylo and Himka [Khymka], Iak OUN stavylasia do ievreiv? 252265 .

288. Viatrovych, Stavlennia OUN, 7881. At the April 2008 conference at the SBU, Viatrovych repeated his argument on the SBU website, adding an additional example of a Jew in the UPA, Leiba-Itsko Dobravskyi. U Sluzhby bezpeki Ukrainy.

289. Viatrovych, Stavlennia OUN, 74, citing R. Petrenko, Za Ukrainu, za ii voliu. Spohady, Litopys Ukrainskoi Povstanskoi Armii, 27 (Toronto and Lviv: Litopys UPA, 1997), 173 .

290. Himka, Ukrainians, Jews, and the Holocaust, 47 .

291. As of January 2011, the documents were still available on the website of the Ukrainian Embassy in Canada, Novini, Posolstvo

Ukrainy v Kanadi, February 6, 2008:

http://www.ukremb.ca/canada/ua/news/detail/11684.htm (accessed January 18, 2011) .

292. Iaryna Iasynevych, Viatrovych: Kampania proty Shukhevycha ne maie istorychnoi osnovy,Narodna Pravda, March 4, 2008: http://narodna.pravda.com.ua/history/47cd371e88b05/ (accessed March 16, 2008) .

293. Volodymyr Viatrovych, Iak tvorylasia lehenda pro

Nakhtihal, Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, no. 6 (685) 1622 February 2008:

http://www.dt.ua/3000/3150/62036/ (accessed March 16, 2008)

294. Mishchenko, Pratsivnyk SBU.

295. SBU, U Sluzhbi bezpeky Ukrainy vidbulys Hromadski istorychni slukhannia Evrei v Ukrainskomu vyzvolnomu rusi, April 14, 2008:

http://www.sbu.gov.ua/sbu/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=77689&cat_i d=39574 (accessed April 14, 2008) .

296. Wilfried Jilge, Nationalukrainischer Befreiungskampf: Die Umwertung des Zweiten Weltkrieges in der Ukraine, Osteuropa 58, (2008): 179 .

297. SBU, U Sluzhbi bepeki Ukrany vidkrylas fotovystavka Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia. Istoria neskorennykh, May 27, 2008:

http://www.sbu.gov.ua/sbu/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=78839&cat_i d=78711 (accessed August 21, 2008) .

298. Viatrovych, Stavlennia OUN, 96, citing HDA SBU, f. 13, spr .

376, tom 65, ark. 283295; SBU, Evrei v Ukrainskomu vyzvolnomu rusi.

299. SBU, Sluzhba bezpeki Ukrainy vidkryvae dlia shyrokoho zahalu arkhivni materially shchodo osib, prychetnykh do orhanizatsii ta zdiisnennia politiki Holodomoru-Henotsydurepresii http://www.sbu .

gov.ua/sbu/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=80420&cat_id=395 (accessed August 7, 2008) .

300. SBU, U Sluzhbi bezpeki Ukrainy vidkrylas fotovystavka Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia. Iurii Shukhevych (b. 1933) is the son of UPA commander Roman Shukhevych and leader of the far-right UNAUNSO, the Ukrainian sister party of the German neo-Nazi NPD. It is openly antidemocraticin the 1990s its propaganda posters carried the slogan Vote for us and you will never have to vote again. Along with Levko Lukianenko (b. 1928), Shukhevych was one of the more prominent nationalist dissidents and a cause celebre for the migr OUN. Following independence, Lukianenko became Ukraines leading anti-Semite. Yushchenko designated both Iuryi Shukhevych and Lukianenko Heroes of Ukraine. Per A. Rudling, Anti-Semitism and the Extreme Right in Contemporary Ukraine, in Andrea Mammone, Emmanuel Godin, and Brian

Jenkins, eds., Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe:

From Local to Transnational (forthcoming); John-Paul Himka, The Importance of the Situational Element in East Central European Fascism, East Central Europe 37 (2010): 357 .

301. Fishbein: ne dopustit Ukrainu v NATOspetsoperatsiia

Kremlia, DELFI, July 12, 2009:

http://www.delfi.ua/news/daily/foreign/fishbejn-ne-dopustit-ukrainu-vnato---specoperaciyakremlya.d?id=467241 (accessed September 7, 2009); Svitlana Makovytska, Maestro bozhystoi movy: Ukrainskyi poet Moisei Fishbeinpro politychnyi daltonizm, heniiv slova i heroiv Ukrainy,

Ukraina moloda, November 28, 2007:

http://www.umoloda.kiev.ua/number/1051/171/37785/(accessed December 5, 2007). Fishbein repeats, almost verbatim, the same statements in subsequent interviews. Olha Betko, Poet M. Fishbein: dlia mene UPAtse sviate, BBC Ukrainian Service, October 14, 2008 .

302. For Fishbeins complete speech, see Moses Fishbein, The Jewish Card in Russian Special Operations Against Ukraine: Paper delivered at the 26th Conference on Ukrainian Subjects at the University

of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2427, June 2009:

http://www.vaadua.org/VaadENG/News%20eng-2009/fi shbeyn2.htm (accessed November 8, 2009) .

303. Fishbein, The Jewish Card; Russia uses Jewish card to destabilize Ukraine, Fishbein says, Ukrainian News, 25 JuneJuly 8, 2009, 6; and Marko Levytsky, UPA detractors fan the fl ames of ethnic discord, Ukrainian News, February 18March 3, 2010, 6 .

304. Moses Fishbein, The Jewish ard in Russian Operations

against Ukraine, Kyiv Post, June 30, 2009:

http://www.kyivpost.com/opinion/44324 (accessed September 7, 2009) .

305. Paul Goble, Window on Eurasia: Moscow Special Services Again Play the Jewish Card against Ukraine, Kyiv writer Says, Window on Eurasia, July 9, 2009: http://windowoneurasia.blogspot .

com/2009/07/window-on-moscow-special.html (accessed September 5, 2009). Goble presents himself as a longtime specialist on ethnic and religious questions in Eurasia, and worked, among other things, for the U.S. State Department, the CIA, and RFE/RL until 2004, when he made a career as vice dean and director of research at several universities in the former Soviet Union .

306. Krentsbakh, Zhivu schche zavdiaky UPA; Spohady Stelly KrentsbakhZhyvu shche zavdlaiky UPA. Memoirs of Stella KrenzbachI Am Alive Thanks to the UPA, October 25, 2009, on Moisei Fishbeins blog: http://mosesfi shbein.blogspot.com/2009/10/memoirs-of-stella-krenzbachi-am-alive.html (accessed October 25, 2009) .

307. Ievreika Stella Krentsbakh rozpovila, shcho vyzhyla zavdiaky

UPA, Press-tsentr TsDVR, December 9, 2009:

http://upa.in.ua/book/?p=929 (accessed December 15, 2010) .

308. Levytsky, UPA detractors fan the fl ames of ethnic discord, 6: Marco Levytsky, Open letter villifi es freedom fi ghters, minimizes Holodomor, Kyiv Post, May 6, 2011 http://www.kyivpost .

com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/103827/print/ (Accessed May 10, 2011) Riabchuk also repeats the Viatrovych/Fishbein line that quite a few Jews were rescued by nationalists, and some of them even joined UPA to fi ght both Nazis and Soviets. Banderas Controversy and Ukraines Future.

309. Victor Rud, RE: John Pancakes UPA Article of January 6, 2010, Open letter to the Washington Post on behalf of the Ukrainian American Bar Association, January 22, 2010, citing Fishbein, The Jewish Card in Russian Special Operations Against Ukraine.

310. Moses Fishbein, Listivka UPA Evreihromadiany Ukrainy. 1950 rik, December 7, 2009: http://mosesfi shbein.blogspot.com/2009/12/1950.html (accessed December 7, 2009) .

311. Kurylo and Himka, Iak OUN stavylasia do ievreiv?

312. This is based upon Viatrovychs most positive estimate, which includes the four named Jews, the Stella Krentsbakh/Kreutzbach forgery and her claim that she worked with twelve Jews in her sanitary unit: twenty-fi ve Jews divided by the lowest estimate of about 25,000 UPA insurgents in 1943. Viatrovych, Stavlennia OUN, 7482. In order to provide a perspective here, this handful of Jewish physicians in the UPA should be put in relation to estimates that between 25,000 and 40,000 people served in the UPA in 19431944 and that perhaps as many as 300,000 people came through the ranks of the OUN-UPA. Marples, Heroes and Villains, 131132, 169. The estimates of the number of people organized in the OUN and UPA varies. Stanislav Kulchytskyi estimates that 400,000 people were organized by the OUN-UPA between 1929 and the middle of the 1950s, or 10 percent of the Western Ukrainian population .

