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18) не очень большое застолье — застолье is one of those culturally determined concepts which always creates a headache for the translator/interpreter. This needs rephrasing: "a small get-together," or "having a few people over" is adequate. "Wining and dining" implies going out to a restaurant, not entertaining at home .

19) сумасшедшие деньги — "it costs an arm and a leg," or "a (small) fortune" are common colloquialisms in English for this. "It breaks the bank" is even more informal .

20) не могу — "I can't" is not a good translation, because the issue here is not one of being physically unable to take public transportation, but rather of not wanting to do so. Hence "I won't" or "don't" are needed here, not "I can't."

21) одна надежда на спонсоров — "the only hope is for sponsors" is a bit awkward; "our only hope" is much better. Or, "The only way out for us is to find sponsors."

22) замкнутый круг — is best translated by the idiom "a vicious circle" rather than by a "closed circle." This is an English idiom which has lost the original meaning of "vicious" as brutal or cruel .

23) это почему-то порицалось — the idea is not so much one of rejection, as of criticism .

24) в один прекрасный день плюнуть на эту муторную жизнь — this phrase needs some reworking, as a literal translation would be both s i l l y and incomprehensible. "Throw in the towel" or "walk away from it all" would be good equivalents .



25) я далек от громких слов о патриотизме — here, too, reworking is needed. "I'm not given to making patriotic statements" is a possibility, or "I don't go around trumpeting patriotism/patriotic slogans."

26) дело — this is "cause" or "work," or even "my life's work."

Interview with Professor Sergei Mironov (Читается с британским и с австралийским акцентами) — Sergei Pavlovich, where are most of your patients coming from?

— Athletes... Ballet performers... circus performers. Different kinds of people with different lives and different injuries. During the years of its existence our clinic has treated Maya Plisetskaya and Valery Kharlamov, Vladimir Vasiliev and Olga Korbut...We've seen nearly all the players of the USSR hockey, football and gymnastics teams, and well known movie stars. Sports and art go together not just because they always involve spurts of creativity, and improvisation .

It's also because these involve enormous physical stress, and, unfortunately, traumas .

— Your patients probably are also pretty tough customers. Yet I don't think I've seen refined "Kremlin-style" service here .

— We don't have the funds for that. Most of the wards are for 4—5 people, our operating room is under repair, so we have to use other facilities, the food...What kind of food can you have in a hospital nowadays! You've probably seen that for yourself .

— Been through it. And not Just the food. I asked the nurse far a bandaid, and she threw up her hands: forget it .

There's a real shortage of gauze bandages, and cotton, let alone medicines. And in Moscow you can still put up with the situation.. .

— And yet your clinic has always been considered prestigious. People say you can only get in here through pull .

— Well, I'd rather say that it was specialized, intended for people with specific kinds of trauma. Now we accept anyone. There's only one condition, unfortunately: you have to pay for treatment .



— And would you like to become the owner of a private clinic ?

— Sure .

— You 're not afraid you 'd be called a big cheese, someone making money at the next guy's expense?

— I ' m afraid, even though I ' m already 44, I won't live to see that day. And, you know, the Russian system, which is great at throwing around terms like that at western medicine, has gotten our people, particularly when they get sick, to the point where today they're afraid to go to the doctor, and they're even more scared of ending up in the hospital. No one can afford that kind of money .

— You don't feel humiliated by your own situation — and your own financial situation!

— What does that mean, "don't feel humiliated?" I ' m pretty ge nerous, I like to help out my acquaintances and friends, have people over. But you know that nowadays costs a fortune. And I've got one shortcoming — I don't take public transportation to work, because I always want to get to the clinic, especially when I've got to operate, feeling crisp and clean. And gas nowadays... Well, to sum it up, materially, I'm far from being in the situation of a "pre-revolutionary" professor .

And it's not just a question of personal tastes and preferences. For example, in Spain from May 25—29 there's going to be the first world congress on sports injuries. You'd think that we — the representatives of a clinic which has gained unique experience over the years — would be the obvious people to go. We prepared for it, we received invitations. But the flight for me and my assistant would set us back about $4,000. Where is that going to come from? And the congress is bringing together the best specialists from all over, there's a chance to get unique information, make new contacts. Our only hope is for

sponsors. God willing, we'll find some.— So the popular saying is right:

it's better to be rich and healthy than poor and sick ?

— Yes, today you're better off not getting sick. What's going on in medicine is in fact reflecting more general processes. For example, while Moscow clinics have always had a huge flow of patients coming from other cities, today there are a lot less. To come to the capital for treatment you need a lot of money: to cover the trip, housing, food, treatment. Today many children's hospitals have been forced to practically halve the number of beds. And now we need to think not just about how to render a person professional assistance, but how to ease his desperate financial plight. For example, if we're talking about traumas, theoretically a fracture of any degree of complexity, even any compound fracture, can be treated at home. But we're forced after virtually every operation to keep the patient in the clinic, because there's literally no place to discharge him, and there are no ambulatory rehabilitation centers. For those you need buildings, money... It's a vicious circle .

— To solve all these pressing problems you probably have to be not just a talented doctor, but also a talented administrator. Do you have that in you ?





— I learned a lot from my mother. She had to both see patients and run the clinic single-handed, and that involves hundreds of problems .

— Sergei Pavlovich, sorry for a banal question. Are you happy?

— I think so. I love my work, I have bright colleagues, friends, my family, my son is growing up.. .

— How old is he?

— Going on seven .

— Would you like him to follow in your footsteps ? After all, you 've got, so to speak, a family business going... Zoya Sergeevna ran the clinic, now you 're doing it... .

— Well, I ' m for family businesses. In the past that for some reason was criticized, but 1 don't see anything shameful about it .

When your children grow up, and if they grow up normal, if they're not mental defectives why not pass on to them the thing to which their parents have devoted their lives and energy. But it certainly takes a lot out of you .

— But one fine clay wouldn't you feel like throwing in the towel and going off, well, abroad? Don't you have offers — someone of your talent and skills ?

— Of course I've had them. In principle, I don't like making patriotic noises, but I don't want to leave. My ancestors are buried here, there's my father's grave, my mother's reputation, our cause .

And as you've just said: my son is growing up.. .

Текст 14 Выступление Председателя Правительства России В.С.Черномырдина на 19-й специальной сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН по охране окружающей среды, 1997 Уважаемый господин Председатель, Прежде всего, уважаемый господин Председатель, примите наши поздравления с избранием Вас на этот высокий пост. Делегация России, разделяя общий настрой на продуктивную работу сессии, будет всемерно способствовать успешному выполнению Вашей ответственной миссии .

Россия в целом позитивно оценивает ход осуществления решений Конференции ООН 1992 года по окружающей среде и развитию. Четче обозначились приоритетные направления и актуальные проблемы в области охраны окружающей среды и обеспечения устойчивого развития. Уже работают рожденные в Рио-де-Жанейро глобальные конвенции по изменению климата и биообразия, формируются условия для запуска новых механизмов международно-правового регулирования в природоохранной среде .

Концепция устойчивого развития, принятая в Рио, обогатилась в результате проведения последующих крупных форумов ООН по вопросам народонаселения, населенных пунктов, продовольственной безопасности, социального развития, укрепления роли женщин. Тем самым заложена солидная основа для глобального партнерства по обеспечению устойчивого развития .

Сделано немало, но качественных сдвигов в оздоровлении экологии Земли пока не произошло. Сохраняется угроза дальнейшего ухудшения состояния окружающей среды планеты. Об этом свидетельствуют подготовленные в последнее время авторитетными международными организациями и научными институтами оценки экологической ситуации в мире и ее перспектив в условиях сохранения нынешних моделей хозяйствования .

Основной вызов усилиям по достижению устойчивого развития ставит технологическое обновление "экономики в условиях бурной глобализации и растущего антропогенного прессинга на природу, в то время как современной цивилизацией не предложено альтернативы, которая могла бы по существу заменить регулирующие механизмы биосферы .

Нынешний форум призван дать толчок международному природоохранному сотрудничеству. Сосредоточиться на устранении выявленных пробелов, недоработок. Среди них — создание оптимальных условий для передачи экологически безопасных технологий, более стабильное и предсказуемое ресурсное обеспечение природоохранных мероприятий, развертывание работы по выработке конвенции о сохранении и рациональном использовании лесных ресурсов и др .

Россия в нынешних непростых условиях делает максимум возможного для поддержки усилий мирового сообщества в решении этих приоритетных глобальных проблем. Указом Президента Российской Федерации Б.Н.Ельцина от 1 апреля 1996 года определено существо нашей концепции о переходе страны к устойчивому развитию. Мы неукоснительно выполняем свои обязательства по конвенциям об изменении климата и сохранении биологического разнообразия, активно участвуем в других международных усилиях, призванных претворить в жизнь идеологию и практику устойчивого развития .

Стержень нашего подхода к устойчивому развитию базируется на особой ответственности России за экологию планеты. Наше воздействие на глобальную окружающую среду весьма значительно в абсолютном масштабе, а также по отношению к производимому продукту в сравнении с другими технологически передовыми государствами. Россия располагает крупнейшим на планете массивом естественных экосистем, которые служат резервом устойчивости глобальной биосферы .

Переход нашей страны к рыночной модели хозяйства и кардинальные усилия по социальному преобразованию общества позволяют повысить ответственность за состояние окружающей среды в процессе осуществления экономической реформы, более гибко сочетая меры государственного регулирования с рыночными механизмами .

Важное значение мы придаем укреплению сотрудничества в борьбе с истощением озонового слоя земли, которое чревато драматическими последствиями для человечества и биосферы .

У России есть заинтересованность в полноценном участии в Конвенции по борьбе с опустыниванием. Практические шаги в этом направлении последуют после разработки и принятия дополнительного приложения к Конвенции, отражающего особые условия стран с переходной экономикой .

По нашему убеждению, назрела необходимость в скорейшем начале переговорного процесса для разработки международноправового инструмента по лесам. Мы осознаем издержки расточительства в использовании природных ресурсов и в этой связи считаем задачей первоочередной важности перестройку энергетического сектора .

Как лесная держава, обладающая одной пятой лесных массивов Земли, Россия крайне заинтересована в рациональном использовании и сбережении лесов для нужд потомков и всего человечества. Леса — это не только ресурсы для экономического развития, но и «легкие», поглощающие среди прочего те самые газы, которые вызывают парниковый эффект и чреваты угрозами нестабильности климатической системы .

Должное внимание должно быть уделено таким принципиально важным вопросам, как качество глобальных ресурсов пресной воды; сохранение экосистем Мирового океана; комплексное развитие энергетических ресурсов, экологичный транспорт; урбанизация; продовольственная безопасность .

Понимаем, что с плеча все эти проблемы не решить, но наращивать коэффициент нашего совместного полезного действия можно и нужно с непременным и самым тщательным учетом интересов и реальных возможностей всех групп государств .

Благодарю за внимание .

*** Mr. President, First of all, Mr. President, please accept our congratulations/ we/should like to congratulate you/extend our congratulations on your election to this important/distinguished post. The Russian delegation/ shares the general desire for a productive session/like other delegations hopes our session will be productive/and will/in all possible ways/do everything possible/all in its power/to promote the/success of/successful conclusion/achievement of/your important task/agenda/ objective .

Russia for the most part/on the whole/approves of/assesses positively/looks favorably on/the continuation of/the developments in/ progress of/the implementation of the decisions of the UN conference on the environment and development of 1992. There has been a clearer identification/highlighting/demarcation/of priority areas/ priorities/and pressing/urgent/relevant/problems concerning/regarding the environment and in ensuring/achieving sustainable development .

There are already in effect/we already see in operation the global conventions produced/ drawn up/initiated in Rio de Janeiro on climate change and biodiversity, and conditions are being established/created for the launching/start of new mechanisms for/ international legal regulation in the ecological sphere/area of the environment .

The concept of stable development adopted in Rio has been fleshed out/supplemented through the holding of subsequent UN fora on issues/problems of population, population centers, food security, social development, and enhancing the role of women. This has established/created a good/reliable/solid/basis/foundation for global partnership to bring about/for sustainable development .

A good deal/much/has been done, but there have not yet been qualitative changes/moves towards improving the earth's ecology .

There is still a threat of further deterioration of the state of the planet's environment. This is shown/demonstrated/attested to/by the assessments recently prepared by authoritative international organizations and research-scientific institutes on the ecological situation in the world and (its) future prospects/perspectives for the future/given the continuation/maintenance of present economic models .

The major challenge to (efforts to achieve) sustainable development is being posed/raised by/technological innovations in economics in conditions of galloping/lightning/globalization and growing anthropogenic/human/pressure on nature, while modern civilization has no alternative which could in fact/truly/replace the regulating mechanisms of the biosphere .

This forum must/is being called on to provide an impetus for/to stimulate/international environmental cooperation. It must focus on the elimination of existing gaps and shortcomings. These include the establishment of the best possible/optimal conditions for the transfer of ecologically safe technologies, more stable and predictable availability of/provision of resources to environmental projects/ activities, the development of work to draw up/produce a convention on the preservation and rational use of forest resources, etc .

Russia in today's difficult conditions/circumstances is doing all in its power/everything possible/to support the efforts of the international community to resolve these high priority global problems. An edict of the President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, of I April 1996 defines the substance of our concept of the country's transition to sustainable development. We are unswervingly fulfilling our obligations under/strictly complying with/carrying out to the letter/the convention on climate change and the preservation of biological diversity, and are actively participating in other international efforts to bring about real/implement in practice/realize the words and deeds of/concept and practice of/sustainable development .

The foundation of/our approach to sustainable development/is stems from/Our approach to sustainable development is based on/ Russia's special responsibility for the ecology of the planet. Our impact on the global environment is a major one/extremely significant on an absolute scale, and also regarding the results produced as compared to other technologically advanced states. Russia possesses/has the (planet's) largest mass of natural ecosystems/on the planet, which serve/act as a reserve for the stability of the global biosphere .

The transition of our country to a market economic system and the fundamental/radical efforts for the/to bring/at bringing about the/social transformation of society/allow to/bring about/promote greater/more/enhance responsibility for the state of the environment ecology/climate/during the process of the implementation of economic reform, for a more flexible combination of measures of state regulation with economic mechanisms .

We attach great significance to the strengthening of cooperation to counteract/resist the depletion of the earth's ozone layer, which is fraught with/which risks/which may have tragic/dramatic consequences for mankind and for the biosphere .

Russia is interested in full-fledged participation in the Convention against desertification. Practical action/steps/real measures here/in this field will follow after the drawing up and adoption of an additional annex to the Convention, reflecting the specific conditions of countries with a transition economy .

We believe that the time is ripe/there is a need for/a speedy beginning of/to begin immediately/the negotiating process to produce an international-legal instrument on forests. We are aware of/ acknowledge the consequences of/damage caused by wasteful use of/the squandering of natural resources, and here/therefore believe that a highest priority objective/task is the restructuring of the energy sector .

As a country/which has forests/with forests/which account for/ one-fifth of all the large forests of the earth, Russia is extremely interested in/concerned for the rational use of and preservation of forests for the needs of our descendants and for all mankind. Forests are not only a resource for economic development but also the "lungs" which absorb, inter alia, those very gases which cause the greenhouse effect and threaten to destabilize the climate system .

(Due) Attention must also be paid to/focused on such fundamentally/ basically important questions as the quality of global drinking water resources; the preservation of the ecosystems of the World ocean; the comprehensive development of energy resources and ecological transportation; urbanization and food security .

We understand/are aware/that all these problems cannot be solved right away/right off/at one blow/, but our joint effectiveness/our joint effective actions/can and must be stepped up/intensified, by/ through unfailing/full and careful/rigorous/scrupulous/concern for the interests and genuine potential/actual/realistic possibilities/potential of all groups of states .

Thank you, Mr. President .

This text is packed with words and phrases which can be condensed or omitted, and many clauses require rephrasing. It also includes some useful and very common ecological terms which the student is well advised to learn .

Комментарии:

1) уважаемый господин председатель — since the speaker is addressing the President of the UN General Assembly, this is "Mr. President" and not "Mr. Chairman." Уважаемый should always be omitted when addressing the Chairman/President at the beginning of a speech .

2) общий настрой на продуктивную работу сессии — to save time, the interpreter can simply say, "Hopes our session will be successful" or "productive," which is all this basically means .