Stanislav Kulchytskyi, Polska problematyka w ukrai#skich badaniach historii OUN-UPA, in Antypolska akcja OUNUPA, 19431944: Fakty i interpretacje (Warsaw, 2003), 137, cited in Bruder, Den ukrainischen Staat, 279. German estimates from the end of 1943 put UPA membership at 40,000. Nationalist sources claim 100,000 members, but well-substantiated estimates provide numbers between 30,000 and 40,000 soldiers. John Armstrong, Ukrainian Nationalism, 3d ed. (Englewood, Colo.: Ukrainian Academic Press, 1990), 115 .

313. See, for instance the story of Ludwik Wrodarczyk, a Roman Catholic village priest in Okopy in Volhynia, a rescuer of Jews who in 2000 was designated as Righteous of Nations. The UPA kidnapped and killed him in December 1943. Maria Debowska and Leon Popek, Duchowie"stwo diecezji !uckiej: Ofi ary wojny i represji okupantw, 1939 1945 (Lublin: Polihymnia Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 2010). In Hanachevka (Hanaczw) in Galicia, the commander of the Polish selfdefense, Kazimierz Wojtowicz, assisted dozens of Jews in the village .

The Jews of Hanachevka organized a Jewish platoon, fi ghting the UPA together with the local Poles within the ranks of Armja Krajowa .

Wojtowicz survived the war and was, together with his two brothers designated as Righteous of Nations. Marples, Heroes and Villains, 206;

Jerzy Wigierski, W lwowskiej Armii Krajowej (Warsaw: PAX), ch. 27;

Motyka, Ukranska partzyantka, 382 .

314. Sered heroiv novoho romanu Zabuzhko Muzei pokynutykh sekretiv kolysgni viazni tiurmy na Lontskoho Press-tsentr TsDVR, December 24, 2009: http://upa.in.ua/book/?p=981#more-981 (accessed December 27, 2010). Zabuzhko writes that Viatrovychs center provided her with half a bag full of working materialxero copies, DVDs, photographs and memoirs on the history of the Ukrainian Resistancethe Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). Popil Klaasa, Ofi tsiina storinka Oksany Zabuzhko, http://www.zabuzhko.com/ua/critique/ukrhellebosch.html (accessed December 27, 2010) .

315. Lvivski novyny: Oksana Zabuzhko: Ia ne pysala istorii

UPAia pysala lav-stori, Vysokyi zamok, January 26, 2010:

http://news.lvivport.com/content/view/20694/26/ (accessed December 27, 2010) .

316. Only 6 percent of Ukrainians had a very positive attitude toward the OUN(b), and 8 percent basically positive, whereas 30 percent were very negative, and 15 percent generally negative. The attitudes to the UPA was similar, with 5 percent very positive, 8 percent generally positive, while 29 percent very negative, and 16 percent generally negative. Signifi cantly, the attitudes within the younger generation did not differ signifi cantly from the older; neither did the attitude within the group of highly educated differ much from the population in general. The exception was Galicia, where 62 percent of those surveyed had a positive attitude to OUN(b), and 59 to UPA. Even in Volhynia only 5 percent of respondents were very positive, and 11 percent generally positive to UPA. Asked about war criminality, 35 percent of respondents thought OUN(b) and UPA were guilty of mass murder of Ukrainians, Jews, and Poles; 6 percent of murdering people from one of these groups. Only 14 percent of respondents thought them innocent of mass murder. Ivan Kachanovskyi, Ukraintsy ne veriat v mify ob OUN i UPA, Fraza: http://www.fraza.ua/print/14.10.09/76064.html (accessed January 23, 2010) .

317. Asked, How would you defi ne your countrys relation to the following groups during World War II? 64 percent of the respondents answered that relations with Ukrainians were bad, a higher number even than Germans (63 percent) and Russians (57 percent). Wojciech Szacki and Marcin Wojciechowski. Zli Niemcy. +li Ukraincy: To Niemcy byli g"wnymi wrogami Polakw w II wojnie i to oni zadali nam najwi$cej cierpie#. Ale najgorzej wspominamy kontakty z Ukraincami, Gazeta Wyborcza, August 24, 2009, 4 .

318. The question, Who was responsible for the crimes committed in Volhynia in 1943? 14 percent answered Ukrainians, while only 5 percent answered UPA, Ukrainian nationalists, Ukrainian military formations. A full 19 percent blamed Russians, the USSR, NKVD .

Among them, 1 percent blamed Ukrainians and Russians and Ukrainians executing Russian orders; 1 percent blamed Germans and Ukrainians, on German orders; 2 percent blamed Poles and Ukrainians, Mutual slaughter, and both sides; 1 percent maintained that Others were responsible, or that it was unclear who was to blame .

By far the largest group, 57 percent, answered Dont know, have not heard about it, diffi cult to answer. Katarzyna Makaruk, Wo"y# 1943, Komunikat z bada", Warsaw, July 2008, BS/110/2008, Centrum Badania

Opini Spo"ecznej, CBOS, 4:

http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2008/K_110_08.PDF (accessed December 26, 2010) .

319. Andreas Umland, Die andere Anomalie der Ukraine: ein Parlament ohne rechtsradikale Fraktionen, Ukraine-Analysen, no. 41 (2008): 710 .

320. Ernest Renan, What Is a Nation? in Homi K. Bhabha, ed., Nation and Narration (London: Routledge, 1990), 11 .

321. Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (New York: Vintage, 1989), 78

322. Ibid., 910 .

323. Harald Welzer, Sabine Moller, and Karoline Tschuggnall, Opa war kein Nazi:Nationalsozialismusnund Holocuast im Familiengedchtnis (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 2002), 210 .

324. Ibid., 207 .

325. Ibid., 209 .

326. Peter Niedermller, Der Mythos der Gemeinschaft:

Geschichte, Gedchtnis und Politik im heutigen Osteuropa, in Andrea Corbea Hoise, Rudolf Jaworski, and Monika Sommer, eds., Umbruch im stlichen Europa: Die nationale Wende und das kollektive Gedchtnis (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2004), 1126 .

327. Gudrun Persson, On the Meaning of the Tristesse and the Lie, Baltic Worlds 3, no. 2 (June 2010): 16, citing Andrei Zubov, Istoriia Rossii: XX vek, 18941939 (Moscow: Astrel, 2009), 933 .

328. Dmytrii Rybakov, Marko Tsarynnyk: Istorychna napivpravda hirsha za odvertu brekhniu; LB.ua, November 5, 2009 .

http://society.lb.ua/life/2009/11/05/13147_Marko_TSarinnik_Istorichna_n apivp. html (Accessed Nov. 6, 2009); Himka, True and False Lessons;

Vasyl Rasevych, Zamknute kolo spetsialnoi ukrainskoi istorii, Zaxid.net, September 13, 2010: http://zaxid.net/article/74357 (accessed September 16, 2010) .

329. In April 2007, President Yushchenko submitted to the Verkhovna Rada a draft law against Holodomor denial, which, had the law passed, would criminalize denial of the genocidal character of the famine of 19321933. The Day Weekly Digest (Kyiv), no. 11, April 3, 2007; Ilya Khineiko, Russian Dumas Discussion of Second World War Revisionism in the Near Abroad States, Current Politics in Ukraine, June 23, 2009: http://ukraineanalysis.wordpress.com/ [CIUS Stasiuk Program Blog] (accessed October 2, 2009). As there is no consensus whether the famine was an act of genocide, this would, technically, have made a number of senior scholars and academics, including Mark B. Tauger, R .

W. Davis, Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Michael Ellman, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin, even Robert Conquestwho remains ambivalent on theliable for jail time in Ukraine. On the assessment of the famine as genocide, see Marples, Heroes and Villains, 72, 313, n. 1 .

330. Roman Serbyn, Erroneous Methods in J.-P. Himkas Challenge to Ukrainian Myths, August 7, 2011, Current Politics in Ukraine Blog: Opinon and analysis on current events in Ukraine, Stasiuk Program, CIUS, University of Alberta, ed. David R. Marples .

http://ukraineanalysis.wordpress.com/ (accessed October 1, 2011) .

331. The following commentary by Taras Hunczak is fairly typical in this regard: Despite overwhelming evidence exonerating the OUN and Roman Shukhevych, there are still individuals, particularly those with communist leanings or followers of the Moscow trend to condemn the Ukrainians struggle for independence, who continue to slander the leaders of the Ukrainian resistance movement. Taras Hunczak, Shukhevych and the Nachtigall Battalion: Moscows Fabrications, Ukrainian Weekly, no. 37 (September 13, 2009): 18 .

332. Ukrainian Canadian Congress, Ukraines President Recognized Ukraines Freedom Fighters, UCC Press release, email of February 1, 2010. On the UCCs strategy to defend their heroes, see Rudling, Iushchenkiv fashyst, 252, 295296 and John-Paul Himka, Interventions: Challenging the Myths of Twentieth-Century Ukrainian History, in a forthcoming Ab Imperio volume on Geschichtspolitik, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation, ed. Alexei Miller .

333. Pres-sluzhba Prezydenta Viktora Ianukovycha, Rishenniam sudu prezydentskyi ukaz Pro prysvoennia S. Banderi zvannia Heroi Ukrainy skazovano, press release, January 12, 2011, Prezydent

Ukrainy Viktor Ianukovych: Ofi tsiine internet-predstavnytsvo:

http://www.president.gov.ua/news/19103.html (accessed February 12, 2011) .

334. Babi Yar transferred to Culture Ministry, Ukrinform:

Ukrainian National News Agency, March 2, 2011 .

335. Askold Lozynskyj (b. 1952), a New York lawyer and OUN(b)activist, is a former president of the World Congress of Free Ukrainians, and the son of Evhen Lozynskyj .

336. Wolodymyr Derzko, Ukrainian Diaspora must learn how to

play hardball with Yanukovych, Kyiv Post, September 27, 2010:

http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/84019/ (accessed October 13, 2010); Askold S. Lozynskyj, Anti-Semitism charges dont

stick against Ukrainian nationalist group, Kyiv Post, December 20, 2010:

http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/ detail/93235/ (accessed December 24, 2010) .

337. Olena Tregub, Ukrainian-Americans reject meeting with

Yanukovych, Kyiv Post, September 23, 2010:

http://www.kyivpost.com/news/nation/detail/83599/ (accessed October 15, 2010) .

338. Paul Grod: My position on Ukraine... was agreed with leaders of UCCs member organizations, interview by Martha Onufriv, EPOSHTA, September 28, 2010:http://www.eposhta.com/newsmagazine/ePOSHTA_100928_Cana daUS.html#fo1a (accessed October 15, 2010) .

339. Lozynskyj, Anti-Semitism charges dont stick.

340. Askold S. Lozynskyj, How insensitive bigots continue to play

Ukrainians and Jews against each other, Kyiv Post, November 8, 2010:

http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/89252/ (accessed November 8, 2010); Peter ONeil, My role in a dark conspiracy, Letter From Paris by Peter ONeil,November10, 2010:http://communities.canada.com/shareit/blogs/letterfromparis/default.aspx?PageIndex=2 (accessed November 13, 2010) .

341. Lozynskyj, Rewriting history, reprinted as Askold Lozynskyi, Perepysuvannia istorii: z perspektyvy dokaziv, 204210; also Rudling, Iushchenkiv fashyst, 255, 302, both in Amar, Balynskyi, and Hrytsak, Strasti za Banderoiu .

342. Lozynskyj, Anti-Semitism charges dont stick.

343. Onufrir interview, My position on Ukraine.

344. Peter ONeil, Ukrainian museum toured by Harper shows one-sided history of atrocities, critics say, Edmonton Journal,

November 5, 2010:

http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Ukrainian+museum+toured+Harp er+show+sided+history+atrocities+critics/3785861/story.html (accessed November 6, 2010) .

345. Rudling, Iushchenkiv fashyst, 252253, 296; Himka, Interventions 346. Reminder to Register for the XXIII Congress in Edmonton, email from UCC to author, October 15, 2010 .

347. Peter ONeil, Historian hopes Harpers visit to Ukraine museum will help shed light on war atrocities, The Montreal Gazette, November 10, 2010, http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/Historian+hopes+Harper+visit+Uk raine+museum+will+help+shed+light/3807727/story.html (accessed November 10, 2010) .

348. Arkhivni dokumenty ruinuiut mif pro antysemityzm OUN, Viatrovych, Zik: syla informatsii, http://zik.com.ua/ua/news/2011/01/09/265640(accessed January9, 2011)

349. Paul Grod, Ukrainian Community Honors Veterans on Rememberence Day, UCC Press release, November 11, 2010 .

350. Rememberance Candle Focus of Holodomor Commemorations: Canadians prepare to mark the 77th anniversary of the Ukrainian Genocide, UCC National Press release, November 16, 2010; Peter ONeil, Harpers Ukraine famine exaggerated, scholar says,

Edmonton Journal, October 30, 2010:

http://www2.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/story.html?id=ea26329d

-c6c5-4e76-b8f5-48ff37f57537 (accessed March 24, 2011) .

351. Whereas the change of national government has effectively ended state support for the OUN cult, this sort of heroization continues on the local level. In December 2010 the Kyiv city government announced plans to rename streets after Roman Shukhevych, Iaroslav Stetsko, Andrii Melnyk, and Olena Teliha. Na Oboloni ziavytsia vultrsia Romana Shukhevycha, Ukrainska pravda: Istorychna pravda,

December 16, 2010:

http://www.istpravda.com.ua/short/2010/12/16/9227/ (accessed December 17, 2010) .

352. Voin UPA: Banderaiedinyi lytsar u Evropi, khto 1941 roku skazav Hitleru ni: http://aingwar.blogspot.com/ (accessed September 26, 2010) .

353. Oleh Tiahnybok, Evroparlament he vkazuvatyme Ukraini,

koho vyznavaty Heroiami, February 26, 2010, Ukrainska Pravda Blohy:

http://blogs.pravda.com.ua/authors/tiahnybok/4b88066cc9c5f/ (accessed April 26, 2010) .

   

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- : ( ) (Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine (on Henryk Jzewski) (Yale University Press, 2005);

- : ( , ) (The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of A Habsburg Archduke (on Archduke Wilhelm of Austria) (Basic Books, 2008);

- : (Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin) (Basic Books, 2010);

- 20 ( ) Thinking the Twentieth Century (Tony Judt with Timothy Snyder) (Penguin, 2012) .

: (Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin) (Basic Books, 2010), , , , (the Leipzig Prize for European Understanding), (the Ralph Waldo Emerson Award in the Humanities). , .

, :

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- (Keys to Kiev on Serhii Plokhy, The Unmaking of Imperial Russia: Mykhalo Hrushevsky and the Writing of Ukrainian History, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005, for Times Literary Supplement, 16 December 2005, 25);

- : (Ukraine: The Orange Revolution with Timothy Garton Ash, New York Review of Books, 28 April 2005, 28-32);

- л (Anti-Trust for the USSR, Christian Science Monitor, 2 October 1991);

- , (A Divided Ukraine Drifts Neither East nor West, Christian Science Monitor, 31 March

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, , , , , , , , , .

:

Osteuropa, Transit, Past and Present, East European Politics and Societies, Polin, Revue des Etudes Slavs, , Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Contemporary European History, Yad Vashem Studies, Nations and Nationalism, Nowa Europa Wschodnia, Il Mestiere di Storico .

:

:

(Brotherlands: A Family History of the European Nations), : , ,

(Stalinism in Europe: War, Terror, Domination, as co-editor with Ray Brandon) ( ) .

   

Timothy D. Snyder. A Fascist Hero in Democratic Kiev .

,

. (1909-1959) 22 , , .

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1933 , . , , - . .

1934 (Pieracki), , . , , - 1936 . , 1939 , . , , , - - .

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24 2010, 2:16 p.m .

http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2010/feb/24/a-fascisthero-in-democratic-kiev/

   

, :

- 1941 :

/ :

, 12, 1 .