3) вашей ответственной миссии — "mission" should be avoided, and the literal translation "responsible" does not work for ответственной .

"Important task" or "agenda" gets the point across .

4) в целом позитивно оценивает ход осуществления решений — "has a positive assessment" is cliched and awkward. "Approves of is what is meant. "Ход" does not have to be translated as "course;" the idea is one of developments or continuation of implementation .

5) приоритетные направления — "high priority" is clearer than "priority" here, and nine times out of ten направление is "area" rather than "direction." Актуальные as а "ложный друг переводчика" should be rendered as relevant or pressing, rather than "actual." В области can easily be omitted .

6) устойчивого развития — while устойчивый often means "stable," устойчивое развитие has become the accepted rendering of "sustainable development," and is always translated as such .

7) укрепления роли женщин — since this is the last clause in the sentence it needs "and" before it. If the interpreter fails to insert that, he can always say, once he realizes that the sentence has come to an end, "enhancing the role of women, — etc./and other issues."

8) заложена солидная основа — a good or reliable foundation has been laid is what is meant .

9) по обеспечению — can easily be omitted — "for sustainable development" is sufficient .

10) сделано немало — antonymic translation is needed: "much" or "a good deal" or "a lot" has been done,

11) об этом свидетельствует — this required "thinking nominative," turning the об этом into a nominative subject: "This demonstrates/proves..."

12) в последнее время — often can simply be rendered as "recently," which is idiomatic and saves time .

13) в условиях — can easily be omitted .

14) ставит технологическое обновление — this needs a compound tense, since it involves description of a continuing process: "The challenge...is being posed by..."

15) призван — the idea here is either "is being called on," or, simply, "must."

16) сосредоточиться на... — this is best translated by being turned into a subject: "It must focus on..."

17) среди них — another example of how "thinking nominative" simplifies the English syntax: "These include..." rather than the clumsy construction, "Among them are..."

18) указом — yet another "think nominative:" "An edict of the President..." Be sure to say "Boris Yeltsin" and not "B.N.Yeltsin," since English does not ordinarily use initials with last names .

19) мы неукоснительно выполняем — this needs a continuous compound tense: We have been/we are unswervingly/strictly complying with our obligations, since there is obviously a process involved here .

20) претворить в жизнь идеологию и практику — a literal translation is very clumsy. "To bring to life," "to implement in word and deed" get the idea across .

21) кардинальные усилия — кардинальные is best rendered as "fundamental" or "radical," but definitely not as "cardinal."



22) борьбе с истощением — истощение of the ozone layer is "depletion", and борьба can be omitted since the meaning of the sentence is clear from the verb "counteract" or "resist."

23) драматические последствия — while "dramatic" often but not always works as a translation for драматические, "tragic" is sometimes a better choice .

24) у России есть — another clear case of "think nominative:" "Russia is interested/wishes to..."

25) практические шаги в этом направлении — "realistic measures" is just as good as "practical steps," and gets rid of the ever-present "practical."

"В этом направлении" can easily be rendered as "here" or "in this field."

26) как лесная держава — "a forest power" sounds slightly odd, and "as a country with forests" will solve the problem .

27) чреваты угрозами нестабильности климатической системы — here the ubiquitous "fraught with" can safely be dispensed with and replaced by "threaten to."

28) принципиально важным — this constantly recurring adjective is universally detested by Russian-English interpreters, for "principled" almost never works. "Fundamental" is a much better choice .

29) комплексное развитие — this can only be "comprehensive," definitely not "complex." The idea is of all-round, full-coverage development, not of a "complicated" development .

30) непременным и самым тщательным учетом — "taking into account" for учет will complicate this sentence. "Concern" (see above translations) works much better .

31) реальных возможностей — don't forget "potential" as a translation of возможностей .

32) благодарю за внимание — don't spoil the impression created by an excellent interpretation by mumbling something about "for your attention." This is not a first grade classroom of students "paying attention" to the teacher, and "thank you for your attention" does not work in English. Just "I thank you" is fine .

Premier V.S. Chernomyrdin, Statement at the 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly on Environmental Protection, 1997 (Читается с американским акцентом) Mr. President, First of all, Mr. President, we should like to extend our congratulations on your election to this important post. The Russian delegation shares the general desire for a productive session and will do everything possible to promote the successful conclusion of your important agenda objective .

Russia on the whole approves of the continuation of the implementation of the decisions of the UN conference on the environment and development of 1992. There has been a clearer identification of priority areas and pressing problems concerning the environment and in ensuring sustainable development. We already see in operation the global conventions drawn up in Rio de Janeiro on climate change and biodiversity, and conditions are being established for the launching of new mechanisms for international legal regulation in the area of the environment .

The concept of stable development adopted in Rio has been fleshed out through the holding of subsequent UN fora on problems of population, population centers, food security, social development, and enhancing the role of women. This has established a reliable foundation for global partnership for sustainable development .

Much has been done, but there have not yet been qualitative changes towards improving the earth's ecology. There is still a threat of further deterioration of the state of the planet's environment. This is shown by the assessments recently prepared by authoritative international organizations and research-scientific institutes on the ecological situation in the world and future prospects, given the maintenance of present economic models .

The major challenge to sustainable development is being posed by technological innovations in economics in conditions of lightning globalization and growing human pressure on nature, while modern civilization has no alternative which could in fact replace the regulating mechanisms of the biosphere .

This forum must provide an impetus to stimulate international environmental cooperation. It must focus on the elimination of existing gaps and shortcomings. These include the establishment of the best possible conditions for the transfer of ecologically safe technologies, more stable and predictable availability of resources to environmental projects, the development of work to produce a convention on the preservation and rational use of forest resources, etc .

Russia in today's difficult conditions is doing all in its power to support the efforts of the international community to resolve these high priority global problems. An edict of the President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, of 1 April 1996 defines the substance of our concept of the country's transition to sustainable development. We are strictly complying with the convention on climate change and the preservation of biological diversity, and are actively participating in other international efforts to realize the concept and practice of sustainable development .

The foundation of our approach to sustainable development stems from Russia's special responsibility for the ecology of the planet. Our impact on the global environment is extremely significant on an absolute scale, and also regarding the results produced as compared to other technologically advanced states. Russia possesses the largest mass of natural ecosystems on the planet, which act as a reserve for the stability of the global biosphere .

The transition of our country to a market economic system and the fundamental efforts at bringing about the social transformation of society allow for increased responsibility for the state of the environment during the process of the implementation of economic reform, for a more flexible combination of measures of state regulation with economic mechanisms .

We attach great significance to the strengthening of cooperation to counteract the depletion of the earth's ozone layer, which is fraught with tragic dramatic consequences for mankind and for the biosphere .

Russia is interested in full-fledged participation in the Convention against desertification. Practical measures here will follow after the drawing up and adoption of an additional annex to the Convention, reflecting the specific conditions of countries with a transition economy .

We believe that the time is ripe to begin immediately the negotiating process to produce an international-legal instrument on forests. We are aware of the consequences of damage caused by the squandering of natural resources and therefore believe that a highest priority objective is the restructuring of the energy sector .

As a country with forests which account for one-fifth of all the large forests of the earth, Russia is extremely concerned for the rational use of and preservation of forests for the needs of our descendants and for all mankind. Forests are not only a resource for economic development but also the "lungs" which absorb, inter alia, those very gases which cause the greenhouse effect and threaten to destabilize the climate system .

Attention must also be paid to such fundamentally important questions as the quality of global drinking water resources; the preservation of the ecosystems of the World ocean; the comprehensive development of energy resources and ecological transportation; urbanization and food security .

We understand that all these problems cannot be solved right away, but our joint effectiveness can and must be stepped up through full and rigorous concern for the interests and genuine potential of all groups of states .

Thank you, Mr. President .

Текст 15 Представитель Республики Кыргызстан по окружающей среде (ООН, 1997) Господин Председатель, Позвольте мне присоединиться к поздравлениям, высказанным в Ваш адрес в связи с избранием на этот высокий и ответственный пост .

Позвольте также выразить уверенность, что Ваш богатый профессиональный и жизненный опыт, помноженный на высокое дипломатическое искусство, будут способствовать живому диалогу и плодотворным дискуссиям, которые приведут к выработке конкретных мер и рекомендаций по достижению грандиозных целей Рио .

Конференция в Рио-де-Жанейро подтвердила, что социальноэкономическое развитие и охрана окружающей среды тесно взаимосвязаны и взаимообусловлены. В рамках эффективной политики они должны рассматриваться совместно.

Она свидетельствовала также о том, что новые экологические угрозы:

повреждение озонового слоя, изменение глобального климата, сокращение запасов пресной воды, обезлесение, сокращение биологического разнообразия, заражение окружающей среды промышленными и радиоактивными отходами, наступление пустынь и другие, — стали более острыми и их решение не терпит отлагательства. Государства — участники конференции подчеркнули, что решение проблем окружающей среды и развития требует создания новой формы партнерских отношений — глобального партнерства на основе постоянного и конструктивного диалога, определяемого необходимостью создания более эффективной и справедливой мировой экономики с учетом взаимозависимости сообщества наций и приоритета вопроса устойчивого развития .

Конференция также приняла решение привлечь внимание к исключительно важному значению горных массивов для человечества и предложить Генеральной Ассамблее ООН объявить Международный Год Гор. Эта просьба была поддержана Президентом Кыргызстана А.Акаевым. Хочу выразить надежду, что эта просьба найдет отклик как среди правительств, так и у неправительственных организаций, различных региональных и субрегиональных инициатив .

Горы занимают пятую часть суши, в них проживает по меньшей мере 10% мирового населения, которое находится в зависимости от горных ресурсов. Еще большая часть населения использует другие горные ресурсы, включая, в особенности, воду. Расположенные на вершинах гор ледники являются основными источниками пресной воды. Недостаток воды, наряду с недостатком других природных ресурсов, приводит к усилению нищеты, углублению социальных противоречий, к росту этнической напряженности и, как следствие, к возникновению вооруженных конфликтов. Не случайно из 48 вооруженных конфликтов, имевших место в 1995 году, 26 произошли в горных районах. Горы часто являются местом экологических рисков и стихийных бедствий. Землетрясения, оползни и обвалы не только наносят серьезный ущерб экономике горных районов, но ежегодно уносят тысячи человеческих жизней. С другой стороны, горы предоставляют прекрасные возможности для развития туризма, горнолыжного спорта, альпинизма, охоты .

Правительство Республики Кыргызстан придает огромное значение вопросам экологии. Развитие природного потенциала является центральным направлением национальной стратегии Республики Кыргызстан по устойчивому человеческому развитию .

В ноябре 1995 года нами был принят Национальный план охраны окружающей среды .

Горы покрывают 90% территории Кыргызстана. Ледники на многотысячных вершинах Памира и Тянь-Шаня дают жизнь рекам Аму-Дарье и Сыр-Дарье, которые являются главными водными артериями Аральского моря. Обладая огромными водными и гидроэнергетическими возобновляемыми ресурсами, Кыргызстан поистине является экологическим сердцем Центральной Азии. Однако, чтобы это сердце продолжало биться, нужно бережное отношение к его здоровью .

Законом Республики Кыргызстан об охране природы предусматривается ответственность промышленных предприятий за загрязнение окружающей среды при выбросах в атмосферу, сбросах в водоемы, при размещении твердых отходов. Это положение распространяется и на химические и радиоактивные вредные вещества. В настоящее время ведется работа над Законом Кыргызской Республики о радиационной безопасности населения .

Господин Председатель, Прошедшие пять лет продолжали характеризоваться ухудшением глобальной окружающей среды и истощением природных ресурсов. Народная мудрость гласит: «Дорогу осилит в гору идущий». Только смелый и настойчивый человек покоряет вершины гор. Только настойчивые совместные усилия и ресурсы правительств, неправительственных организаций, частного сектора, международных, субрегиональных, региональных организаций и инициатив приведут к осуществлению грандиозной Повестки дня на XXI век, на пороге которого мы стоим .

Спасибо за внимание .

*** Mr. President, Allow/Permit me/May I/associate myself with/join the/ congratulations extended to you/also congratulate you/on your election to this distinguished/important/major/post. Allow me also to express my/our confidence/certainty that your extensive/abundant/wealth of professional and personal experience, along with/together with/your great diplomatic skill/skill as a diplomat will promote/advance/active/ lively/creative dialogue and fruitful discussions, leading to/resulting in/ (the drawing up of) specific measures and recommendations to achieve the far-reaching/lofty/noble/ambitious goals/objectives of Rio .

The conference in Rio de Janeiro reaffirmed that socio-economic development and environmental protection are closely connected/ linked and interdependent. Within the context/framework of/effective policy they must be considered together/jointly/in tandem. The conference also demonstrated/showed/proved/that new ecological/ environmental threats: depletion of the ozone layer, changes in the global climate, a decline in fresh water supplies, deforestation, the decline in biodiversity, environmental pollution, industrial and radioactive wastes, the spread/encroachment of the desert/ desertification and other problems have become more critical/ dramatic/drastic and require immediate solutions/their solution brooks no delay/is urgent. States-parties to/states which participated in the conference emphasized/stressed/underlined that a solution to the problems of the environment and development require (the creation/establishment of) new forms of partnership relations: global partnership on the basis of an ongoing/ continuing/permanent/ unbroken and constructive dialogue, predicated on/resulting from the need to create a more effective and just world economy which takes into account/takes due account of/is fully aware of/fully acknowledges the interdependence of the community of nations and the high priority of/attached to the problem/issue/question of sustainable development .

The conference also took a decision to call attention to the enormous/great/highest priority importance of mountains/mountain ranges for mankind and to propose to the UN General Assembly the declaration of the International Mountain Year. This request was supported by the President of Kyrgyzstan, Mr. Akaev. I wish to express /voice the hope, that this request will be backed by/meet with the approval of/will be taken up by/both governments and nongovernmental organizations, and by various regional and subregional groups/initiatives/associations .

Mountains account for/occupy/one-fifth of all dry land, and at least 10 per cent of the world's population live here/in these regions, and are dependent on mountain resources. An even greater part of the population uses/makes use of other mountain resources, especially water. The glaciers located on mountain peaks are the basic sources of fresh water. A shortage of water together with a lack of other natural resources leads to an intensification/aggravation of poverty, intensifies social strife, and leads to a growth of ethnic tensions and, consequently, to the outbreak/emergence of armed conflicts. It is no accident that/it is not fortuitous that 48 armed conflicts took place in 1995, and that 26 occurred/took place in mountainous regions .

Mountains are often the site of ecological disturbances and natural disasters. Earthquakes, landslides, and avalanches not only inflict on/ cause/do serious damage to the economy of mountainous regions, but also claim thousands of victims/kill thousands of people/cause thousands of casualties/annually. On the other hand, mountains provide superb/outstanding opportunities/possibilities/for the development of tourism, skiing, mountain climbing and hunting .

The government of the Kyrgyz Republic attaches great/the highest/importance to questions of ecology. The development of natural resources/nature/is the major focus/thrust/primary area/of national strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for sustainable human development. In November, 1995 we adopted a National Plan for environmental protection .

Mountains cover 90% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan. Glaciers high up on/thousands of feet above/the Pamir and Tien-Shan peaks nourish/feed/the rivers of the Amu Darya and the Sir Darya, which are the major water sources for the Aral Sea. With its enormous water and renewable hydroenergy resources, Kyrgyzstan is truly the ecological heart/center of Central Asia. For that heart to keep on beating, however, its health must be carefully monitored/it must take care of its health/it must stay healthy .

The law of the Kyrgyz Republic on environmental protection stipulates/lays down/spells out/the responsibility of industrial enterprises for environmental pollution as a result of emissions into the atmosphere, sewage runoff into reservoirs, and disposal of solid waste. This provision is also applicable to chemical and radioactive toxic substances. Now/currently/at the present time work is underway on a law of the Kyrgyz Republic on radiation safety for the population .

Mr. President, The last/past five years have been marked by/continue to reveal/ to display a deterioration of the global environment and the exhaustion/depletion of natural resources. The popular saying goes/ Popular wisdom has it that "He who climbs the mountain will master the road/reach his journey's end." Only a brave/courageous and persistent/determined person can conquer mountain peaks. Only the persistent joint efforts and resources of governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, international, subregional, and regional organizations and initiatives will lead to/ result in the implementation of the farsighted goals of the agenda for the 21st century — and we are now standing on its threshold .