(2011): 83-114 .

- . . / Kakanien Revisited 29.12.2010 .

- , 15 1959 .

, , , . , . , .

, - , - , .

- 30 1941 2011 . DefendingHistory.com 70- - , 30 1941 .

- .

: ece-urban The Online Publications Series of the Center for Urban History of East Central Europe, No. 6, October 2009

   

- (John-Paul Himka) , (Per Anders Rudling) (Micha Mynarz) (Sarah Linden Pasay) .

, , . , , . , 15 1959 . , , , , , , , - , .

, , , . . , , , . -, 2, , .

, , . , , , , - 1941 3, , ,

For "thick description", cf. Geertz, Clifford: Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture. In: Geertz, C.: The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books 1973, pp. 3-30. For the critique of ideology, see Grabner-Haider, Anton: Ideologie und Religion. Interaktion und Sinnsysteme in der modernen Gesellschaft. Wien: Herder 1981; Schleichert, Hubert: Wie man mit den Fundamentalisten diskutiert, ohne den Verstand zu verlieren. Anleitung zum subversiven Denken. Mnchen: Beck 2005, pp. 112-117 .

For a discussion of the Ukrainian National Revolution in the summer of 1941,

cf. Rossoliski-Liebe, Grzegorz:

The Ukrainian National Revolution in the Summer of 1941: Discourse and Practice of a Fascist Movement. In Kritika: Explorations of Russian and Eurasian History 12/1 (2011), pp. 83-114 .

, , 4 .

, , ( ) ( ) , , - , , 5 , , (Frank Golczewski)6, (Dieter Pohl)7, (Grzegorz Motyka)8, (Franziska Bruder)9, (Karel Berkhoff)10, (Jeffrey Burds)11, (Timothy Snyder)12 .

To my knowledge, there are no scholarly works concerning the de-monization of Stepan Bandera by the Soviet propaganda machine .

For the problem of fascism in the OUN, cf. Golczewski, Frank: Deutsche und Ukrainer 19141939. Pader-born: Schningh 2010, pp. 571-591; RossoliskiLiebe 2011 .

Golczewski 2010; Golczewski, Frank: Die Kollaboration in der Ukraine. In:

Dieckmann, Christoph (Ed.): Kooperation und Verbrechen. Formen der Kollaboration im stlichen Euro-pa. Gttingen: Wallstein 2003, pp. 151-182 .

Pohl, Dieter: Nationalsozialistische Judenverfolgung in Ostgalizien 1941 1944:

Organisation und Durchfhrung eines staatlichen Massenverbrechen. Mnchen:

Oldenburg 1997 .

Motyka, Grzegorz: Ukraiska par-tyzantka 19421960: dziaalno Organizacji Ukraiskich Nacjonalistw i Ukraiskiej Powstaczej Armii [The Ukrainian Guerilla 19421960: The Activity of the OUN and the UPA] Warszawa: Inst. Studiw Historycz-nych PAN 2006 .

Bruder, Franziska: Den Ukraini-schen Staat erkmpfen oder sterben! Die Organisation Ukrainischer Nati-onalisten (OUN) 19291948. Berlin: Metropol 2007 .

Berkhoff, Karel C.: Harvest of Despair. Life and Death in Ukraine under the Nazi Rule. Cambridge: Belknap 2004 .

Burds, Jeffrey: AGENTURA:Soviet Informants Networks & theUkrainian Underground in Galicia,194448. In: East European Politicsand Societies 11/1 (1997), pp. 89-130 .

Snyder, Timothy: The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 15691999. New Haven: Yale UP 2003; Snyder, Timothy: To Resolve the Ukranian Question Once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 19431947. In: Journal of Cold War Studies, 1/2 (Spring 1999), pp. 86-120 .

, , . , , . , . , () , (Clifford Geertz) . , , , - , , .13 , , . ( ) , , , , . , , , . , , , 1930- 1940- . , , .

However, cf. also Jeffrey Burds review of Snyders article on http:// www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws/com-ment13.htm (accessed: 14.12.2010) .

Geertz, Clifford: Ideology as a Cultural System. In: Geertz 1973, pp. 193-233, here p. 219 .

. , , . , , , . , , , , .14 , , .

, , 15. , , , , , . , - .

. , (Tom Garrigue Masaryk) 16, . , . Flood, Christopher G.: Political Myth. A Theoretical Introduction. New York, London: Gerland Pub. 1996, pp. 15-26 .

Hein, Heidi: Historische Kult-forschung. Digitales Handbuch zur Geschichte und Kultur Russlands und Osteuropa. In: http://epub. ub.uni-muenchen.de/636/1/heinkultforschung.pdf, pp. 4-5 (accessed: 30.10.2009) .

Masaryk was neither a fascist nor an authoritarian dictator but his charisma was used to create a cult which helped to legitimise the existence of Czechoslovakia. Cf .

Orzoff, Andrea: The Husbandman: Tom Masaryks Leader Cult in Interwar Czechoslovakia. In: Austrian History Yearbook 39 (2008), pp. 121-137 .

, , , . , , , - , . : (Adolf Hitler) 17, (Benito Mussolini) 18; (Francisco Franco) 19; (Antonio Salazar) (Rolo Preto) 20, (Philippe Ptain) 21, (Ante Paveli) 22, (Corneliu Zelea Codreanu) 23, (Jzef Pisudski and Roman Dmowski) 24, There are many publications concerning Hitlers charisma. The problematic of the Hitler myth is well explained in Kershaw, Ian: The Hitler Myth: Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Clarendon Pr. 1987. Cf. also Lepsius, M. Rainer: The Model of Charismatic Leadership and Its Applicability to the Rule of Adolf Hitler. In Pinto, Antnio Costa/Eatwell, Roger/ Larsen, Stein Ugelvik (Eds.): Charisma and Fascism in Interwar Europe. London: Routledge 2007, pp. 37-52 .

Gentile, Emillio: Mussolini as thePrototypical Charismatic Dictator .

In:Pinto/Eatwell/Larsen 2007, pp. 113-127 .

Payne, Stanley G.: Franco, the Spanish Falange and the Institutiona-lisation of Mission. In: Pinto/Eatwell/ Larsen 2007, pp. 53-62 .

Pinto, Antnio Costa: Chaos and Order: Preto, Salazar and Charismatic Appeal. In: into/Eatwell/Larsen 2007, pp. 65-75 .

Baruch, Marc Olivier: Charisma and Hybrid Legitimacy in Ptains tat franais (19401944). In: Pinto/Eat-well/Larsen 2007, pp. 77-85 .

Goldstein, Ivo: Ante Paveli: Charisma and National Mission in Wartime Croatia. In: Pinto/Eatwell/Larsen 2007, pp. 87-95; Cox, John K.: Ante Paveli and the Ustaa State in Croatia. In: Fischer, Bernd J. (Ed.): Balkan Strongmen .

Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South Eastern Europe. West Lafayette: Purdue UP 2007, pp. 199-238 .

Fisher-Galati, Stephen: Codreanu, Romanian National Traditions and Charisma .

In: into/Eatwell/Larsen 2007, pp. 107-112 .

Hein, Heidi: Der Pisudski-Kult und seine Bedeutung fr den polnischen Staat 19261939. Marburg: Herder Inst. 2002 .

(Vidkun Quisling) 25, 26, (Mikls Horthy) 27, (Engelbert Dollfu and Kurt Schuschnigg) 28, Andrej Hlinka and Jozef Tiso) 29, (Antanas Smetona) 30, (Ahmed Zog) 31, (Aleksandar I. Karadordevi) 32, (Mustafa Kemal Atatrk) 33, (Anastasii Vonsiatskii and Konstantin Rodzaevskii) migrs34 35 .

Larsen, Stein Ugelvik: Charisma from below? The Quisling Case in Norway. In:

into/Eatwell/Larsen 2007, pp. 97-106 .

Apor, Balzs/Behrends, Jan C./Jones, Polly/Rees, E.A. (Eds.): The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc. Ba-singstoke: Palgrave Macmillian 2004 .

Fenyo, Mario D.: Hitler, Horthy and Hungary. New Haven: Yale UP 1972, p. 26f., p .

77f., pp. 140-143, p. 207f .

Pauley, Bruce F.: Fascism and the Fhrerprinzip: The Austrian Example. In: Central European History 12/3 (1979), pp. 281-286 .

Besier, Gerhard: Berufsstndische Ordnung und autoritre Diktaturen. Zur politischen Umsetzung einer klas-senfreien katholischen Gesellschafts-ordnung in den 20er und 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts.

In: Besier, G./ Lbbe, Hermann (Eds.):

Politische Religion und Religionspolitik. Zwischen Totalitarismus und Brgerfreiheit .

Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2005, pp. 79-110, here p. 107f .

Kasparaviius, Algimantas: The Historical Experience of the Twentieth Century:

Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism in Lithuania. In: Borejsza, Jerzy W./Ziemer, Klaus (Eds.): Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons from the Twentieth Century. New York, Oxford: Berghahn 2006, pp. 304-308 .

Fischer, Bernd J.: King Zog, Albanias Interwar Dictator. In: Fischer 2007, pp. 19Farley, Brigit: King Aleksandar the Royal Dictatorship in Yugoslavia. In: Fischer 2007, pp. 51-86 .

Ahmad, Feroz: Kemal Atatrk and the Founding of the Modern Turkey. In: Fischer 2007, pp. 141-163 .

For Anastasi Vonsiatski, cf. Stephan, John J.: The Russian Fascists. Tragedy and Farce in Exile 19251945. New York: Hopper & Row 1978, pp. 91-140. For Konstantin Rodzaevski, cf. Stephan 1978, pp. 73-90 .

In Canada fascist movements occurred as well, cf. Betcherman, Lita-Rose: The

Svastika and the Maple Leaf. Fascist Movements in Canada in the 1930s. Toronto:

Fitzhenry & Whiteside 1975 .

, . , , , , . , , , .

- , . , . , (Bronisaw Pieracki), - 1934 1935 1936 . ,

.

, , , , , , , . , 1941 , - 22 1941 . - 30 1941 , , , . , -, .

Fhrerprinzip, -, - - . , , , 5 1941 . , 15 1941 . (Ehrenhftling) 1943 .

1943 1944 Zellenbau, . , , .36 , , . - , , .

13.000 35.000 . , -, 1943 1944 ,

70.000 100.000 . , .

1944 1953 , , .

Motyka 2006, pp. 231-234; FSB (Federalnaia Sluzhba Bezopasnosti), Moscow, NT. 100, l. 233 (Ste-pan Banderas prison card) .

- 20. 000 . - 153.000, 134.000 - 203.000 -, - . - , , . , , , , , 10.000 20.000 ( -, ) .37 On the pogroms in western Ukraine, cf. Pohl, Dieter: Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Western Ukraine A Research Agenda. In: Barkan, Elazar/ Cole, Elizabeth A./Struve, Kai (Eds.): Shared History Divided Memory: Jews and Others in Soviet-Occupied Poland, 19391941. Leipzig: Leip-ziger Univ.verl. 2007, pp. 305-313; Lesser, Gabriele: Pogromy w Galicji Wschodniej w 1941 r. [Pogroms in Eastern Galicia in 1941]. In: Traba, Robert (Ed.): Tematy polsko-ukraiskie [Polish-Ukrainian Subjects] .

Olsztyn: Wsplnota Kulturowas Borussia 2001, pp. 103-126. Similar waves of pogroms also broke out shortly after the start of the German-Soviet war in NorthEastern Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Bessarabia and Bukovina. For pogroms in Poland, cf. bikowski, Andrzej: Pogroms in Northeastern Poland Spontaneous Reactions and German Instigations. In: Barkan/ Cole/Struve 2007, pp. 315-354. For pogroms in Lithuania, cf. Dieckmann, Christoph: Lithuania in Summer 1941. The German Invasion and the Kaunas Pogrom. In: Barkan/Cole/Struve 2007, pp. 355For Latvia and Estonia, cf. Bundesarchiv Berlin Lichterfelde R58/215, l. 134 .

(Ereignismeldung UdSSR, Nr. 40, 01.08.1941). For Bessarabia and Bukovina, cf .

Solo-nari, Vladimir: Patterns of Violence. The Local Population and the Mass Murder

of Jews in Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, July-August 1941. In: Kritika:

Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 8/4 (2007), pp. 749-787. The first pogrom actions in Lviv started probably on 30 June 1941 or even before. For testimonies that date the beginning of the violent actions to July 1, 1941, cf. Lewin, Kurt I.: Przeyem. Saga witego Jura spisa-na w roku 1946 [I Survived. The Saga of Saint George Written in the Year 1946]. Warszawa: Zeszyty Literackie 2006, pp. 56AIH (Archiwum ydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego w Warszawie) 229/54, Teka Lwowska [Lviv portpholio], l. 2. For the course of the pogrom in Lviv, cf. Mick,

Christoph: Ethnische Gewalt und Pogrome in Lemberg 1914 und 1941. In: Osteuropa 53 (2003), pp. 1810-1829, here p. 1810f., pp. 1824-1829; Heer, Hannes:

Einbung in den Holocaust: Lemberg Juni/Juli 1941. In: Zsf. f. Geschichtswissenschaft 49 (2001), pp. 409-427, here p. 410, p. 424; Bruder 2007, pp .

- , , : . , 1940 1941 , - - , . , - , - . , , , , , 1941 ., - .

1944 () , -. , , , - , . 140-150; Grelka, Frank: Die ukrainische Nationalbewegung unter deutscher Besatzungsherrschaft 1918 und 1941/1942. Wiesbaden: Harras-sowitz 2005, pp .

276-286; Pohl 1997, pp. 60-62; Wachs, Philipp-Christian: Der Fall Theodor Oberlnder (1909 1998). Frankfurt/M: Campus 2000, p. 71, pp. 78-80. For the violent actions against Poles in Volhynia and Galicia, see Motyka 2006, pp. 298Snyder 1999, pp. 93-100. For the second Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine, the brutal conflict between the Soviets and the OUN-UPA, and the terror conducted by the Soviets and the OUN-UPA against the civil population, cf. Burds 1997, pp .

104-115; Bruder 2007, p. 231f., p. 261f.; Motyka 2006, pp. 503-574, p. 649f.; Boekh, Katrin: Stalinismus in der Ukraine. Die Rekonstruktion des sowjetischen Systems nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Wiesbaden: Har-rassowitz 2007, pp. 339-367. For the number of Ukrainians killed by Poles, see Motyka 2006, p. 411f .

, , 1943/44, , 1944 1951 .

, , , 1941 , , ! .38

, , , . , , , , , , . , , , , Tsentralnyi derzhavnyi arkhiv hromadskykh obiednan Ukrany (TsDAHO) f .

1, op. 23, spr. 926, l. 199 (Postanovy II. Velykoho Zboru Orha-nizatsi Ukranskykh Natsionalistiv, l. 37). This salute later embarrassed the OUN. In postwar publications reprinting the resolutions of the second OUN conference, the resolution about the fascist salute was deleted from the text. Compare, e.g., OUN v svitli postanov Velykykh Zboriv [The OUN in the Light of the Resolutions of Grand Assemblies] (n.p.: Zakordonni Chastyny Orhanizatsi Ukranskykh Natsionalistiv, 1955), pp. 44-45 with the original publication of 1941 in: TsDAHO f. 1, op. 23, spr .

926, l. 199 (Postanovy II. Velykoho Zboru Orhani-zatsi Ukranskykh Natsionalistiv, 37) .

, , , , .

, , , , . . : , - , , , .

.

, , , . 1890- , , , . 1930- 1940- . , . , , . ( ) . , .39 . , . , , . , , , , , , , , , , , , ..40 . , 1970 , , , , .41 ( , , -) . , - Not all DPs left Ukraine together with the withdrawing German army in 1944 .

Some of the DPs were sent to Germany as forced labourers earlier during the war .

Himka, John-Paul: A Central Euro pean Diaspora under the Shadow of World War II: The Galician Ukrainians in North America. In: Austrian History Yearbook 37 (2006), pp. 17-31, here p. 18 .

Satzewich, Vic: The Ukrainian Dia spora. London, New York: Routledge 2002, p. 105 .

, .

, . .42 25 1949 ( - ˳ ). 20 50 . , , , . ,

:

, , , . , , , , , , .43 , , ( - ) (ᒺ ˳ ) .