This text makes use of a good many ecological terms frequently encountered in materials on the environment, a subject which is becoming of ever greater concern in today's world .

Комментарии:

1) позвольте мне присоединиться к поздравлениям, высказанным в Ваш адрес в связи с избранием на этот высокий и ответственный пост — this is an excellent example of "flowers" in an introduction. The interpreter knows virtually from the very first words what will follow, and it is not worth wasting time looking for the best possible adjective. "Allow me also to congratulate you on your election to this important post" is quite adequate .

2) помноженное на высокое дипломатическое искусство — all that по множенное requires here is "along with" or "together with." Anything on the order of "compounded by" will simply sound silly .

3) живому диалогу — the idea is an active or lively exchange of views .

4) которые приведут к выработке — this is a good candidate for judicious cutting; "discussions leading to specific measures" is the point being made .

5) грандиозных целей Рио — the reference is to the Rio de Janeiro conference on the environment. "Grandiose" sounds insulting, as though unrealistic goals are being set. "Ambitious" or "far-ranging" come closer to the meaning,

6) и другие стали более острыми и их решение не терпит отлагатель ства —there are a lot of extra words here. These problems, basically, "have become more serious and require immediate solution." Even shorter would be "these ever more urgent problems require immediate solution."

7) государства — участники конференции — when talking about a treaty, государства-участники are always "states-parties," not participants. In reference to a conference, however, they can be either .

8) с учетом — this does not have to be translated as "which takes into account..." An expression such as "fully acknowledges" is much shorter .

Simply "recognizes the need" would also be a good solution .

9) найдет отклик — this requires a bit of rephrasing. "Will find favor with" is too old-fashioned. The basic idea is that it will meet with the approval of or be backed by others. "Response" or "reaction" as a translation for отклик could lead to an awkward sentence, such as "will be reacted to favorably by..."

10) в них проживает — even shorter, though requiring some restructuring is "They are home to at least ten per cent of the world's population, who are dependent on mountain resources."

11) не случайно — the simplest way out of this one is probably the muchused "It is not fortuitous that," which sounds better in English than "it is no accident that." In some contexts "It is with good reason that" can be used, though here that docs not work .

12) центральное направление — here a literal interpretation should be avoided. The point is that this is the "major focus" or "thrust" of national strategy. "Central" does not work well, and while "area" is a possibility for направление, it is a bit too broad in this context .

13) дают жизнь — this also needs to be rephrased. "Feed" or "nourish" are short and clear; anything with "life" will sound pompous and too formal .

14) это положение распространяется — the notion is that this law is applicable to/valid for other items. "Extends to" does not work well .

15) повестки дня на XXI век, на пороге которого мы стоим — this is a syntactically tricky phrase. The formal name of the UN document, "По вестка дня на XXI век," is actually just "Agenda 21." Here, however, век must be translated, because of the second half of the sentence. "On the threshold of which we are standing" is very awkward; hence "we are now (standing) on its threshold" is a possible solution .

11Я Representative of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan on the Environment (UN, 1997) (Читается с американским акцептом) Mr. President, Allow me also to congratulate you on your election to this important post and to express my confidence that your extensive professional and personal experience, together with your great diplomatic skill will advance creative dialogue and fruitful discussions, leading to specific measures and recommendations to achieve the ambitious objectives of Rio .

The conference in Rio de Janeiro reaffirmed that socio-economic development and environmental protection are closely connected and interdependent. Within the context of effective policy they must be considered in tandem. The conference also demonstrated that new ecological threats: depletion of the ozone layer, changes in the global climate, a decline in fresh water supplies, deforestation, the decline in biodiversity, environmental pollution, industrial and radioactive wastes, the spread of desertification and other problems have become more critical and require immediate solutions. States which participated in the conference emphasized that a solution to the problems of the environment and development require new forms of partnership: global partnership on the basis of an ongoing and constructive dialogue, predicated on the need to create a more effective and just world economy which fully acknowledges the interdependence of the community of nations and the high priority attached to the issue of sustainable development .

The conference also took a decision to call attention to the highest priority importance of mountains for mankind, and to propose to the UN General Assembly the declaration of the International Mountain Year. This request was supported by the President of Kyrgyzstan, Mr. Akaev. I wish to express the hope that this request will be backed by both governments and non-governmental organizations, and by various regional and subregional groups .

Mountains account for one-fifth of all dry land, and at least 10 per cent of the world's population live here, and are dependent on mountain resources. An even greater part of the population uses other mountain resources, especially water. The glaciers located on mountain peaks are the basic sources of fresh water. A shortage of water together with a lack of other natural resources leads to an aggravation of poverty, intensifies social strife, and leads to a growth of ethnic tensions and, consequently, to the outbreak of armed conflicts. It is not fortuitous that 48 armed conflicts took place in 1995, and that 26 occurred in mountainous regions. Mountains are often the site of ecological disturbances and natural disasters .

Earthquakes, landslides and avalanches not only cause serious damage to the economy of mountainous regions, but also kill thousands of people annually. On the other hand, mountains provide superb opportunities for the development of tourism, skiing, mountain climbing and hunting .

The government of the Kyrgyz Republic attaches great importance to questions of ecology. The development of natural resources is the major focus of national strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for sustainable human development. In November, 1995 we adopted a National Plan for environmental protection .

Mountains cover 90% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan. Glaciers high above the Pamir and Tien-Shan peaks nourish the rivers of the Amu Darya and the Sir Darya, which are the major water sources for the Aral Sea. With its enormous water and renewable hydroenergy resources, Kyrgyzstan is truly the ecological center of Central Asia .

For that heart to keep on beating, however, its health must be carefully monitored .

The law of the Kyrgyz Republic on environmental protection stipulates the responsibility of industrial enterprises for environmental pollution resulting from emissions into the atmosphere, sewage runoff into reservoirs, and of solid waste disposal. This provision is also applicable to chemical and radioactive toxic substances. Currently work is underway on a law of the Kyrgyz Republic on radiation safety for the population .

Mr. President, The last five years have been marked by a deterioration of the global environment and the depletion of natural resources. Popular wisdom has it that "He who climbs the mountain will reach his journey's end." Only a brave and determined person can conquer mountain peaks. Only the persistent joint efforts and resources of governments, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, international, subregional, and regional organizations and initiatives will lead to the implementation of the farsighted goals of the agenda for the 21st century — and we are now standing on its threshold .

Текст 16 Вопрос о национальном опыте в области народонаселения (ООН, 1998) Госпожа Председатель, Вопросы народонаселения занимают одно из высших мест на шкале приоритетов Правительства Российской Федерации, поскольку в последние годы демографическая ситуация в нашей стране может быть охарактеризована как кризисная. Ее основными чертами являются: ухудшение здоровья и беспрецедентный рост смертности населения, особенно для трудоспособного возраста, стремительное снижение числа рождений, сохранение тенденции к уменьшению ожидаемой продолжительности жизни, особенно у мужчин, высокая младенческая смертность, рост общей и повозрастной заболеваемости на фоне увеличения масштабов вынужденной миграции, старения и абсолютного сокращения численности населения .

Демографический кризис порожден рядом факторов, к которым наряду с общемировыми долговременными тенденциями снижения рождаемости можно отнести и специфические для России тенденции роста смертности и сокращения продолжительности жизни. Непосредственное влияние на процессы развития народонаселения оказывает социально-экономическая ситуация в стране .

На сегодняшний день Россия переступила черту, за которой начинается депопуляция населения. Естественная убыль как главный показатель демографического неблагополучия сложилась в целом по стране с конца 1990 года. В 1993—96 гг. естественная убыль населения была зафиксирована в 69 регионах страны, а десять лет тому назад подобные явления отмечались лишь в трех регионах России .

Воспроизводство населения России находится на столь низком уровне, что не обеспечивает даже простого воспроизводства населения, необходимого для численного замещения поколения родителей их детьми. Об этом свидетельствует нетто-коэффициент воспроизводства населения. Если в 1989 г. он равнялся 0,953, то в 1996 г, - 0,603 .

Что касается причин смертности, то опыт России подтверждает вывод об общем сдвиге соотношения причин смерти от инфекционных заболеваний в сторону неинфекционных хронических и приобретенных болезней, среди которых преобладают сердечнососудистые заболевания и злокачественные новообразования .

Наибольшее число людей в России умирает от болезней системы кровообращения. Именно изменения смертности от сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний оказывают решающее влияние на общую смертность. В последние годы в результате нового сильного роста смертность от несчастных случаев, отравлений и травм среди населения трудоспособного возраста, прежде всего мужчин, впервые превысила смертность от рака и является одной из негативных черт современной демографической ситуации в России .

При этом в России эволюция смертности от инфекционных болезней определяется, в основном, смертностью от туберкулеза, в разные годы на ее долю приходилось от 70 до 90% всех смертей от инфекционных заболеваний у мужчин и от 40 до 70%, соответственно, у женщин .

Не последнюю роль играет в развитии ситуации поведенческий фактор, в свою очередь зависящий и от политики по пропаганде здорового образа жизни .

Некоторые позитивные сдвиги в 1995-96 гг. пока общей тенденции не изменили. Особенно выросла и стала одной из самых высоких в мире мужская смертность. На высоком уровне продолжают оставаться детская и материнская смертность .

Начиная с 1995 г. также проявляются признаки увеличения ожидаемой продолжительности жизни: у мужчин и у женщин она постепенно вырастала, составляя у мужчин — 59,8 года, а у женщин — 72,5 года .

Начали просматриваться обнадеживающие тенденции снижения младенческой смертности: в 1996 г. коэффициент младенческой смертности составил 17,4, в 1997 — 16,9 случаев на 1000 родившихся .

При этом имеющиеся данные не позволяют определить в должной степени длительность, глубину, региональную дифференцированность, структуру и последствия демографического кризиса и воздействие на него внешних факторов .

Важнейшей задачей в этой связи становится выяснение истинной и достоверной информации в сфере народонаселения. Важнейшим источником такой информации остается перепись населения. В этом контексте мы хотели бы поддержать мысль о том, что без достоверных статистических данных и индикаторов невозможно формировать адекватную политику в области народонаселения .

При формулировании демографической стратегии России правительство стремится к расширению круга своих партнеров, активно вовлекая в работу в т.ч. и общественные объединения и неправительственные организации .

Благодарю вас за внимание .

*** Madam Chairwoman, Population issues are one of the most important/crucial/аге among the most important priorities of the government of the Russian Federation, since/because in recent years the demographic situation in our country/has been in a state of crisis/can with reason be called critical/has deteriorated badly. The major elements/factors are: the deterioration in/worsening of/the health of and an unprecedented rise in the mortality of the population, in particular for people of working age, a sharp drop/decline in the number of births, the continuation/ maintenance of a/downward trend/decline/in life expectancy, particularly among men, a rise in/increase in general and in age-specific/ agerelated morbidity given/due to/along with greater/an increase in/ forced migration, aging and an absolute decline/reduction in the numbers of the population .

The demographic crisis has been caused by/has resulted from/is caused by a number of factors, including/compounded by/consisting of/ in addition to a global/worldwide/long-term trend towards a decline in the birth rate with/and a trend specific to Russia of a rise in mortality and a reduction in life expectancy. A direct impact/influence on population processes is being exerted by the socio-economic situation in the country/Population processes ("development" can be omitted) are subject to the effects of the country's socio-economic situation./ The socio-economic situation in the country is having a direct impact on the processes of population development .

Russia has already reached the point of depopulation/crossed the line where depopulation begins. A natural decline as the major indicator of demographic problems began emerging/was noted/for the country as a whole from the end of 1990 on/starting at the end of

1990. From 1993-96 a natural decline in the population was noted/ observed/recorded/in 69 regions of the country, while/though/ten years ago such phenomena were observed only in three regions of Russia .

Reproduction of the population in Russia is at such a low level that it does not even provide for/ensure/result in/produce that simple reproduction of the population needed for numerical replacement of the generation of parents by their children. This is borne out/attested to/shown/proved by the net coefficient of reproduction of the population required for numerical replacement of the parents' generation by their children. (While) in 1989 it was at 0,593, in 1996 it/the figure/was 0.603 .

Regarding/concerning/as for mortality factors, Russia's experience backs/confirms/the conclusion as to a general shift in the ranking of mortality causes/factors/from infectious diseases towards non-infectious chronic and acquired diseases, primarily/predominantly/mostly/ cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. The largest/greatest/ number of people in Russia are dying from circulatory illnesses. And/it is/It is in fact/precisely/the changes in mortality from cardiovascular diseases which are exerting a decisive impact/impacting decisively on general mortality. In recent years as the result of a strong new upward trend, mortality from accidents, poisoning and trauma among the population of working age, in particular/primarily/men, for the first time has exceeded mortality from cancer and is one of the negative factors/features/of the demographic situation in Russia .

Moreover/at the same time/however, mortality in Russia from infectious diseases is mainly/primarily due to tuberculosis, which in various years has accounted for from 70 to 90% of all deaths from infectious diseases among men and from 40-70% among women .

An important role in the development of this situation is being played by/can be attributed to/the behavioral factor, which in turn depends on policy (designed) to promote a healthy life style .

Several positive changes/developments in 1995-97 have not yet/as of now/resulted/led to/changes in the general trend/have not changed the general trend. In particular, there has been an increase in male mortality, making it one of the highest rates in the world/There has been a particularly striking growth — and now one of the highest rates in the world is that of male mortality. Child and maternal mortality continues to remain at a high level/There continued to be a high level of child and maternal mortality .

Back in 1995/Already in 1995/starting in 1995/there were signs of an increase in life expectancy: among men and women it has gradually been rising/there has been a gradual rise among men and women, 59.8 years for men and 72.5 for women .

There has been the beginning of the emergence/We have seen the beginnings of/There has been a start of/encouraging trends through a drop in infant mortality: in 1996 the coefficient for infant mortality was 17.4, and in 1997 - 16.9 cases per 1000 births .

The available/existing data, however, do not allow for an appropriate/proper/accurate determination of the length, intensity, regional differentiation, structure and consequences of the demographic crisis and the impact on it of external factors .

A vital/critically important/crucial/objective/task here is to obtain/extract/produce/true and reliable information in the field of population. An extremely important source of such information is the census. Here/in this connection/in this context we would like to support/back the idea/notion that without reliable statistical data and indicators it is impossible to formulate/make/draw up proper policy in the field of population .

In formulating Russia's demographic policy the government is attempting/trying to increase/expand the number/range of its partners, and is actively involving in this work (inter alia) social/public organizations and non-governmental organizations .

Thank you .

In addition to some specific demographic terms, which tend to appear frequently these days in texts at conferences, this speech contains a number of tricky syntactic problems. It also provides useful training in writing down numbers .

Комментарии:

1) занимают одно из высших мест — can easily be reduced to "is one of the most important priorities" or "is one of the most important things," or simply, "is of great importance."

2) может быть охарактеризована как кризисная — "can be termed critical" is a concise translation, or even, "is critical."

3) ее основными чертами являются — "its major features/factors are" is

a solution. Or, following "is critical," the interpreter can say, "because of:

the deterioration in health... etc."

4) порожден рядом — "has resulted from" or even "came from" are short solutions .

5) к которым наряду — rather than getting bogged down in a long sentence, the interpreter can say "including" and proceed with the list of fee tors .

6) непосредственное влияние на процессы развития народонаселения оказывает социально-экономическая ситуация в стране — if the interpreter has the text, the best solution is to invert the syntax and to begin with "The socio-economic situation in the country is having/exerting a direct impact." Otherwise, "A direct impact is being exerted" is a safe solution .

7) Россия переступила черту — this expression is quite frequent in the language of social discourse. "Has reached the point" is a safe choice when the interpreter does not know what will follow .

8) что не обеспечивает даже — "it does not even produce/maintain" is an easier way out than "ensure."

9) об этом свидетельствует — this should be translated as a nominative subject: "This is proved/shown/by..."

10) если — this can be omitted, and the sentence can read "In 1989 it was at" or, "In 1989 it was at, but..."

11) что касается — "as for" is probably the shortest solution .

12) именно — the important thing is that this is emphatic. The interpreter's voice can get the point across with a simple, stressed "and" — "and the changes..." If there is time, however, "It is in fact," will do .