.

Ibid .

V Avangardi Ukranskoi spravy. Liga vyzvolennia Ukrany [In the Vanguard of

the Ukrainian Matter]. In: http://www.lucorg.com/luc-histo-ry_174.htm (accessed:

23.10.2009) .

1941 1943 1953 . 1962 (Ellenville), -. , , . , .44 . , 1954 1955 . . (Sudbury) , - (Thunder Bay) ( ) .

: .

, .

, :

, , , , .45 Sawa-Priatka, Tania: A Short His tory of the Ukrainian American Youth Associations Oselia on the Occasion of its 50th Anniversary. In: http://www .

cym.org/us/ellenville/Oselia50_UWar-ticle.asp (accessed: 09. 12.2009) .

Sawa-Priatka, Tania: unnumbered manuscript. For the organisation of banderivtsi in Canada, cf. Lalande, Julia: Building a Home Abroad. A Comparative Study of Ukrainian Migration, Immigration Policy and Diaspora Formation in Canada and Germany after the World War II (Diss., Univ. of Hamburg, 2006) .

, 1971 . . , . , . , , .

- . , , .

, , () , , .

, .

, () , In: http://www. sub.uni-hamburg.de/opus/volltexte/2007/3265/pdf/Lalande_Dissertation_2006.pdf, pp. 184-190 (accessed: 24.10.2009). For the camp in Ellenville, the monument of the Ukrainian heroes and the reproduction of banderits in this camp, see http://www.cym.org/us/ archives/2009/2009PamyatnykProj. asp (accessed: 24.10.2009). For the camps in Canada, cf. Mycak, Iryna: The Ukrainian Youth Association of Canada 19481988. Toronto: Beskyd Graphica 1990, p. 8 .

, .

, , , , , , 1920-1940 .46 ; , . , , 1920- 1930- . , , , , , , . , , , - .

, , , On multiculturalism in general and debates about multiculturalism, cf. Powell, Timothy B.: All Colors Flow into Rainbows and Nooses. The Struggle to Define Academic Multiculturalism. In: Cultural Critique 55 (2003), pp. 152-181. For multiculturalism in Canada, cf. Cameron, Elspeth (Ed.): Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada. An Introductory Reader. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Pr .

2004; Bissoondath, Neil: Selling Illusions. The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada .

Toronto: Penguine 2002; iek, Slavoj: A Leftist Plea for Eurocentrism. In: Critical Inquiry 24 (1998), pp. 988-1009; iek, Slavoj: Multiculturalism, or The Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism. In: New Left Review 225 (1997), pp. 28-51 .

, .47 , . . ( ), , 1949 , :

[...] 50 , , , . 48 , . - , , . (Manoly . Lupul) .

(. 1) . , - . , , , . () , , 1976 , For a critique of national representation of World War II in Ukraine, cf. Himka, John-Paul: Victim Cinema. Between Hitler and Stalin: Ukraine in World War II The Untold Story. In: Kasianov, Georgiy/Ther, Philipp (Eds.): A Laboratory of Transnational History. Ukraine and Recent Ukrainian Historiography. Budapest: Central European UP 2009, pp. 211-220 .

Cit. Lalande 2006, p. 257 .

Lupul, Manoly R.: The Politics of Multiculturalism. A Ukrainian-Canadian Memoir. Edmonton, Toronto: Canadian Inst. of Ukrainian Studies Pr. 2005 .

, 1976. 50 1. . - .

, : .

2005 .

, , , : , , . , , , : , - .

Ibid., p. 322 .

, . , (). , , , , .

, - , . , . , , -, , , . -, , , , .51 . , (University of Toronto). 1992 : , .

For Lysiak-Rudnytsky after the war, cf. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. A Brief History from 1976 to 1996. In: http://www.ualberta. ca/CIUS/about/abouthistory.htm (accessed: 29.07.2010). For Rudnytsky during the war, cf. Himka, JohnPaul: Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: Krakivski visti, the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnytsia Exhumation (forthcoming in a volume on violence in the borderlands, ed. By Omer Bartov and Eric Weitz) .

Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. A Brief History from 1976 to 1996. In:

http://www.ualberta.ca/CIUS/about/about-history.htm (accessed: 29.07.2010) .

, ( ..), .53 1937 1939 . . 1939 , 1943 , , .54 1941-1945 ( ) . 1955 , 1947 1963 .

- , . 1983 , , , 1988 . 1982 1986 . 14- , - . . . - .

Luckyj, George S. N.: Memoirs. In: Isajiw, Wsevolod/ Boshyk, Yuruy/ Senkus, Roman (Eds.): The Refugee Experience: Ukrainian Displaced Persons after World War II. Edmonton: Canadian Inst. of Ukrainian Studies Pr. 1992, pp. 508here p. 508 .

Luckyj 1992, p. 508f .

, , , .

, , , , . 55 , , . -, , . 1940 1945 () , . , , , , .

, .56 , , , . , On Petro Savaryn memoirs, in which he discusses and expresses pride in his SS past, cf .

Savaryn, Petro: Z soboiu vzialy Ukranu. Vid Ternopillia do Alberty [We took Ukraine with Us. From Tarnopil to Alberta]. Kyv: KVITs 2007, p. 275; Bairak, Mykhailo: Ukrainska Striletska Hromada v Edmontoni [Ukrainian War Veterans Association in Edmonton] .

Edmonton: Ukrainska Striletska Hromada Vid-dilu v Edmontoni 1978, p. 185. On the 14th Grenadier Division of the Waffen SS, cf.

Golczewski, Frank: Shades of Grey:

Reflections on Jewish-Ukrainian and German-Ukrainian Relations in Galicia. In: Brandon, Ray/Lower, Wendy (Eds.): The Shoah in Ukraine. History, Testimony, Memorialization .

Bloomington: Indiana UP 2008, pp. 114-155, here p. 136 .

For Kubiiovych and Krakivski visti, see Himka: Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder (forthcoming) .

- .57 , , , - , . 1944 . .58 1945 , 60 , , ( - ), .

75.000 .59 Kubiiovych to Frank, 29 August 1941, NAC, MG 31, D203, vol. 23, file 31. Cit .

Golczewski 2008, p. 133f. In his seminar History at the Movies: The Holocaust in Cinema at the University of Alberta in the winter semester of 2010, John-Paul Himka mentioned that during the War his father-in-law Mykhailo Chomiak, the chief editor of Krakivski visti moved into an Aryanised Jewish apartment in Krakw. However, Himka did not reveal any specific information about this incident. After the war Chomiak worked for the Edmonton based Ukranski visti (Ukrainian News), and between 1981 1982 he was the chief editor of this newspaper. On Chomiak as the editor of Krakivski visti, cf. Himka, John-Paul: Krakivski visti: An Overview. In: Gitelman, Zvi/Hajda, Lu-bomyr/Himka, John-Paul/Solchanyk, Roman (Eds.): Cultures and Nations of Central and Eastern Europe. Essays in Honour of Roman Szporluk. Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Pr. 1998, pp. 251-261, here p. 254 .

Motyka 2006, p. 181, p. 383, p. 386; Golczewski 2008, p. 136; Him-ka 2006, p .

165f .

Golczewski, Frank: Geschichte der Ukraine. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1993, pp. 259-260 .

. - , , .

; . , , , .60 , , , .61 , , .62 , . , .63 , , , , , - , , , .

Bergesen, Albert: Die rituelle Ordnung. In: Belliger, Andra/Krieger, David J .

(Eds.): Ritualtheorien. Ein einfhrendes Handbuch. Opladen, Wiesbaden: Westdt. Vlg .

1998, pp. 49-76, here p. 50f .

Kertzer, David J.: Ritual, Politik und Macht. In: Belliger/Krieger 1998, pp. 365here p. 387 .

Bergesen 1998, p. 53 .

Ibid., p. 50f .

, , . 19 1959 ; , . , , . , , . , , , . , , . , 20 1959 , .64 , (), . ( ) . 24 1959 , .

Stepan Bandera ne zhyve [Stepan Bandera is dead]. In: Ukrainian News 42/XXXII (19.10.1959), p. 1 .

. 2. 24.10.1959 .

: . , , , 15 15 .

, .

, , ... .