13) оказывают решающее влияние — here "impact" is a much better choice than "influence."

14) нового сильного роста — "trend" works better than "growth," and "upwards" is stylistically more elegant than "strong," though that too is an option .

15) на ее долю приходилось от 70 до 90 — the interpreter's reflex reaction on hearing "приходилось" and a number should be "accounted for."

16) не последнюю роль — a good chance to use antonymic translation:

"an important/major role."

17) от политики по пропаганде — the word "propaganda" is a highly loaded one in English. This is better rendered as "policy designed to promote" or "a campaign designed to promote," rather than as "propaganda," which has very negative connotations .

18) особенно выросла и стала одной из самых высоких в мире мужская смертность — if the interpreter does not have a text and therefore cannot know that the subject will be мужская смертность, he can begin with "There has been an increase" or "In particular, there has been an increase" which will open the way to a smooth sentence structure .

19) на высоком уровне продолжают оставаться — is another example of the same type of sentence. The interpreter who does not have the text can begin with "There is" or "There continues to be a high level..."

20) начали просматриваться — also needs a subject: "there has been" or "We have seen," if the interpreter does not have a text, which would allow him to say, "An encouraging trend of/towards/a drop in infant mortality has been emerging."

21) имеющиеся — can be rendered as "available" or "existing," or can simply be omitted, i.e. "The data, however, do not allow for..."

22) важнейшей задачей — the interpreter should not be tempted by the superlative form to start talking about "the most important task." "A vitally important/crucial" will do it. And remember that "task" often refers to practical matters; here "objective" is a good solution .

23) в этом контексте — like "в этой связи," this can often be translated as "here."

24) круга — the interpreter should not blindly translate this as "circle," since "range" or "number" is more appropriate and less narrow .

25) благодарю вас за внимание — "for your attention" is highly non-idiomatic in English. Just "thank you" is fine .

National Experience with Population Issues (UN, 1998) (Читается с американским акцептом) Madam Chairwoman, Population issues are one of the most important priorities of the government of the Russian Federation, since in recent years the demographic situation in our country has been in a state of crisis. The major factors are: the deterioration of health and an unprecedented rise in the mortality of the population, in particular for people of working age, a sharp drop in the number of births, the continuation of a downward trend in life expectancy, particularly among men, a rise in general and age-related morbidity due to an increase in forced migration, aging and an absolute reduction in the numbers of the population .

The demographic crisis has been caused by a number of factors, including a global long-term trend towards a decline in the birth rate, and a trend specific to Russia of a rise in mortality and a reduction in life expectancy. The socio-economic situation in the country is having a direct impact on the processes of population development .

Russia has already reached the point of depopulation. A natural decline as the major indicator of demographic problems was noted for the country as a whole, starting at the end of 1990. From 1993-96 a natural decline in the population was observed in 69 regions of the country, though ten years ago such phenomena were observed only in three regions of Russia .

Reproduction of the population in Russia is at such a low level that it does not even result in that simple reproduction of the population needed for numerical replacement of the generation of parents by their children. This is borne out by the net coefficient of reproduction of the population required for numerical replacement of the parents' generation by their children. While in 1989 it was at 0.593, in 1996 the figure was 0.603 .

As for mortality factors, Russia's experience confirms the conclusion as to a general shift in the ranking of mortality causes from infectious diseases towards non-infectious chronic and acquired diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. The greatest number of people in Russia are dying from circulatory illnesses. And it is precisely the changes in mortality from cardiovascular diseases which are impacting decisively on general mortality. In recent years as the result of a strong new upward trend, mortality from accidents, poisoning and trauma among the population of working age, in particular men, for the first time has exceeded mortality from cancer and is one of the negative factors of the demographic situation in Russia .

Moreover, mortality in Russia from infectious diseases is mainly due to tuberculosis, which in various years has accounted for from 70 to 90% of all deaths from infectious diseases among men and from 40among women .

An important role in the development of this situation can be attributed to the behavioral factor, which in turn depends on policy designed to promote a healthy life style .

Several positive developments in 1995-97 have not yet changed the general trend. In particular, there has been an increase in male mortality, making it one of the highest rates in the world. There continued to be a high level of child and maternal mortality .

Starting in 1995 there were signs of an increase in life expectancy:

there has been a gradual rise among men and women, 59.8 years for men and 72.5 for women .

There has been a start of encouraging trends through a drop in infant mortality: in 1996 the coefficient for infant mortality was 17.4, and in 1997 - 16.9 cases per 1000 births .

The existing data, however, do not allow for an accurate determination of the length, intensity, regional differentiation, structure and consequences of the demographic crisis and the impact on it of external factors .

A vital objective here is to obtain true and reliable information in the field of population. An extremely important source of such information is the census. Here we would like to support the idea that without reliable statistical data and indicators it is impossible to formulate proper policy in the field of population .

In formulating Russia's demographic policy the government is attempting to expand the number of its partners, and is actively involving in this work (inter alia) public and non-governmental organizations .

Thank you .

Текст 17

Вопрос о положении женщин:

Национальные планы действия (ООН,1998) Господин Председатель, Содержавшаяся в Платформе действий Пекинской конференции рекомендация принять в кратчайшие сроки национальные планы действия по улучшению положения женщин была положительно воспринята в Российской Федерации, где к этому моменту уже стала очевидной необходимость выработки новых концептуальных подходов к проблеме обеспечения равных прав и возможностей мужчин и женщин в условиях перехода к рыночной экономике .

Утвержденная в январе 1996 года Концепция улучшения положения женщин стала документом, заложившим теоретические основы и определившим стратегические цели деятельности правительства по претворению в жизнь конституционного положения о равноправии мужчин и женщин в Российской Федерации .

Принятый в августе 1996 года национальный план действий по улучшению положения женщин и повышению их роли в обществе до 2000 года в свою очередь расширил и дополнил положения Концепции конкретными практическими шагами государственных структур по достижению сформулированных в ней целей .

С одной стороны, экономические преобразования в странах с переходной экономикой открыли перед женщинами новые горизонты, дали возможность по-новому реализовать себя, а с другой - солидные издержки рыночных реформ больнее всего сказываются именно на женщинах: усиливается феминизация бедности, растет женская безработица, ухудшается здоровье женщины. Нас беспокоят негативные демографические процессы: снижение рождаемости, низкие показатели ожидаемой продолжительности жизни, высокие цифры смертности населения, особенно в трудоспособном возрасте, негативные тенденции в репродуктивном здоровье. Снизился уровень занятости женщин, среди безработных 60% составляют женщины. Говоря о нравственном состоянии общества, следует отметить факты жестокого обращения в семье и насилия в отношении женщин .

Проблемы безработицы, проблемы положения женщин и многие другие общественные вопросы носят глобальный характер .

Массовая хроническая безработица бьет и по тем, кто смог найти работу. Ведь угроза быть выброшенным за ворота вынуждает их мириться с произволом предпринимателей. Так, по данным МОТ, предприниматели, как правило, платят молодым работникам 40-50% от зарплаты взрослых за аналогичную работу .

Незанятость значительной части молодого поколения является первопричиной многих социальных зол. Лишенные возможности трудиться, молодые люди начинают ощущать свою отчужденность, ненужность обществу. А это, в конечном итоге, ведет к росту наркомании, преступности, проституции .

И не надо забывать о том, что сегодня средства массовой информации обладают огромным потенциалом воздействия на общественное сознание. Это особенно ощутимо сегодня, когда международные отношения все больше становятся делом не только профессиональных дипломатов, но и широких слоев мировой общественности, когда гласность, информированность становятся обязательным условием и ускорителем демократизации международной жизни .

Конкретным результатом работы в части улучшения положения женщин стали предпринимаемые меры по обеспечению занятости женщин. Приняты генеральное трехстороннее соглашение между правительством, работодателями и профсоюзами, программа поддержки и развития малого предпринимательства .

Проводится опережающее обучение работников, находящихся под угрозой увольнения, осуществляется социальная адаптация безработных. Организована профессиональная переподготовка безработных женщин, оказывается содействие в трудоустройстве оканчивающим высшие учебные заведения. Социальная помощь переходит на строгую адресность .

Проблемы положения женщин носят глобальный характер .

Огромное значение для успешной реализации Пекинских документов имеет солидарность женщин, тесное сотрудничество правительственных и общественных структур .

Спасибо, господин Председатель .

*** Mr. Chairman, The recommendation contained in the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference/That/Something/What is contained in the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference, namely/that is/I mean/ I am referring to the recommendation/to adopt as soon as possible/in the very near future/national plans of action to improve the status of women, has the approval of/was approved by/meets with the approval of/the Russian Federation, where there already is a clear need to/where the need is evident/obvious/clear to draw up/produce/work out/for drawing up/producing/working out/new conceptual approaches to (the problem of) ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women in conditions of/during/the transition to a market economy .

The concept which was approved/adopted/That/Something which was approved/adopted in 1996, namely/I mean/that is/the concept for the improvement of the status of women became a document which laid the theoretical foundations/bases/and determined/defined the strategic goals for the activities of the government in implementing constitutional provisions regarding the equality of men and women in the Russian Federation .

The national plan of action adopted in August 1996 to improve the status of women and enhance their role in society by the year 2000 in turn has expanded and supplemented the provisions of the Concept through specific practical steps/actions/by state institutions to implement the goals/objectives it contains contained in it/its goals/objectives .

The economic transformations/changes in countries with transition economies have opened up new horizons/opportunities/for women, have provided new opportunities for self-fulfillment/self-realization/and, on the other hand, the major burden/costs/of market reforms are impacting most of all/are most intensively felt/born/ experienced by women: there has been a rise/increase in female poverty, a growth of women's/female unemployment and a deterioration of women's health. We are concerned about the negative demographic processes: a drop/decline in the birth rate, low life expectancy indicators, high mortality figures for the population, especially of working age, and negative trends in reproductive health .

There has been a drop/decline in the level of female employment, and 60% of the unemployed are women/women account for 60% of the unemployed. In speaking of the moral state of society, we should take note of incidents/cases of harsh/brutal behavior/treatment/within the family and of violence against women .

The problem of unemployment, the problem of the status of women and many other social issues are global in nature/universal/ widespread. Mass and chronic unemployment also strikes/affects/ those who have found work. This is because/For/the threat of being fired/dismissed/downsized/let go/forces them to put up with/accept the arbitrary will/whims/of entrepreneurs. Thus, according to ILO data, entrepreneurs as a rule pay young workers (some) 40-50% of the salaries paid to adults for similar/such/identical/work .

Unemployment of a significant part of the younger generation is the root/primary/underlying/primary/major/cause/reason for/of many social ills/problems/issues. Deprived of the possibility to work, young people begin to experience/feel/alienation/a feeling of alienation, that they are useless to society. And this ultimately/finally/in the last analysis leads to an increase in drug addiction, crime and prostitution .

Nor should we forget/And we should not forget/it should not be forgotten/there should be no forgetting that today the mass media have enormous potential for impacting on/influencing public opinion .

This/is particularly true/makes itself particularly felt/today, when international relations are increasingly becoming a matter/subject/ affair/field not only for/professional diplomats but also for broad strata/ a wide range/of world public opinion, when glasnost and the availability of information are becoming a prerequisite/sine qua поп and a catalyst for the democratization of international life .

A specific result of work to improve the status of women are the measures undertaken to ensure/provide female employment. There has been/we have seen the adoption of a general tripartite agreement between the government, employers and trade unions, and of a program of support and development for small enterprises. Intensive/sophisticated /state of the art/advanced training is being carried out/conducted for workers who are in danger of/threatened with/vulnerable to/dismissal /downsizing, and there are programs for social adaptation of the unemployed. We have seen the organization of/There has been the organization of/professional retraining of unemployed women, and assistance is being rendered/given to help graduates of universities/ institutes of higher learning/university graduates/find jobs. Social assistance is now becoming carefully/specifically targeted .

The problems of the status of women are in fact/indeed/truly global/universal/in nature/are global/universal. Very important/of enormous significance/A major factor/for the successful implementation of the Beijing documents is the solidarity of women, and also close cooperation between governmental and public organizations/ institutions .

Thank you, Mr. Chairman .

This text is particularly rich in participial constructions, and provides good examples of how to deal with the syntactic problems which arise in these sentences. There are also a number of sentences with impersonal subjects which require some reworking .

Комментарии:

1) содержавшаяся... рекомендация — if the interpreter does not have a text, it will be difficult for him to wait until the noun рекомендация shows up before starting the sentence. As soon as you hear a participle as the first word of the sentence in this type of clause, you can say "Something/that/which... was contained in the Platform of Action..." and then, when the noun finally appears — рекомендация — you can insert before it "that is/namely/I mean/I am referring to/the recommendation."

2) в кратчайшие сроки — the idea is "as soon as possible," "in the immediate future." Don't try to translate сроки as "time period" or "dates" — this will only complicate the sentence .

3) была положительно воспринята — get away from literal translation here: "positively" and "perceived" do not sound idiomatic. "Was approved by" is what is meant .

4) утвержденная... концепция — this is the same kind of participial construction as those described above. The participle and the noun it modifies are fairly close to each other, but the interpreter who does not want to wait for the noun can begin the sentence with "That which was adopted... namely, the Concept..."

5) принятый... национальный план действий — a similar construction, though here a literal translation would work: "Adopted in August 1996, the national plan of action to improve the status of women... has in turn expanded and supplemented..." "Action" here sounds better in the singular, as "plan of action" is an accepted cliche, though theoretically "plan of actions" would do .

6) по-новому реализовать себя — here some restructuring is in order .

"Realizing oneself does not work. The idea is that of "opportunities for self-fulfillment." Changing the Russian verb into an English nominal construction creates an idiomatic sentence .

7) солидные издержки — "солидный" is often а "ложный друг пере водчика," since it frequently cannot be rendered as "solid." The idea is that of significant or important costs .

8) растет женская безработица, ухудшается здоровье женщин — this sentence requires syntactic reorganization. Starting the sentence with "There has been a growth of female unemployment" is much smoother than trying to start off with the verb "растет" or with a present tense. The conjunction "and" then links the two clauses and leads to a logical ending for the sentence. Of course, the interpreter could also say "female unemployment is rising, women's health is deteriorating," but it requires quick thinking to reorder both clauses .

9) снизился уровень — this is similar to the above sentence, since starting with "There has been" allows the other components of the sentence to fall into place .

10) носят глобальный характер — the interpreter is well advised to forget about the verb носить, and to reword this as "the problems are widespread/global." " I n nature" can safely be omitted .

11) бьет и по тем — here too, the original verb needs some rephrasing .

"Strikes" or "affects" can render the verb, or this can be reworded as "mass and chronic unemployment is also a problem for those..."

12) первопричиной многих социальных зол — "the root cause of many

social ills" would do it, but the interpreter can simplify further:

"unemployment... underlies/explains/many social problems."

13) и не надо забывать о том... — it is not absolutely necessary to translate this и as "and." "Nor" gives emphasis to the idea and stresses the negative nuance .

14) конкретным результатом — this phrase should be translated as the nominative subject of the sentence. "Specific" is usually much more idiomatic in English than "concrete."

15) приняты — this is a tricky sentence, with a plural verbal form as the first word followed by a list. The plural should set off an alarm bell in the interpreter's head and prompt "There has been" or an attempt at rephrasing such as "We have seen the adoption of..." to clear the way for

• a listing of the measures adopted .

16) проводится опережающее обучение работников — here we have another orphaned verb wailing for a subject, which the interpreter must hastily supply. "There has been" or "We have seen" takes care of both

parts of the sentence, as the interpreter can then skip "осуществляется:"

"there has been the organization of professional retraining of unemployed women and assistance to help graduates..." The sentence in English is also better off with the addition of a noun: "the organization/creation/ establishment of professional retraining" rather than simply "there has been professional retraining," though if necessary that will do .

17) организована — this requires the same type of inversion as the other past passive participles or reflexive verbs: "There has been/We have seen/the organization of..."

18) носят глобальный характер — this is the same expression encountered earlier; since it is at the end of the speech, a bit of emphasis can be added: "The problems of the status of women are indeed/in fact universal/global."

19) структур — these can be rendered as "organizations" or "institutions," since "structures" does not work, and "systems" is too restrictive for this context .