, , . , , , , , , .65 26 , , 66 , . , , , - , . , 20 , 18 20 .

31 1959 .

500- , 1500 10 , , (), , , .67 , , , . , , , , ( Ukrainian Echo 44/XI (24.10.1959), p. 1, p. 6 .

Jak zhynuv Stepan Bandera [How Bandera died]. In: Ukrainian News 43/ XXXII (26.10.1959), p. 1f .

Ostannia doroha providnyka Ban- dery [The Final Journey of the Pro- vidnyk Bandera]. In: Ukrainian Echo 45/XI (31.10.1959), p. 1 .

) . , , , . , , , .

500 . , . - .68 2 ,

1500 , . , , , . , , , , , , , .

7 , , , . , , .

, , , Cf. the picture in: Ukrainian Echo 45/XI (31.10.1959), p. 1 .

1500 People at Banderas Funeral. In: Ukrainian News 44/XXXII (02.11.1959), p. 1 .

.70 , . , ,

() , . , . , , .

, . (Organisations of the Freedom Movement) , 15 . 20 , , .

25 , . 7 , . , , (˳ ) . , , . , ( ) , , ,

Zvernennia Provodu ZCH OUN [Appeal of the ZCH OUN Leadership]. In:

Ukrainian Echo 46/XI (07.11.1959), p. 1 .

.

- - , .71 , , . . , , .

, . (Dr. V. Hyrak) .. , . . . (Butsmaniuk). , , , .72 - , .73 - ( ), , ( . . ), .74 U pokloni Providnykovi [Deference to the Providnyk]. In: Ukrainian Echo 46/XI (07.11.1959), p. 3 .

Ibid .

Ibid .

Na Fond vyzvolno borotby im. Ste-pana Bandery [For Stepan Banderas Liberation Struggle Fund]. In: Ukrainian Echo 46/XI (07.11.1959), p. 5 .

: , , , , , -, , , .75 , . . , (Winnipeg) . , , . , , , , , . .76 . . , , . , , , . , . . , . , - (Mrs .

Aponiuk) 15 1959, U pershu richnyciu smerty sl. p. Providnyka S. Bandery [The First Anniversary of Stepan Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian Echo 44/XII (29.10.1960), p. 2; U richnytsiu smertysl. p. S. Bandery [On the Anniversary of Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian Echo 45/XII (05.11.1960), p. 7 .

U pershu richnytsiu smerty S. Bandery [On the First Anniversary of Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian News 43/XXXIII (28.10.1960), p. 7 .

. :

. (Iu .

Butsmaniuk) : 1959 1961, , , 15, . , .

170- , .77 , 8 19 1962 (Karlsruhe), . . , , , , . , . , , , . , , . , , , , , ( ). , , , (Ie. Rens) , Vidznachyly rokovyny smerty S. Bandery [We Celebrated the First Anniversary of Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian News 43/XXXIV (23.10.1961), p. 3 .

( ). (), - .78 , , , , - . 1964 18 , , 15 - 17 .79 18 ,

.80 -, .81 : , . , .. 200 , U tretiu richnytsiu smerty S. Ban-dery [On the Third Anniversary of S. Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian News 42/XXXV (18.10.1962), p. 3 .

For the demonstration in New York on 15 October 1959 and 17 October 1959 in Washington and Ottawa, cf. Protymoskovski demonstartsi [Anti-Muscovite Demonstrations]. In: Ukrainian Echo 45/XVI (31.10.1964), p. 2 .

U 5-tu richchia smerti Stepana Bandery [On the Fifth Anniversary of Stepan Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian Echo 45/XVI (31.10.1964), p. 5 .

U 5-tu richchia smerti Stepana Bandery [On the Fifth Anniversary of Stepan Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian Echo 46/XVI (07.11.1964), p. 7 .

.82 , 18 1969 , 10- , . .83 10- : , (Semen zhnyk), 500 .84 , 11 13 40- 10- , , 85 1979 (̳ ) , 20- , 13 .86 , , , , , . U 5-tu richchia smerti Stepana Bandery [On the Fifth Anniversary of Stepan Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian Echo 46/XVI (07.11.1964), p. 3 .

Provincial Archives of Alberta, accession number 97.732/161 (Orhani- zatsi Ukranskoho Vyzvolnoho Frontu. Obizhnyi Lyst Zaklyk), without a number of leaf .

Desiaty rokovyny smerty Bandery [The 10th Anniversary of Stepan Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian News 43/XLII (23.10.1969), p. 5 .

U 10-tu richchia smerti Stepana Bandery [On the 10th Anniversary of Stepan Banderas Death]. In: Ukrainian Echo 46/XXI (29.11.1969), p. 3 .

Na poshanu sl. P. Stepana Bandery [Paying Homage to Stepan Ban-dera]. In:

Ukrainian Echo 39/XXXI (19.09.1979), p. 1 .

13 , , , . , , - ( ) , , 12 (the Plazi Hotel) .87 , 20- , , .88 , , , , 1984, 1989 1999 .

, , , , , . , .89 1989 1991 ,

Na poshanu Stepana Bandery [Paying Homage to Stepan Bandera]. In:

Ukrainian Echo 46/XXXI (07.11.1979), p. 1f .

U 50-richchia OUN [On the 50th Anniversary of the OUN]. In: Ukrainian Echo 7/XXXII (06.02.1980), p. 3 .

For encouragement for celebration, cf. Zvernennia KUK [Appeal of the KUK]. In:

Ukrainian Echo 43/XXXVI (24.10.1984), p. 2. For celebrations in Munich in 1984, cf .

U pokloni Stepa-novi Banderi [Obeisance to the Pro-vidnyk]. In: Ukrainian Echo 44/XXXVI (31.10.1984), p. 1f., 4. For celebrations in Munich in 1989, cf. Zhalobni vidz-nachennia v Miunkheni [Mourning Ceremony in Munich]. In: Ukrainian Echo 45/XLVI (08.11.1984), p. 1f. For celebrations in Munich in 1999, cf. Povidomlennia [Announcement]. In: Ukrainian Echo 37/LI (04.10.1999), p. 1 .

. , . 2009 , .

, 100- 50- . 9615-153 , 25 2009 , 2:30 5:30 .

, 1943-1950 . - , .90 1972 , .

. .

, , . - , . , . . 1909-1959. , .

On Roman Shukhevych and the ethnic cleansing against Poles in Volhynia and Galicia, cf .

Motyka 2006, p. 367. For Shukhevychs atrocities against the Jews see Bruder 2007, p. 150 .

For Shukhevychs atrocities in 1942 in Belarus, cf. Rudling, Per Anders: Schooling in Murder:

Schutzmannschaft Battalion and Hauptsturmfhrer Roman Shukhevych in Belarus 1942. In:

Prawda historycz-na a prawda politaczna (volume in progress after a conference in Wrocaw with the same title) .

, , .

400 . , . . ,

, , (Brytan) . , , . . 15 . . , - , (the Hitler Youth), - , .

, 1936 , , , , , , . , 1950 , . (Ihor Broda), , , , , , . , , , . , , , .

.91 , (. 3), , (Dr. Andrij Hornjatkevyc) , . , , .92 , . , , , . , , , , .

: . [ ], , , Ukrainian News 20/LXXXII (15-28.10.2009), p. 8 .

Broda, Ihor: Stepan Bandera po-klin bezsmertnomu [Stepan Bandera Deference to the Immortal]. In: Ukrainian News 20/LXXXII (15.-28.10.2009), p. 1, 8 .

, . , , , , , .93 , , - , [ , ].94 , .

, , , , , . , , , . , , , , , .... .95 35 32 .

Ibid., p, 1 .

Ibid., p, 2 .

Ibid .

. 3. , 100- 50 .

, , . . . -, , . -, , , . , , , .96

, . . , . , , , , , , .

,

, , , .

, , .

, , , , .

, Cf. Ukrainian Echo 35/LXI (2009) (Special Section without a specific day of publication) .

, .

-, (), , . , , . , . , , , , , . , (Volodymyr Ianiv) 1968 1986 .97 1930- , , Golczewski 2010, p. 450. At the time of writing of this article the dean of the Philosophy Department at the UFU is the director of the Toronto office of the CIUS, Prof .

Dr. Frank Sysyn. The dean of the Department for State and Economics Studies is Prof .