The Status of Women:

National Plans of Action (1998) (Читается в нормальном темпе с индийским акцентом и в быстром — с британским акцентом) Mr. Chairman, What is» contained in the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference, namely the recommendation to adopt as soon as possible national plans of action to improve the status of women, has the approval of the Russian Federation, where there already is a clear need to produce new conceptual approaches to ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women during the transition to a market economy .

Something which was adopted in 1996, that is, the concept for the improvement of the status of women, became a document which laid the theoretical foundations and defined the strategic goals for the activities of the government in implementing constitutional provisions regarding the equality of men and women in the Russian Federation .

The national plan of action adopted in August 1996 to improve the status of women and enhance their role in society by the year 2000 in turn has expanded and supplemented the provisions of the Concept through specific practical actions by state institutions to implement its objectives .

On the one hand, the economic transformations in countries with transition economies have opened up new horizons for women, have provided new opportunities for self-fulfillment, and on the other hand, the major costs of market reforms are most intensively felt by women: there has been a rise in female poverty, a growth of female unemployment and a deterioration of women's health. We are concerned about the negative demographic processes: a decline in the birth rate, low life expectancy indicators, high mortality figures for the population, especially of working age, and negative trends in reproductive health. There has been a drop in the level of female employment, and women account for 60% of the unemployed. In speaking of the moral state of society, we should take note of cases of brutal behavior within the family and of violence against women .

The problem of unemployment, the problem of the status of women and many other social issues are widespread. Mass and chronic unemployment also strikes those who have found work. This is because the threat of being downsized forces them to put up with the arbitrary will of entrepreneurs. Thus, according to ILO data, entrepreneurs as a rule pay young workers some 40-50% of the salaries paid to adults for such work .

Unemployment of a significant part of the younger generation is the root cause of many social problems. Deprived of the possibility to work, young people begin to experience alienation, a feeling that they are useless to society. And this ultimately leads to an increase in drug addiction, crime and prostitution .

Nor should we forget that today the mass media have enormous potential for influencing public opinion. This is particularly true today, when international relations are increasingly becoming a field not only for professional diplomats but also for broad strata of world public opinion, when glasnost and the availability of information are becoming a sine qua поп and a catalyst for the democratization of international life .

A specific result of work to improve the status of women are the measures undertaken to provide female employment. We have seen the adoption of a general tripartite agreement between the government, employers and trade unions, and of a program of support and development for small enterprises. Advanced training is being conducted for workers who are vulnerable to dismissal, and there are programs for social adaptation of the unemployed. There has been the organization of professional retraining of unemployed women, and assistance is being given to help university graduates find jobs. Social assistance is now becoming carefully targeted .

The problems of the status of women are indeed universal in nature. A major factor for the successful implementation of the Beijing documents is the solidarity of women, and also close cooperation between governmental and public organizations .

Thank you, Mr. Chairman .

Текст 18

О развитии женского малого и среднего бизнеса в Казахстане (ООН, 1997) Уважаемая госпожа Председатель!

Численность женщин в республике составляет 8,5 млн. человек, или 51,38% от всего населения. В целом по народному хозяйству уровень занятости женщин на 1.01.96 составил 49% .

Следует отметить, что занятость женщин в республике Казахстан характеризуется относительно высоким уровнем по сравнению с другими странами азиатского региона .

Отличительной чертой женской занятости в республике является то, что основная часть работающих женщин сосредоточена в образовании, здравоохранении, торговле, социальном обеспечении. В органы государственной службы занятости из числа обратившихся женщины составили 50,5%. Состав безработных женщин характеризуется преобладанием в их среде работниц со стажем трудовой деятельности, ранее занятых на рабочих местах, имеющих среднее образование, находящихся в наиболее трудоспособном возрасте .

Среди женщин, получивших официальный статус безработного, 45% проживают в сельской местности. Средняя продолжительность безработицы у женщин составляет 5 месяцев. Министерство труда, Государственная служба занятости принимают меры по содействию трудоустройству безработных женщин. В утверждаемую ежегодно Правительством Республиканскую программу содействия занятости населения включен специальный раздел «Занятость женщин», предусматривающий использование активных мер по ее обеспечению. Одним из действенных средств помощи в трудоустройстве малоконкурентных на рынке труда групп, к числу которых относятся женщины, остается квотирование рабочих мест, при посредстве которого ежегодно трудоустраивается пятая часть безработных, получивших рабочие места. Особое внимание уделяется профессиональной подготовке, переподготовке и повышению квалификации безработных женщин, что является наиболее действенной формой социальной защиты, оказываемой службой занятости Республики за счет средств Государственного фонда содействия занятости .

В современных условиях особую роль приобретает развитие женского малого и среднего бизнеса .

Участие женщин в предпринимательстве — это необходимость, вызванная условиями рынка, и своеобразная альтернатива безработице, бесплатному домашнему и малооплачиваемому труду в государственном секторе .

Возможность участия женщин в предпринимательстве обусловлена также их достаточно высоким уровнем образования, необходимостью развития сфер услуг кустарного производства, национальных народных промыслов, где женщина имеет опыт и навыки в этой работе .

Развитие бизнеса женщин — позитивный фактор во многих аспектах, так как предпринимательская деятельность, наряду с другими, является одним из лучших способов самовыражения личности, реализации ее потенциала. Она также формирует в человеке чувство достоинства и уверенности в себе .

Чтобы участие казахстанок в малом и среднем бизнесе стало в будущем успешным и плодотворным, необходима работа как минимум на двух уровнях. На государственном уровне следует организовать целенаправленную правовую, экономическую и финансовую поддержку предпринимательству женщин. Делаться это должно вовсе не с целью предоставления им какихто поблажек или необоснованных льгот по половому признаку, а с расчетом выравнивания стартовых условий деловых или коммерческих инициатив мужчин и женщин. Параллельно с этим необходимо подкрепить весь комплекс экономико-правовых мер кропотливой и деликатной работой на персональном уровне .

Вместе с тем трудно признать за женским предпринимательством какой-либо социальный статус, пока нет единой программы женского предпринимательства, нет ни одного указа или законодательного акта по женскому предпринимательству .

Особый статус, оправданный в социальном, экономическом и морально-психологическом плане, женское предпринимательство принимает, на наш взгляд, только в рамках общественного движения, которое сегодня у нас в Республике получает особое признание. Ибо, занимаясь предпринимательством вынужденно или сознательно, женщина прежде всего защищает свои интересы как полноправного гражданина своего общества. Таким образом, перспектива развития женского предпринимательства, вопервых, лежит в плоскости развития женского движения, вовторых, в государственно-правовой поддержке женского предпринимательства .

Сложившаяся в настоящее время экономическая ситуация благоприятна для ряда быстрых решений, подкрепленных необходимыми ресурсами. Это позволит в течение ближайших лет обеспечить быстрое становление малого и среднего бизнеса, что особенно важно в настоящее время .

Особое место в нашей Конвенции занимает раздел содействия обеспечению равных прав и равного обращения на рынке труда. Раздел концепции предусматривает разработку республиканских и региональных программ развития малого и семейного бизнеса, экономического стимулирования в виде временного освобождения от налогов, льготного кредитования, укрепления системы профессионального обучения, постоянной тендерной экспертизы правовых норм, государственной поддержки научных разработок в области тендерных исследований, осуществления постоянного мониторинга положения женщин на рынке труда, разработку критериев оценки влияния экологических факторов и условий труда на здоровье женщин, создание условий для обеспечения занятости женщин .

Такая целенаправленная работа позволит успешно реализовать международные акты по улучшению положения женщин .

*** Madam(e) Chairman/Chairwoman/Chair, In our country/republic/there are 8.5 million women/women (who) number/account for 8.5 million people/or/that is, 51.38 per cent of the total population. In all/all told as of January I, 1996, 49% of the women were employed (in the economy). It should be noted/ recalled/remembered/that the employment rate for/the number of women employed/holding jobs/in the Republic of Kazakhstan is relatively high/at a relatively high level in comparison with other countries of the Asian region .

A distinguishing feature/characteristic of women's/female/ employment/What characterizes women's employment in the republic/is the fact that most/the bulk/of working women are concentrated/clustered/found/in education, health care, commerce/ trade and social services. In government employment centers women accounted for 50.5% of the applicants. Unemployed women/The cohort of unemployed women for the most part/primarily have work experience, have previously held jobs, have a high-school/secondary education, and are in their prime working years/of prime working age .

Among/of/those women officially designated/categorized as unemployed, 45% live in rural areas/villages. On the average/ The average length of their unemployment is five months. The Ministry of Labor and the state employment service are taking steps/ measures/action to help/assist/render assistance to/unemployed women in finding jobs. The government's job assistance program/The employment program of the government of the republic, which is approved/revalidated annually, includes a special section/division, "Employment of Women," which provides for/calling for active measures to implement it/carry it out/proactive measures. One effective way to help disadvantaged groups/groups poorly equipped/ groups at a competitive disadvantage to find jobs is still the use of/the assigning of/job quotas. In this way every year/annually/one-fifth of the unemployed are placed/find jobs. Special/particular attention is given/paid to professional/vocational training, retraining and enhancement/advancement/upgrading of the skills/qualifications of unemployed women, and this is/which is the most effective form of social assistance/protection/social safety net/provided by the state/ republic employment service, financed by the State fund for assistance to employment .

In today's/present/current/conditions/circumstances/the development of women's small and medium-size/scale business/enterprises is acquiring/taking on/special significance/playing a significant role .

Women's participation/involvement in business/enterprise is a necessity/is a need/caused by/due to/resulting from/market conditions, and is a kind/type/of alternative to unemployment, unpaid domestic or poorly paid work in the state sector .

Women's opportunities/potential/possibilities for participation in business/enterprises is/are also determined by/stem from/are linked to/is a function of/their rather high educational level, the need for the development of the service sphere of the cottage industry/ handicrafts/and traditional national handicrafts, areas in which women have experience and skills .

The development of women's enterprises/women's role in business is a positive factor in many respects, since entrepreneurial activity, inter alia, is one of the best forms for self-expression/selfrealization and realizing one's potential/self-fulfillment. It also builds/ develops/a sense of dignity and self-confidence/self-assurance .

For/If/the participation of Kazakhstan women in medium-scale enterprise is/is to be successful (and fruitful), work is needed/action must be taken/on at least two levels. The state, for its part, must organize focused/targeted/concentrated/legal, economic and financial assistance to women's enterprises. This must be done/This is necessary not to do them any special favors/consideration/coddle them or provide unwarranted benefits/advantages for reasons of gender, but to equalize/place on an equal footing the starting/ initial/start-up conditions for business or commercial initiatives by/of men and women. At the same time/In parallel/In tandem/ Simultaneously there is a need to strengthen/buttress/reinforce the entire range of economic and legal measures through painstaking and carefully/deftly handled/sensitive work on the individual level/with individuals .

At the same time, it is difficult for women's entrepreneurial activities to achieve/attain/win/gain any kind of social status as long as there is no single program for the development of female entrepreneurship, nor any directive/edict or legislative act/instrument to deal with/address it .

A special status, justified on social, economic and moralpsychological grounds, is something women entrepreneurs acquire/ enjoy, in our view, only within the framework/context of a social/ popular movement, which today is gaining/winning recognition/is particularly/increasingly acknowledged in our country. For/Thus/The fact is/by becoming involved in business/enterprises by necessity or by choice/voluntarily or not, women are above all/primarily/first and foremost protecting their own interests as full-fledged citizens of their society. Thus, the prospects for expanding/developing women's role in business/enterprises are, first of all, to be found/hinge on/depend on/are placed in the context of the/women's movement, and second, in state and legal support/backing for women entrepreneurs/women in business .

The present economic situation/The economic situation nowadays is conducive to/calls for/invites a number of swift/immediate decisions, backed by the required/requisite resources. This will make it possible over/in/the next few years to bring about/ensure/provide for the rapid development/growth/formation of small and medium-scale businesses/enterprises, which is especially important right now/at the present time/at present .

A particularly important part/of our Convention is/in our Convention is played by/the section on ensuring/advancing equal rights and equal treatment in the labor market. The section on the overall/ basic concept provides for the elaboration of republic and regional programs of development of small and family businesses, economic incentives in the form of temporary tax exemptions, favorable credit conditions, a strengthening of the system of vocational training, ongoing gender-based analysis of legal norms, state support for research projects in the area of gender studies, the implementation of ongoing monitoring of the situation of women in the labor market, the establishment of criteria for assessment of the impact of environmental/ecological factors and working conditions on women's health, and the establishment of conditions to provide employment for women. Such targeted/focused/ concentrated work will help to/create/bring about/make a reality of international instruments to improve the situation of women .

This text contains many useful terms in the area of social services and employment, as well as some very long sentences which need to be restructured or split into two separate units. The specific terminology used here should be mastered before attempting to interpret the text .

Комментарии:

1) составляет — the sentence could start in two ways: either, "In our country there are 8.5 million women," or "Women account for/number 8.5 million people." Starting the sentence by translating численность will produce "The number of women in the republic is 8.5 million" which, while awkward, will do if the speaker is delivering the text rapidly .

2) в целом — this does not need a literal translation such as "on the whole" or "in general," which here would not be appropriate. The ideas is "in all" or "all in all." If it comes to mind, the Latin expression "in toto" would also work .

3) отличительной чертой — this needs to be translated as the nominative subject of the sentence, as the interpreter cannot wait to see what will follow. "A distinguishing feature" or "characteristic" is a neutral rendering .

4) сосредоточена — if the speaker is going fast, the literal translation "concentrated" is fine. But if there is time to think about the term, what is meant here is simply that there are more women in these fields than in others — i.e. that they "are" there, are "found" there .

5) по содействию — the noun needs to be changed into a verb in English .

This phrase can be shortened even further to "help unemployment women find jobs." All too often "содействие" and "содействовать" are rendered as "promote" or "advance," and while there are contexts when this is appropriate, in many contexts "help" or "assist/assistance" is more clear and idiomatic .

6) профессиональной подготовке, переподготовке и повышению квали фикации — these are frequent terms in the language of social services, and should be learned. Note that "профессиональная подготовка" often means "vocational" rather than "professional" training, and that "skills" is a shorter and more idiomatic translation of квалификации than "qualifications."

7) это необходимость, вызванная условиями рынка — the simplest translation might be simply "This is caused by market factors" or "This is a result of/results from market conditions."

8) обусловлена также — on seeing the word обусловлена interpreters often tend to reach for "condition," but anything involving "conditioned by" will not work here. The idea is that there is a link between the opportunities and educational level and needs of the service sphere of the industries mentioned. "Are a function of or even "are linked to" are short translations which get the point across .

9) целенаправленную — forget about "goal-oriented," long a standard rendering of this word which pops up so often. "Focused" or "concentrated" is far more idiomatic .

10) подкрепить весь комплекс экономико-правовых мер — подкрепить does not necessarily have to be translated as "reinforced;" "backed" often works. Комплекс should be translated as "range" or "set," but not as "complex."

11) трудно признать за... — here some rephrasing is called for. Трудно признать can become the subject: "It is difficult for women's activities to gain social recognition/status" is short and clear, while attempts to translate this literally as "It is difficult to recognize or acknowledge" will cause problems in finishing the phrase .

12) ибо — this word implies both cause and emphasis, and thus "for" or "the fact is" will get both of these across .

13) сложившаяся в настоящее время экономическая ситуация — сло жившаяся is usually best rendered as "existing" or "present." Attempts to do something with the verb "formed" tend to produce clumsy results .

14) в настоящее время — this can be rendered simply as "now" or "at present" rather than as "at the present time."

15) постоянной тендерной экспертизы правовых норм, государственной поддержки научных разработок в области тендерных исследований — постоянной is often rendered as "ongoing" rather than as "continuous" or "continued." Экспертиза implies expert analysis, and the word "analysis" should appear here. Разработок here can be rendered as "projects" rather than as "plans" or "designs" (which might be appropriate in other contexts), and научных often means "research," "scholarly" or "academic" as well as "scientific."

16) такая целенаправленная работа позволит успешно реализовать международные акты — here again, "целенаправленная" should be rendered as "focused" or "targeted." "Позволит успешно реализовать" can be reduced to "create" or "bring about" international instruments .

"Instruments" here is preferable to "acts."

On the Development of Women's Medium and Small-scale Business in Kazakhstan (UN, 1997) (Читается в нормальном и быстром темпах с британским акцентом) Madam Chairwoman, In our country there are 8.5 million women who account for

51.38 per cent of the total population. In all as of January I, I996, 49% of the women were employed. It should be recalled that the employment rate for women in the Republic of Kazakhstan is relatively high in comparison with other countries of the Asian region .

A distinguishing characteristic of female employment is the fact that most working women are found in education, health care, commerce and social services. In government employment centers women accounted for 50.5% of the applicants. Unemployed women for the most part have work experience, have previously held jobs, have a high-school education, and are in their prime working years .

Among those women officially designated as unemployed, 45% live in rural areas. The average length of their unemployment is five months. The Ministry of Labor and the state employment service are taking measures to help unemployed women in finding jobs. The government's job assistance program, which is revalidated annually, includes a special division, "Employment of Women," which provides for active measures to implement it. One effective way to help disadvantaged groups to find jobs is still the use of job quotas. In this way every year one-fifth of the unemployed are placed. Special attention is given to vocational training, retraining and upgrading of the skills of unemployed women, and this is the most effective form of social assistance provided by the republic employment service, financed by the State fund for assistance to employment .

In today's circumstances the development of women's small and medium-scale business is taking on special significance .

Women's involvement in business is caused by market conditions, and is a kind of alternative to unemployment, unpaid domestic or poorly paid work in the state sector .

Women's opportunities for participation in business are determined by their rather high educational level, the need for the development of the service sphere of the cottage industry, and traditional national handicrafts, areas in which women have experience and skills .

The development of women's role in business is a positive factor in many respects, since entrepreneurial activity, inter alia, is one of the best forms for self-expression and self-fulfillment. It also builds a sense of dignity and self-confidence .

For the participation of Kazakhstan women in medium-scale enterprise to be successful, action must be taken on at least two levels .

The state, for its part, must organize focused legal, economic and financial assistance to women's enterprises. This is necessary not to do them any special favors or provide unwarranted advantages for reasons of gender, but to equalize the start-up conditions for business or commercial initiatives by men and women. Simultaneously, there is a need to strengthen the entire range of economic and legal measures through painstaking and sensitive work on the individual level .

At the same time, it is difficult for women's entrepreneurial activities to gain any kind of social status as long as there is no single program for the development of female entrepreneurship, nor any edict or legislative instrument to address it .

A special status, justified on social, economic and moralpsychological grounds, is something women entrepreneurs acquire, in our view, only within the framework of a popular movement, which today is winning recognition in our country. In fact, by becoming involved in business by necessity or by choice, women are above all protecting their own interests as full-fledged citizens of their society .

Thus, the prospects for expanding women's role in business are, first of all, to be found in the context of the women's movement, and second, in state and legal support for women entrepreneurs .

The present economic situation is conducive to a number of immediate decisions, backed by the requisite resources. This will make it possible in the next few years to bring about the rapid growth of small and medium-scale businesses, which is especially important right now .

A particularly important part of our Convention is the section on ensuring equal rights and equal treatment in the labor market. The section on the basic concept provides for the elaboration of republic and regional programs of development of small and family businesses, economic incentives in the form of temporary tax exemptions, favorable credit conditions, a strengthening of the system of vocational training, ongoing gender-based analysis of legal norms, state support for research projects in the area of gender studies, the implementation of ongoing monitoring of the situation of women in the labor market, the establishment of criteria for assessment of the impact of environmental factors and working conditions on women's health, and the establishment of conditions to provide employment for women. Such targeted work will help create international instruments to improve the situation of women .

Текст 19 Выступление Первого заместителя Премьера Правительства Москвы В. И. Ресина на Американо-российском инвестиционном симпозиуме в Гарвардском университете, 1999 г .

(Бостон, США) Уважаемые дамы и господа!

Уважаемые коллеги!

Привлечение иностранных фирм и инвестиций — одно из ведущих направлений осуществления городской инвестиционной политики. Особенно это стало важным в связи с возникшими в последнее время экономическими проблемами, вызванными известными августовскими решениями Правительства России, осложнившими финансовую ситуацию в стране .

Хотя следует особо подчеркнуть, что Москва как самостоятельный субъект федерации не отказалась от своих обязательств и продолжает оставаться надежным союзником для иностранных партнеров.

При этом Москва вырабатывает свой путь создания благоприятного инвестиционного климата, понимая при этом:

— во-первых, твердые гарантии;

— во вторых, создание режима наибольшего благоприятствования;

— в-третьих, упрощение процедуры оформления разреше ний и документов; и — наконец, прочные деловые отношения инвесторов с го родской администрацией .

Любой город, вступивший на путь преобразований, не может обойтись только собственными ресурсами, ему всегда необходимы и внешние источники финансирования .

Инвестиционная активность в Москве, по российским масштабам, высока. В 1997 году иностранные инвесторы вложили в московскую экономику 8.5 млрд, долларов США, что составило 66% инвестиций, привнесенных в Россию. На этом же уровне был и 1998 год .

Мы понимаем, что западного инвестора беспокоит степень риска своих вложений, и он вправе рассчитывать на стабильность политической обстановки в стране, на гарантированное получение соответствующего возврата своих инвестиций, на цивилизованное законодательство и страхование своих вложений и т.д .

Есть все основания утверждать, что в Москве эти вопросы решены достаточно положительно, о чем свидетельствует практика и опыт многочисленных зарубежных инвесторов. Достаточно сказать, что за последние 10 лет ни один иностранный предприниматель, иностранные компании и фирмы, появившиеся на московском рынке, особенно в строительной отрасли, не покинули это поле, а, наоборот, расширили свою сферу деятельности, несмотря на экономические неурядицы и политические баталии .

Уверенность в эффективности сотрудничества вытекает из следующих особенностей и возможностей Москвы .

Москва, как известно, крупнейший, по мировым меркам, мегаполис, располагающий значительным научно-производственным и имущественным потенциалом. Она характеризуется самой высокой в России инвестиционной активностью. Несмотря на серьезный экономический кризис, охвативший Россию в последние годы, особенно в августе 1998, и проявляющийся также и в Москве, несмотря на существенное падение производства во всех отраслях народного хозяйства, строительный комплекс города все эти годы работает стабильно и результативно .

В городе ведется большое дорожно-транспортное строительство. Введена современная кольцевая автотрасса с 10-полосным движением, начаты работы по третьему автомобильному кольцу в городе. Реализуется достойная столицы программа реконструкции центра города .

Но главная особенность нашей инвестиционной политики состоит, пожалуй, не в том, что конкретно мы строим и реконструируем, а в том, как, какими способами и средствами мы обеспечиваем поддержание высоких темпов и объемов строительных работ в сложных условиях нынешнего этапа рыночной экономики .

Не так давно Москва практически целиком финансировалась из госбюджета. С переходом к рынку эта, когда-то широкая река государственных инвестиций сузилась до маленького ручейка, а город живет и строится. В этих условиях мы вынуждены были искать новые принципы и подходы в нашей инвестиционной деятельности .

В чем это конкретно заключается? Прежде всего в реалистичности и сбалансированности наших инвестиционных программ .

Жить по средствам — сегодня основной закон хозяйствования .

Другой подход — диверсификация источников финансирования. После прекращения обильных централизованных государственных инвестиций и субвенций был этап кредитных ресурсов коммерческих банков, но жизнь показала, что это очень дорогое удовольствие, и сегодня мы пользуемся кредитом крайне осторожно .

Таким образом, современный инвестиционный потенциал Москвы характеризуется высокой мощностью и мобильностью, четкой и адаптированной к рыночным условиям политикой, финансовой устойчивостью и открытостью для внешних инвесторов и строителей .

Столичность нашего города также создает дополнительные удобства для предпринимательства. Москва без преувеличения является сегодня одним из ведущих мировых центров бизнеса, торговли, банковской и биржевой деятельности.

Здесь все рядом:

и власть, и ведущие банки России, стран СНГ, дальнего зарубежья. Это крупнейший транспортный и телекоммуникационный узел. Все это создает хорошие предпосылки для успешного ведения практически любого дела .

Приход к нам зарубежных инвесторов мы расцениваем не только и не столько как путь привлечения дополнительных финансовых и материальных ресурсов, хотя этот фактор для нас, безусловно, сейчас немаловажен .

* * * Distinguished ladies and gentlemen, Distinguished colleagues, Attracting foreign capital and investments is one of the major/ important areas of (our) municipal investment policy. This has become particularly important because of/due to the recent economic problems caused by/resulting from the (well-known) August decisions of the Russian government, of which you are aware, which complicated the financial situation in the country .

I should like to particularly emphasize/stress/underline/highlight/ that Moscow, as an independent subject of the Federation, has not renounced/rejected/abandoned/its commitments and continues to be a reliable associate/interlocutor/for foreign partners/firms. In so doing,/moreover,/Moscow is producing its own plan for a favorable

investment climate, taking into account the need for:

first: firm/solid guarantees second: the establishment/creation of MFN/most favored nation conditions third: simplification of the procedure for obtaining permission and documents, and finally, sound/stable business relations between investors and the city administration .

Any city, which has begun to implement/embarked on a policy of/ put into effect a plan for/begun major changes/transformations cannot get by/manage/survive by using only its own resources/limit itself to its own resources/make do with solely its own resources; it always needs/ requires/is in need of external financing .

Investment activity in Moscow is major/high in terms of/Russia/the country as a whole. In 1997 foreign investors invested 8.5 billion US dollars in the Moscow economy, which accounted for 66% of investments in Russia. The same level was true for/held true for/1998 .

We understand that western investors are concerned about the degree of risk to their investments, and they are right in counting on a stable political situation in the country, on being guaranteed receipt of an appropriate return for their investments, on civilized/sound/ acceptable norms of/legislation and insurance of their investments, etc .

There is every reason to assert that Moscow has resolved these issues positively/that there have been positive solutions to these problems in Moscow/and this has been demonstrated/proved/attested/ shown by the experience of numerous/many/foreign investors. Suffice it to say that in the last 10 years not a single foreign entrepreneur, foreign company or firm active on the Moscow market, particularly in the construction field, has abandoned such activities/its efforts; rather, there has been expansion of such efforts, despite the economic turbulence/upsets and political strife/struggles .

Confidence in the effectiveness of cooperation stems/derives/results from these specific features and potential of Moscow .

Moscow is indeed a major metropolis by world standards, with significant potential in production and property. It has the highest rate/largest proportion of investment activity in Russia. Despite the serious economic crisis which has overtaken/gripped Russia in recent years, in particular/particularly in August 1998, which was also felt in Moscow, and despite the substantive/substantial decline/drop in production in all areas of the economy, the construction sector of the city has been functioning in a stable and productive manner .

The city is engaged in large-scale road building and transportation activities. There has been the introduction/start-up of a modern ten-lane ring highway, and work has begun on a third ring highway in the city. A significant/major/sophisticated program of reconstruction of the city center/to highlight the center of the capital/worthy of the capital/is underway .

But the most striking feature/outstanding characteristic of our investment policy is not, I feel, what we are specifically building and reconstructing, but rather how and by what means/with what funds we are ensuring/providing for speedy and large-scale construction/ a rapid rate and large volume of construction in the difficult conditions/circumstances of the present stage of the market economy .

Not so long ago/Quite recently Moscow was virtually entirely financed/practically financed in toto/in full from the state budget .

With the shift to the market this formerly extensive/broad flow of state investments dried up/was reduced to a trickle, but the city is actively building. In such/these circumstances/conditions we are forced/obliged to find/create new guidelines/principles and approaches in our investment activity .

What does this (really) mean (in fact)/involve/include? First of all, (that we have) realistic and balanced investment programs. Living within one's means is today the basic law/rule governing the economy .

Another approach is that of the diversification of sources of financing. After the termination/cessation of abundant centralized state/ government investments and subsidies there was a stage/during which credit resources were (obtained)/of obtaining credit from commercial banks, but experience has shown that this is an expensive/costly source of satisfaction/boon/way of doing things, and today we are extremely cautious in our use of credit .

Thus, the modern investment potential of Moscow today/now/is marked/characterized by power and mobility, careful/precise adjustments to market conditions, financial stability and openness to foreign investors and builders .

The fact that our city is the capital also creates/provides advantages for enterprises. Today Moscow/is unquestionably/ undoubtedly/with no exaggeration can be termed/called one of the leading/business centers of the globe/world business centers .

Everything is right there/right at hand: the authorities, and the leading banks of Russia, the countries of the CIS, and/of foreign countries/ foreign banks. This is a major/an enormous transportation and telecommunications hub/center. All these factors provide/create a good basis for successfully undertaking/conducting any type of business dealings/deal .

We see the involvement in our country of foreign investors not merely/only/solely/as much more than/as a means for attracting additional financial and material resources, although this factor doubtless is significant/important for us .

This text is packed with useful economic and financial terms. It also is an example of an exhortatory style: the speaker has a clear message for his western audience, and is trying to convince his listeners to heed it. This requires accuracy in the use of the financial terms and a certain number of colloquial expressions to retain the flavor of the speech and get the message across .

Комментарии:

1) This sentence is full of nasty little problems. Особенно should follow "This has become." В связи can be rendered as "because of or "due to" rather than the much longer "in connection with." "В последнее время" can be shortened to "recently," since "in recent times" is both lengthy and excessively literary for this speech. Возникшее does not need translation, as it adds nothing to the sentence. Известными is better not translated as "well-known," which sounds awkward or even sarcastic — which is certainly not the speaker's intention — in English. "Of which you are aware" would cover this, if the interpreter has time. If not, известны ми can be safely left out, precisely because the audience is "aware" of these problems .

2) надежным союзником для иностранных партнеров — the problem here is the word союзник. "Ally" does not work in English, because it is too politically tinged, and if you use "partner" here, then the word will be repeated twice once "foreign partners" come along. Not the worst of crimes, and if necessary "partners" can be used again, but a substitute in the first instance might be "associate" or "interlocutor."

3) вырабатывает свой путь — this seemingly innocent phrase is fraught with peril. "Is working out its path" belongs to long-dead Moscow Newsisms and Tassisms. The idea is that Moscow is "producing its own plan," "developing its own policy," or, colloquially, "has its own plan," for a favorable investment climate, etc .

4) вступивший на путь преобразований, не может обойтись только собственными ресурсами — there are several choices here. In any case, as in the above example, the literal translation of путь has no place here .

"Any city which has begun major changes" is an easy beginning. "Cannot get by" will get the colloquial tone of the speech across, and the sentence could be finished with "solely its own resources," which would save a good many syllables .

5) на этом же уровне был и 1998 год — the sentence is another example of "think nominative," and turn the initial words in an oblique case into a nominative subject: "The same level." If the interpreter begins with "at this level," it will be difficult to follow through with an idiomatic English sentence. "Was true for" or "held true for" gets across был, since "was" or "happened" will not work in English .

6) западного инвестора — in English this sounds better in the plural, particularly since this is a long sentence. Otherwise it begins to sound like a long description of a particular individual .

7) на цивилизованное законодательство — while "civilized" is logically a correct translation, "sound" or "acceptable" are a bit better here .

"Civilized" sounds a bit patronizing .

8) в Москве эти вопросы решены достаточно положительно, о чем сви детельствует практика и опыт многочисленных зарубежных инвесторов — once again, the interpreter will have a much easier time with the sentence

if the prepositional phrase "в Москве" is made into a nominative subject:

"Moscow has resolved these issues." "О чем свидетельствует" can also be turned around to begin the clause with a nominative: "This is demonstrated by..." "Практика и опыт" are tautologies, and can perfectly well be translated by one word, "experience."

9) не покинули это поле, а, наоборот, расширили свою сферу деятель ности — this can translate as a singular, but then all three subjects need to be in the singular: "Not a single foreign entrepreneur, company or firm has abandoned such activity/its efforts." "Field" is not a good translation for "поле" here. The sentence can be continued by subsuming наоборот into "rather, there has been expansion of such efforts," instead of starting on a longer construction with "on the contrary," which would require a reiteration of the subject, i.e. "on the contrary, these firms have been expanding their activity..."

10) особенностей и возможностей Москвы — "specific features" is more idiomatic than "particular characteristics," and "potential" covers more ground than "possibilities."