Iaroslav Hrytsak, the director of the Institute for Historical Research at the Lviv University and visiting professor at the Historical Department of the Central European University in Budapest. Cf. Ukrainische Freie Universitt/Ukrainskyi Vilnyi Univer-sytet/Ukrainian Free University Flyer. Munich: Ukrainische Freie Univ. 2010, p. 2. In an interview in 2009 Iaroslav Hrytsak wondered as to whether documents existed that would confirm that Roman Shukhevych contributed to the destruction of Jews in Ukraine. Since Franziska Bruders 2007 monograph proved this in the case of at least two villages, Hrytsaks wondering seems remarkable. For the interview with Iaroslav Hrytsak, cf. Istoryk Ia. Hrytsak: Avtor kontseptsi henotsydu spyravsia na pryklad holodomoru [The Author of the Concept of Genocide Argued about the Famine]. In: Unian (15.09.2009) http://www.unian. net/ukr/news/newshtml (accessed: 30.09.2010). For Bruders monograph and the Nachtigall battalion under the command of Roman Shukhevych, which slaughtered the entire Jewish population of two villages, see Bruder 2007, p. 150. Also see the original document in TsDAVOV f .

3833, op. 1, spr. 5 7, l. 17 (Autobiographies of well-known OUN members) .

.98 , , , , , . 2009 , , , .99 , 8 2010, TsDIA (Tsentralnyi Derzhavnyi Istorychnyi Arkhiv), f. 371, op. 1, spr. 8, ed. 7 7, l. 69 .

Very interesting in this regard is the UCC Task Force for Developing Community Strategies regarding Recent Attacks on Ukraines Liberation Movement which was established in March 2009 by the UCC. This Task Force was also made up of such CIUS employees as Jars Balan and other believers in the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism, living mainly in Canada and Ukraine, including Steven Bande-ra, the grandson of Stepan Bandera. During a teleconference on March 8, 2009, the UCC Task Force discussed both this paper and another article by the author that were to be presented at the Holocaust and Memory Politics Workshop at the University of Alberta on March 11. At another conference, the UCC Task Force discussed the question of how to prevent research on issues surrounding the Holocaust and War Criminality in Ukraine. As the director of the UCC Paul Grod mentioned, the UCC Task Force considered how to put pressure on North American academic institutions which are funded by community money (Harvard [Ukrainian Research Institute], the CIUS, and the Chair of Ukr[ainian] Studies [at the University of Ottawa], etc.). Shortly prior to my presentation of this article at the Holocaust Workshop, Bohdan Klid, the assistant director of the CIUS and a well-known activist of Ukrainian nationalism, came up to me and demanded to speak to me about my article. I declined and invited him to the workshop to express his concerns. Klid did not appear at the workshop. Information about the UCC Task Force and the content of the teleconferences come from emails by Lesia Demkowicz to [name withheld], March 2, and of Jars Balan to Lesia Demkowicz et al., March 14, 2010, in addition to an e-mail from Paul Grod to community leaders sent out on March 14, 2010. I am grateful to John-Paul Himka for providing me with the e-mails concerning the UCC Task Force for Developing Community Strategy regarding Recent Attacks on Ukraines Liberation Movement .

, , .100 , , ( ) .

, , (David Marples) - (JohnPaul Himka), 101, 102 -, ( ). , .103 , 25 2009 . , , , 1980-, The Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute invited Viatrovych a month later, on December 8, 2010, to give a lecture, as well. On Viatrovichs anti-Semitic writing about Jews and the OUN-UPA, cf. Kurylo, Taras/Himka, John-Paul: Iak OUN stavylasia do ievrev: formulovannia pozyci na tli ka-tastrofy [What was the Attitude of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists toward the Jews? Reflections on Volodymyr Viatrovychs Book]. In: Ukrana Moderna 2/13 (2008), pp. 252-265. On anti-Semitism in contemporary Ukraine in general, cf. Per Anders Ruling: Organized

Anti-Semitism in Contemporary Ukraine: Structure, Influence and Ideology. In:

Canadian Slavonic Papers/Revue canadienne des slavistes XLVIII/ 1-2 (2006), pp .

81-119. On Viatrovychs lecture at the CIUS, cf. http://www .

uofaweb.ualberta.ca/EVENTS/details. cfm?ID_event=25450 (accessed: 15.12.2010) .

On Viatrovychs lecture at the HURI, cf. http://www.huri. harvard.edu/calendar.html (accessed: 15.12.2010) .

For David Marples and Ivan Lysi-ak-Rudnytsky, see Marples, David R.:Studying Ukraine. In: http://www.hist. cam.ac.uk/seminars_events/semi-nars/moderneuropean/marples-wri-ting-history-of-ukraine.pdf (accessed: 31.07.2010) .

For John-Paul Himka and Ivan Lysiak-Rudnytsky, cf. Himka, John-Paul: My Past and Identities. In: Suny, Ronald Grigor/Kennedy, Michael D. (Eds.): Intellectuals and the Articulation of the Nation. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Pr. 1999, pp. 165-169, here p. 168 .

The monograph is an introduction into historical discourses on the famine of 19321933 in Soviet Ukraine and the Ukrainian nationalism, cf. Marples, David.

R:

Heroes and Villains. Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Budapest:

Central European UP 2007 .

, , , 1990- 2000- .104 -, , , , , . , 2009 , , . 1972 1974 , 1971 . $ 750,000 , .105 For John-Paul Himka admiring the U PA in the 1980s, advising historians to follow the rules of the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism and being angry with historians who do not follow them, cf. the correspondence between John-Paul Himka and Janusz Radziejowski in: Interview with John-Paul Himka (a manuscript forthcoming in Krytyka). For David Marples uncritically following a Cold War narrative that whitewashed the OUN and U PA of crimes against Jews, Poles, nonnationalistic Ukrainians, Russians etc., cf. Marples, David: Ukraine During World War II: Resistance Movements and Reannexation. In: The Ukrainian Weekly 41/LIII (13.10.1985), p. 7, p. 13. In this article, Marples euphemizes UPAs crimes with the statement that some undisciplined actions on the part of an armed group were almost inevitable (ibid.) and claims that the U PA was a multicultural force as he writes that according to a Western source, the nationality groups within the [UPAs] ranks included Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Tatars, and Jews (ibid.) .

Buduemo dim ukrainskoi molodi [We are Building a Home for Ukrainian Youth]. In: Ukrainian News 8 (22.02.1973), p. 4; Rudling, Per: Multi-culturalism, Memory and Ritualization. Ukrainian public memorials in Edmonton, Alberta (article in progress which will explore in more depth the financial background of multiculturalism and Ukrainian nationalism in Edmonton) .

, , . , , , , . , , , , - , 2009.105 . , - , .

, , . , 1990 , , . , , . , 1991 , , , .

, , , , - , , , . , , , , , .

Grzegorz Rossoliski-Liebe, PhD student at the University of Hamburg, dissertation on Stepan Bandera: Deconstructing the Myth of a Ukrainian Fascist. Recent publications: The Ukrainian National Revolution in the Summer of 1941. Discourse and Practice of a Fascist Movement. In: Kritika: Explorations of Russian and Eurasian History 12/1 (2011), pp. 83-114; Der polnisch-ukrainische Historikerdiskurs ber den pol-nischukrainischen Konflikt 1943-1947. In: Jahrbcher fr Geschichte Osteuropas 57 (2009), pp. 54-85; in co-operation with Henke, Lutz/Ther, Philipp (Eds.): Eine neue Gesellschaft in einer alten Stadt. Erinnerung und Geschichtspolitik in Lemberg anhand der Oral History/ . oral history.

Wrocaw:

Wydawnictwo Atut 2007; Der Raum der Stadt Lemberg in den Schichten ihrer politischen Denkmler. In: Kakanien Revisited, http://www.kakanien.ac.at/beitr/fall-studie/GRossolinskiLiebe1.pdf; Umbenennungen in der Ziemia Lubuska nach 1945 .

In: Vogenbeck, Bernd (Ed.): Terra Transoderana: zwischen Neumark und Ziemia Lubuska. Berlin: Be.bra 2008, pp. 59-68;

reviews in Jahrbcher fr Geschichte Osteuropas, Osteuropa and H-Soz-U-Kult .

   

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