11) Москва, как известно... располагающий — saying "as is known" in English verges on sounding silly. It is indeed perfectly obvious that the city is a major metropolis. "Indeed" puts emphasis on the phrase without making the listener sound like an ignoramus. "With" is quite sufficient for располагающий. "Possessing" or "having" are both awkward and unnecessary .

12) он характеризуется самой высокой в России инвестиционной дея тельностью — the verb "has" is simple and much more idiomatic than "is characterized by." "It has the highest rate/largest proportion of investment activity in Russia" is a clear statement; "It is characterized by" is clumsy, longer, and slightly confusing, suggesting that this may be a temporary state .

13) работает стабильно — "has been functioning" is appropriate here, while "has been working" sounds awkward .

14) в городе ведется — this is another example of the need to start with a nominative subject: "The city is engaged in." Otherwise the construction will be extremely awkward: "In the city there is going on..."

15) реализуется достойная столицы программа реконструкции центра города — here literal translation must be avoided at all costs, as this would produce a real "Moscow Newsism." "A significant" or "major program" is underway or is being carried out of reconstruction of the city center .

"Достойная" can also be conveyed by "sophisticated," but anything involving the use of "dignified" should be avoided, as it will sound strange. "Worthy of the capital" is possible, but will unnecessarily lengthen the sentence and complicate the syntax .

16) не так давно — can nicely be translated antonymically: "quite recently."

17) живет и строится — a literal translation, "is living and building," would sound ridiculous. Turning the verb живет into the adverb "actively" creates a normal English sentence: "is actively building."

18) в чем это конкретно заключается? — the notion here is what is involved here, what is really involved. Rephrasing the question as "What does this really mean?" or "What does this mean in fact?" gets the point across. Конкретно then does not need to be translated, since it is covered by "really" or "in fact."

19) жизнь показала — this expression is nearly always better rendered as "experience has shown" rather than as "life has shown," which has an awkward ring in English .

20) столичность нашего города также создает дополнительные удобст ва для предпринимательства — the syntax needs to be adjusted to deal with столичность, which cannot be translated by a single word in English .

"The fact that our city is the capital" solves this problem and leads into the rest of the sentence. Удобства can be rendered as "advantages," since "conveniences" does not work here .

21) без преувеличения — while it is perfectly all right to say "with no exaggeration," (much better than "without exaggeration"), the words "unquestionably" or "undoubtedly" are equally effective here .

22) здесь все рядом — the idea is that everything is "right there" or "right at hand," rather than "nearby" or "close by."

23) не только и не столько как путь — the speaker means "not only" or "as much more than." A literal translation such as "not only and not so much as" should be avoided, and путь here has the sense of a "means" for doing something .

V.I. Resin, First Deputy Premier, Moscow City Administration Russian-American Investment Symposium, 1999 (Harvard University, Boston, USA) (Читается с американским акцептом) Distinguished ladies and gentlemen, Distinguished colleagues, Attracting foreign capital and investments is one of the major areas of our municipal investment policy. This has become particularly important due to the recent economic problems resulting from the August decisions of the Russian government, of which you are aware, which complicated the financial situation in the country .

I should like to particularly stress that Moscow, as an independent subject of the Federation has not renounced its commitments and continues to be a reliable associate for foreign partners. Moreover, Moscow is producing its own plan for a favorable investment climate,

taking into account the need for:

first: solid guarantees second: the establishment of most favored nation conditions third: simplification of the procedure for obtaining permission and documents, and finally, sound business relations between investors and the city administration .

Any city which has begun to implement a plan for major changes cannot make do with only its own resources; it always needs external financing .

Investment activity in Moscow is high in terms of the country as a whole. In 1997 foreign investors invested 8.5 billion US dollars in the Moscow economy, which accounted for 66% of investments in Russia. The same level was true for 1998 .

We understand that western investors are concerned about the degree of risk to their investments, and they are right in counting on a stable political situation in the country, on being guaranteed receipt of an appropriate return for their investments, on acceptable norms of legislation and insurance of their investments, etc .

There is every reason to assert that Moscow has resolved these issues positively, and this has been demonstrated by the experience of numerous foreign investors. Suffice it to say that in the last 10 years not a single foreign entrepreneur, foreign company or firm active on the Moscow market, particularly in the construction field, has abandoned its efforts; rather there has been expansion of such efforts, despite the economic turbulence and political strife .

Confidence in the effectiveness of cooperation stems from these specific features and potential of Moscow .

Moscow is indeed a major metropolis by world standards, with significant potential in production and property. It has the largest proportion of investment activity in Russia. Despite the serious economic crisis which has overtaken Russia in recent years, in particular in August 1998, which was also felt in Moscow, and despite the substantial decline in production in all areas of the economy, the construction sector of the city has been functioning in a stable and productive manner .

The city is engaged in large-scale road building and transportation activities. There has been the start-up of a modern ten-lane ring highway, and work has begun on a third ring highway in the city. A major program of reconstruction of the city center worthy of the capital is underway .

But the most striking feature of our investment policy is not, I feel, what we are specifically building and reconstructing, but rather how and with what funds we are providing for speedy and large-scale construction in the difficult conditions of the present stage of the market economy .

Quite recently Moscow was virtually entirely financed from the state budget. With the shift to the market this formerly broad flow of state investments was reduced to a trickle, but the city is actively building. In such circumstances we are obliged to create new guidelines and approaches in our investment activity .

What does this in fact involve? First of all, realistic and balanced investment programs. Living within one's means is today the basic law governing the economy .

Another approach is that of the diversification of sources of financing. After the termination of abundant centralized state investments and subsidies there was a stage during which credit resources were obtained from commercial banks, but experience has shown that this is an expensive way of doing things, and today we are extremely cautious in our use of credit .

Thus, the modern investment potential of Moscow now is marked by power and mobility, careful adjustments to market conditions, financial stability and openness to foreign investors and builders .

The fact that our city is the capital also creates advantages for enterprises. Today Moscow is unquestionably one of the leading world business centers. Everything is right at hand: the authorities, and the leading banks of Russia, the countries of the CIS, and foreign banks .

This is an enormous transportation and telecommunications hub. All these factors create a good basis for successfully undertaking any type of business dealings .

We see the involvement in our country of foreign investors as much more than a means for attracting additional financial and material resources, although this factor doubtless is important for us .

Текст 20 К встрече директоров Всемирного Банка с Экономическим и социальным советом (ЭКОСОС), 1999 г .

Господин Председатель, Найти ресурсы для финансирования развития всегда было трудной проблемой, особенно в последние несколько лет, когда начала проявляться устойчивая тенденция к снижению официальной помощи развитию и сокращению добровольных взносов на оперативную деятельность ООН, сопровождаемая к тому же падением цен на сырье и энергетические ресурсы. Проблема с финансами еще более обостряется в условиях разрастающегося финансового кризиса, когда не только иностранные инвесторы проявляют вполне обоснованную осторожность, но и становятся весьма ограниченными возможности для мобилизации внутренних ресурсов на цели развития, особенно в странах, пострадавших от кризиса. В сложившейся ситуации, как представляется, благоприятные условия для обеспечения нуждающихся стран ресурсами для развития могут быть реализованы в полном объеме, если финансовый кризис будет преодолен, а стабильность международных финансов и национальных финансовых систем в пострадавших от кризиса странах будет восстановлена .

В этой связи хотелось бы задать несколько вопросов Президенту Всемирного банка г-ну Вулфенсону:

Как Вы оцениваете эффективность мер, предпринятых международными финансовыми институтами для оказания помощи пострадавшим от кризиса странам? Нужны ли какие-то специальные дополнительные меры в отношении пострадавших от кризиса стран в связи с обострением там кризиса с учетом того, что его последствия могут оказаться весьма пагубными для мировой экономики в целом?

В резолюции по финансовому кризису, принятой на последней сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи, перед ООН поставлена задача проанализировать в консультации с бреттон-вудскими учреждениями возможности для улучшения систем раннего оповещения, предотвращения и своевременного реагирования на возникновение и распространение финансовых кризисов. Аналогичная мысль звучала и в резолюции по интеграции стран с переходной экономикой в мировую экономику .

Что, по Вашему мнению, реально можно было бы улучшить в этой области, особенно в отношении раннего оповещения о кризисной ситуации и предотвращения кризиса?

В России одна из сложных проблем, которую пытается решить правительство, это мобилизация денежных средств, находящихся на руках у населения, на развитие производственного сектора экономики. По различным экспертным оценкам, эти суммы составляют десятки миллиардов долларов. Основная трудность заключается в том, что финансовый кризис подорвал доверие населения к отечественным банкам. Премьер-министр России Е.М.Примаков, выступая на Всемирном экономическом форуме в Давосе, высказал идею о привлечении для этой цели на российский рынок иностранных банков .

Как вы считаете, пойдут ли иностранные банки в Россию и на каких условиях? Достаточно ли для этого гарантий российского правительства или необходимы международные гарантии, например, со стороны группы Всемирного банка?

В ряде резолюций Генеральной Ассамблеи по вопросам развития, в том числе в недавно принятой на ее 53-й сессии резолюции о трехгодичном обзоре комплексной политики в области оперативной деятельности ООН в целях развития, большое значение придается укреплению сотрудничества между Всемирным банком, региональными банками развития и оперативными программами и фондами ООН. Не могли бы Вы сообщить, что предпринимает Банк в этом направлении?

Благодарю, господин Председатель .

*** Mr. Chairman, Finding resources to finance development has always been a difficult problem/issue, especially/particularly during recent/the last few/ years, when there/were the first stirrings of/first appeared/was the beginning/emergence of/a sustained/continuing trend towards a decline in official development assistance (ODA) and a drop/reduction in voluntary contributions to the operational activities of the UN, accompanied by/as well as by/a fall/decline in prices of raw materials and energy resources. The problem of financing/is even/still further/is being increasingly/additionally exacerbated/aggravated/has worsened/ been compounded by/because of/due to/given/in conditions of/by the growing financial crisis, for/when not only are foreign investors showing/displaying well-founded/understandable/reasonable/caution, but there are also very limited opportunities/possibilities for mobilizing/using/obtaining domestic/internal resources for development, particularly in countries which have been affected by/ have suffered from/the crisis. In this/that/the existing situation, we believe that/as we see it/it would seem that/favorable conditions for providing needy countries/countries in need/with resources for development can be fully realized/implemented/if the financial crisis is overcome, and the stability of international financing and national finance systems is restored in the countries affected by the crisis. Here/on this point/I would like to ask/raise a few questions of/with the President of the

World Bank, Mr. Wolfenson:

How do you assess the effectiveness of the measures/steps taken by the international financial institutions to render assistance to countries affected by the crisis? Is there a need for special additional measures for the affected countries because of/in connection with/due to/ given the exacerbation/aggravation of the crisis there and because/ since/given that its consequences may (turn out to) be highly negative/ adverse/pernicious for the global economy in its entirety/as a whole?

The resolution on the financial crisis adopted at the last session of the General Assembly faced the United Nations with/placed before the United Nations the problem/issue of analyzing, in consultation with the Bretton Woods institutions, possibilities for improving the early warning system, for/preventing and responding in a timely manner/the prevention of and rapid response to/the emergence and spread of financial crises. A similar idea was also included/a similar note was sounded/in the resolution on the integration of countries with a transition economy into the world economy .

What, in your view, could realistically/in fact/be improved in this area/field, in particular regarding early warnings of crisis situations and crisis prevention?

In Russia, one of the major problems which the government is trying to resolve is that of the mobilization of funds held by the population, to develop/for the development of/the production sector of the economy. According to various expert assessments/evaluations, these sums account for/run into many billions/billions and billions/of dollars. A particular difficulty is that/There is a particular problem because the financial crisis has undermined the population's confidence in Russian/our banks. The Russian Prime Minister, Evgeny Primakov /Mr. Primakov, speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, suggested/proposed (the idea) of attracting foreign banks to the Russian market/involving foreign banks in the Russian market for this reason/purpose .

What is your view/How do you feel about this/What do you think — will foreign banks become involved in/go to/Russia, and on what conditions? For/to that purpose/end, will guarantees of the Russian government suffice/are guarantees of the Russian government sufficient, or are international guarantees necessary, for example, from the group of the World Bank?

A number of resolutions of the General Assembly on development issues, including the one recently adopted at its 53rd session on the three-year review of comprehensive policy in the operational activity of the UN for development, attaches great importance to strengthening cooperation between the World Bank, the regional banks for development and the operative programs and funds of the UN .

Could you inform/tell us what the bank is doing here/in this respect/ in this area?

This speech includes some economic terminology, but it is part of a discussion rather than a statement in a formal debate and is relatively relaxed in tone; this needs to come across in the interpretation .

Комментарии:

1) когда начала проявляться — "when there first appeared" will do it, but you could also say "when there was the beginning of." Or the interpreter can wait and say "when a continuing/sustained trend began..."

2) проблема с финансами еще больше обостряется в условиях... — there are a number of options here. The simplest is to say that "the problem is being aggravated or exacerbated" or "has worsened" because of the growing financial crisis. В условиях can be omitted, or replaced by "because."

3) в сложившейся ситуации — here is another example of this word which is best rendered as "this," "that" or "the existing situation," not by a form of the verb .

4) в связи с обострением там кризиса с учетом того... — "given the aggravation of the crisis there and because its consequences..." is a simple solution. В связи here is causal, and does not need to be rendered as "in connection with;" с учетом того also has a causal meaning, and does not need to be translated as "in the light of or "taking into account that," which does nothing but complicate the sentence .

5) в резолюции по финансовому кризису — if резолюция is not made into a nominative subject, the sentence will be extremely clumsy once the interpreter gets to "перед ООН поставлена."

6) предотвращения и своевременного реагирования — there is a

problem here because two different prepositions are needed in English:

"the prevention of and rapid/timely response to." Use of the gerunds eliminates this problem: "for preventing and responding rapidly/in a timely manner to..."

7) аналогичная мысль звучала — "a similar idea was included" will do it. The verb звучать will not translate idiomatically here; if the idea was "heard," that implies an oral context, and this is a written document .

8) десятки миллиардов долларов — there is no need to translate десят ки here, and it will sound highly unidiomatic. "Many billions" or "billions and billions" will make the point .

9) основная трудность заключается в том, что финансовый кризис по дорвал доверие населения к отечественным банкам — основная труд ность can begin the sentence: "The basic difficulty is that..." or "The basic problem is that..." Any attempts to render заключается в том as "consists in" will only complicate the sentence .

10) высказал идею — "expressed the idea" is awkward. Simply "suggested" or "proposed that" without the noun is perfectly clear .

11) как вы считаете... — this is a request for an opinion, and can be fairly colloquial: "What do you think?" or "What is your view?" is quite sufficient. The interpreter then needs to pause before continuing the sentence: "Will foreign banks become involved?" Starting off with "Do you think that foreign banks will become involved?" tightens the question, which is a very open one, a request for a general opinion .

12) в ряде резолюций — first of all, в ряде should be rendered as a nominative subject, and, second, it is much better translated as "a number of" then as "a series of." "Series" implies that the resolutions flow logically from each other, whereas these may be a set of resolutions on different topics that are not following a tight sequence in which the preceding one determines the context of the next one .

13) комплексной — this must be translated as "comprehensive," not as "complex," which in English means "difficult."

14) что предпринимает Банк в этом направлении? — "what the bank is doing here" is quite enough, but the interpreter can add "in this regard" or "in this respect." "In this direction" obviously does not work .

Intervention at a Meeting of the Directors of World Bank and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (Читается в нормальном и быстром темпе с американским акцентом) Mr. Chairman, Finding resources to finance development has always been a difficult problem, especially during the last few years, when there was the beginning of a trend towards a decline in official development assistance and a reduction in voluntary contributions to the operational activities of the UN, accompanied by a decline in prices of raw materials and energy resources. The problem of financing was further exacerbated by the growing financial crisis, for not only are foreign investors displaying understandable caution, but there are also very limited possibilities for mobilizing internal resources for development, particularly in countries which have been affected by the crisis. In this situation, we believe that favorable conditions for providing needy countries with resources for development can be fully realized if the financial crisis is overcome, and the stability of international financing and national finance systems is restored in the countries affected by the crisis. On this point 1 would like to ask a few

questions of the President of the World Bank, Mr. Wolfenson:

How do you assess the effectiveness of the measures taken by the international financial institutions to render assistance to countries affected by the crisis? Is there a need for special additional measures for the affected countries because of the aggravation of the crisis there and since its consequences may turn out to be highly pernicious for the global economy as a whole?

The resolution on the financial crisis adopted at the last session of the General Assembly faced the United Nations with the problem of analyzing, in consultation with the Bretton Woods institutions, the possibilities for improving the early warning system, for preventing and for responding in a timely manner to the emergence and spread of financial crises. A similar idea was also included in the resolution on the integration of countries with a transition economy into the world economy .

What, in your view, could in fact be improved in this area, in particular regarding early warnings of crisis situations and crisis prevention?

In Russia, one of the major problems which the government is trying to resolve is that of the mobilization of funds held by the population, in order to develop the production sector of the economy .

According to various expert assessments, these sums run into many billions of dollars. There is a particular problem because the financial crisis has undermined the population's confidence in our banks .

Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, the Russian Prime Minister, Evgeny Primakov, suggested involving foreign banks in the Russian market for this purpose .

What is your view — will foreign banks become involved in Russia, and on what conditions? To that end, will guarantees of the Russian government suffice, or are international guarantees necessary, for example, from the group of the World Bank?

A number of resolutions of the General Assembly on development issues, including the one recently adopted at its 53rd session on the three-year review of comprehensive policy in the operational activity of the UN for development, attaches great importance to strengthening cooperation between the World Bank, the regional banks for development and the operative programs and funds of the UN. Could you tell us what the bank is doing in this respect?

Текст 21 Реклама (Интервью с Константином Костиным, руководителем рекламной службы банка) ' В последнее время на главные роли выходит реклама как инструмент маркетинга, который продвигает банковские продукты и банковский имидж. Посмотрите, как изменилась «имиджевая»

реклама банков: каких-то абстрактных слоганов типа «Крупица золота в море песка» мы уже и не слышим. А помните все эти символы банковского могущества начала девяностых — дубовый стол, сотовый телефон, швейцарские часы? С тех пор рынок сильно профессионализировался. Банки становятся все более придирчивыми. В ответ на это появляется новая реклама с конкретными и ясными бизнес-идеями. Существует и такое мощное оружие, как значимое молчание. Это тоже рекламный ход .

Однако здесь неуместны передержки. Долго молчать так же плохо, как говорить о себе слишком часто. Особенно в горячих ситуациях на финансовом рынке. По моему мнению, некоторым банкам-молчунам стоило бы декларировать свои позиции даже не столько косвенной, сколько прямой рекламой .

Основная задача рекламной службы — обеспечить рекламную поддержку развития банка. У меня нет каких-то абстрактных ' Из книги: Л.Школьник, «Уроки рекламных королей», М.Валет', I99X .

задач. Скажем, привлечь сто миллиардов. Есть план по продвижению имиджа. Есть график рекламного обеспечения двигаемых банковских продуктов, он, кстати, забирает четверть сметы .

Вообще, мне представляется, что доводить информацию до общественности через публикации и репортажи опытных журналистов значительно лучше, чем пользоваться прямыми рекламными объявлениями. Дело в том, что хороший журналист обладает в глазах аудитории качествами эксперта. Прямой рекламе верят меньше, однако это вовсе не означает, что нужно от нее отказываться. Общественному сознанию, помимо информации из всевозможных статей, телепередач, нужно что-то еще. А кроме того, крупный банк просто не может всего сказать о себе в некоей косвенной форме .

Несколько слов о творческой стороне дела. Здесь самая большая проблема — найти идею. Хорошая рекламная идея — вещь самодостаточная и самоценная. Она имеет собственную стоимость, помимо того рекламного эффекта, который она приносит для коммерческой структуры. Как произведение искусства. В банковской сфере, естественно, любой хочет сказать о своей силе и мощности. Возьмем, к примеру рекламу нашей карточки «ВИЗА», слон с надписью на боку «Купи Слона», оборотная сторона луны с надписью «Достань Луну». Она получила награду на нескольких фестивалях, степень реализации карточки после проведения рекламной кампании заметно возросла. В самом деле, кредитных карточек такого типа на рынке уже много, все они примерно с одинаковыми свойствами, и здесь решающим фактором могла стать реклама. Хотя надо признать, что многие вещи в рекламном деле интуитивны и связать их заранее с конечным результатом не так-то просто .

*** Recently, advertising has been in the limelight/in the forefront/ taking center stage as a marketing tool/instrument which puts across/ presents/pushes the bank's products and the bank's image. Just look at how the "image" advertising/publicity of banks has changed: abstract slogans such as "A speck of gold in a sea of sand" are things we don't hear anymore. And just think of/remember/all those symbols of the power of banks at the beginning of the 90s — a (heavy) oak/ wooden/desk, a cellular phone, a Swiss watch. Since then the market has really gone/turned professional. The banks are/are becoming ever more demanding/raising the ante/getting very picky/choosy. In response to that there are new ads with very specific and clear business ideas/notions .

There's also that powerful weapon, meaningful silence. That's also an advertising tool/trick/thing. However, you/shouldn't overdo that/have to go easy on that/take care not to abuse that one. Being silent for too long is just as bad as talking about yourself too often. Particularly in tough/tight situations/hot spots on the financial markets. 1 think that some of the silent banks should state/come out with/their positions not just indirectly/ obliquely, but through direct advertising .

The major goal of the advertising department is to provide advertising in support of the bank's development/to help develop the bank. I don't have any

Abstract

goals. Like/Say,/to get/getting/ attracting a hundred billion. There's a plan to sell/push the image .

There's a timetable/calendar/schedule to provide ads for/the products the bank is selling/pushing, and, by the way, that's/that accounts for/ a quarter of the estimate .

As I see it/I think that/all in all, getting information/to public opinion/to the public/through publications and stories by experienced journalists is a lot better than using direct advertising/than going the direct advertising route. After all/You see, a good journalist is looked on/seen as/an expert by the public. People have less belief in direct advertising, but that doesn't mean it should be rejected/dropped/ dumped. Public opinion/awareness, in addition to information from all kinds of articles and TV programs, needs something more/else .

And also, a major bank just can't/talk about itself in some kind of indirect way/beat around the bush .

A few words about the creative side of all this. Here the biggest problem is just/finding/coming up with/an idea. A good ad idea works on its own/doesn't need anything else/is self-sufficient and pays for itself is well worth it. It's got its own worth, in addition to the publicity value it has for a commercial organization. Like a work of art. In the bank world, of course/naturally, /everyone wants to talk about/his own strength and power/how great he is and how much he's got/toot his own horn. For example, look at the ad for our Visa card, an elephant with a caption/text on the side "Buy an elephant," and the other side of the moon with the text "Go/reach/shoot/for/the moon." It got a prize at several festivals; the number of sales of the card after the ad campaign really shot up/soared. In fact, there are already a lot of credit cards like this/of this kind on the market, and they're all about the same/do the same thing/are pretty much alike; here the turning point/decisive factor/most important thing/key to it all could be the ad .

Though/you've got to admit/in fact/it's true/that many things in advertising are intuitive, and it's not so easy to hook them up with/link them to/the final result .

This text is a good example of colloquial language used in an interview, and of business terminology. The interpretation into English should retain the flavor of the spoken language; this is an oral interview, not a written statement .

Комментарии:

1) в последнее время — this is best rendered as "recently," not literally, "in recent times."

2) выходит реклама — The idea here is that advertising is being aggressively used, i.e. "in the forefront," "in center stage," or simply "is being promoted."

3) продвигает — advertising is "putting across" or "sending the message" of the bank's products, not just "advancing" them .

4) а помните — this is both colloquial and emphatic, requiring an additional word in English: "Just remember." Antonymic translation would work, too: "Don't forget..."

5) дубовый стол — what is important here is the image, not the literal wording. "A heavy desk/huge wooden desk" will say more to an English speaker than "an oak desk."

6) более придирчивыми — this requires some rewording, as the dictionary definitions "captious" or "nagging" are totally inappropriate to the colloquial tone used here. "Becoming/getting very picky/fussy/choosy" would do it .

7) это тоже рекламный ход — ход here is a "tool" or "trick," or, colloquially, "thing." "Move" will not work here .

8) здесь неуместны передержки — this phrase requires some reworking, as "inappropriate" or "improper" sound too stiff. "You can't overdo that" or ''You've got to go easy on that" will do .

9) в горячих ситуациях — the best thing here is to get away from "hot" images, though "hot spot" will do in a pinch, to "tough spots" or "tight situations."

10) скажем, привлечь сто миллиардов — this sentence fragment can be rendered by a similar fragment in English: "Such as getting/like (very colloquial) obtaining/a hundred billion."

11) вообще, мне представляется — вообще does not need to be translated by "in general" or something of the sort. "Well, I think that," or "As I see it" are fine .

12) любой хочет сказать о своей силе и мощи — "everyone" rather than "anyone" is needed here, and "toot his own horn" is short and suitably colloquial in suggesting self-praise .

13) "Достань Луну" — the English equivalent of this phrase is "Reach for" or "shoot for the moon" rather than "get" or other verbs with a similar meaning .

14) степень реализации карточки — "degree" does not work in English .

The idea is that the number of sales has increased .

15) и здесь решающим фактором могла стать реклама — "turning point" or "key factor" are much more in keeping with the tone of the whole text than the more formal "decisive factor." "Could" covers both the past tense and potential sales in the future .

16) хотя надо признать — "though it's true that" or "In fact" keep the tone consistent and avoid the use of the pronoun "you," which is not part of the Russian construction .

Advertising (Interview with Konstantin Kostin, Head of the Advertising Department of a Bank) (Читается с американским акцентом) Recently, advertising has been in the forefront as a marketing tool which puts across the bank's products and the bank's image. Just look at how the "image" publicity of banks has changed: abstract slogans such as "A speck of gold in a sea of sand" are things we don't hear anymore. And just think of all those symbols of the power of banks at the beginning of the 90s — a heavy wooden desk, a cellular phone, a Swiss watch. Since then the market has really gone professional. The banks are getting very picky. In response to that there are new ads with very specific and clear business ideas. There's also that powerful weapon, meaningful silence. That's also an advertising trick. However, you have to go easy on that. Being silent for too long is just as bad as talking about yourself too often .

Particularly in tough spots on the financial markets. I think that some of the silent banks should come out with their positions not just obliquely, but through direct advertising .

The major goal of the advertising department is to provide advertising in support of the bank's development. I don't have any abstract goals. Like getting a hundred billion. There's a plan to sell the image. There's a timetable to provide ads for the products the bank is pushing, and, by the way, that accounts for a quarter of the estimate .

As I see it, getting information to the public through publications and stories by experienced journalists is a lot better than going the direct advertising route. After all, a good journalist is seen as an expert by the public. People have less belief in direct advertising, but that doesn't mean it should be dropped. Public opinion, in addition to information from all kinds of articles and TV programs, needs something more. And also, a major bank just can't beat around the bush .

A few words about the creative side of all this. Here the biggest problem is just coming up with an idea. A good ad idea works on its own and pays for itself. It's got its own worth, in addition to the publicity value it has for a commercial organization. Like a work of art. In the bank world, of course, everyone wants to toot his own horn. For example, look at the ad for our Visa card, an elephant with a text on the side "Buy an elephant," and the other side of the moon with the text "Shoot for the moon." It got a prize at several festivals;

the number of sales of the card after the ad campaign really soared .

In fact, there are already a lot of credit cards like this on the market, and they're all pretty much alike; here the key to it all can be the ad .

Though it's true that many things in advertising are intuitive, and it's not so easy to link them to the final result .

Текст 22 Интервью с Михаилом Швыдким, председателем ВГТРК — Чем вы объясняете падение рейтингов «Вестей»!

— Отчасти сезонными причинами, отчасти — истощением ресурсов. Телевидение нельзя делать без денег. Год мы держа лись, а сейчас это начало сказываться. Хотя небольшой кредит мы получили, в основном, он ушел на погашение долгов, на формирование холдинга и т.д. На программную политику оста лось не так много денег. К тому же с декабря прошлого года до марта нынешнего, когда у нас был самый сложный период, руко водство ВГТРК, не скрою, очень серьезно занималось только «Вестями» — и видим результат. Наверное, в преддверии гряду щих в июле-августе перемен просто ослабла внутренняя само дисциплина. Думаю, в течение июля все поправим .

— Как будут изменены «Весты»?

— «Вести» переходят на двухчасовой шаг. Будем выпускать в эфир 12 информационных выпусков в сутки. Каждые два часа будем делать новости, но это не значит, что превратимся в Си-эн-эн. Зрителю гарантируется пять выпусков «Вестей» в сут ки. Каждый следующий выпуск будет просеивать новости преды дущего, оставляя главные и добавляя самые свежие. Самое прин ципиальное, что «Вести» будут выходить в 21.00. За десятилетия зритель привык в это время смотреть новости на государственном канале. Вот мы и предоставим ему такую возможность. Конечно же, хотим изменить и дизайн программы, и форму выдачи новостей в эфир .

— Программа будет выходить в новом формате?

— Мы предлагаем сделать более жесткую подачу новостей .

Форматы выпусков — не больше 20—30 минут. Мы можем де лать вдвое больше сюжетов, чем ОРТ или даже НТВ. У нас боль ше корсеть и больше возможностей .

— У вас претензия к руководству «Вестей" ?

— Естественно, и я буду ее излагать. Существует, например, и проблема контроля, и проблемы творческие. Мне кажется, все можно поправить с нынешней командой «Вестей». Ничего осо бенного не происходит. Это все внутренние процессы, в кото рых мы будем разбираться. Думаю, к сентябрю все поправим .

— Власти по-прежнему высказывают претензии к информаци онному вещанию ВГТРК?

— Если бы они были, думаю, меня бы просто сняли с поста председателя компании. У нас нормальные отношения и с ад министрацией президента, и с правительством, и с парламен том. Нормальный рабочий диалог со всеми. Как государствен ный канал, мы стараемся сохранять необходимую сегодня ровность информационного поля. Не вижу больших проблем .

— Решение руководства компании о снятии с эфира программы «Совершенно секретно» вызвало подозрение в том, что вам это ре шение навязали «сверху». Как бы вы могли это прокомментировать?

— Всякий раз, когда мы принимаем какие-то решения, вы зывающие общественный резонанс, все почему-то начинают говорить, что эти решения принимает не руководство ВГТРК, а кто-то другой. Честно говоря, я удивлен тем шумом, который поднялся вокруг решения по программе «Совершенно секретно» .

Получается, что руководство каналов не вправе принимать реше ния. Таким образом каналы хотят превратить в почтовые ящики, куда можно скидывать все что угодно. Я с этим категорически не согласен. Мы не раз высказывали свои претензии к создателям «Совершенно секретно». Это касалось и программы о войне на Балканах, и программы о расследовании убийства Галины Ста ровойтовой. Это относится и к последней передаче. Мне не очень понравилась реакция Артема Боровика, которую процити ровал корреспондент РИА «Вести». Он сразу стал говорить о том, что у него есть компромат о коррупции в ВГТРК. Если он чест ный журналист и у него есть такой материал, он должен был опубликовать его вне зависимости от того, идет ли программа на канале РТР или не идет. Конечно, неприятно читать про себя гадости, а тем более несправедливые. Но я предпочел бы их прочесть именно тогда, когда «Совершенно секретно» совершенно безоблачно выходила в эфир. Я с интересом жду публикаций, чтобы в свою очередь получить возможность подать в суд на «Совершенно секретно» .

— How do you explain the drop/ fall/ decline in the ratings of the news program " Vesti ?" — That's partially/In part that's/due to seasonal factors, and in part to a lack of resources/funds. You can't have/do/TV without funds/money. We've held on/managed/kept on going/for a year, and now we're starting to feel that/the effects are making themselves felt .

Although we got some/limited funding/credits, most of/for the most part/that went to pay off/liquidate debts, to form/establish a holding company, etc. For program policy not much was left/remained. In addition/also,/from last December until March, when we had/were going through/in/our most difficult/worst period/times, the administration/bosses/leadership of VGTRK, frankly, was/were only serious about "Vesti"/only took "Vesti" seriously, and we can see the result. Probably on the eve of the changes forthcoming/upcoming changes in July and August there was a breakdown/weakening/of internal organization/management/discipline. I think that in July we'll get squared away /fix things up/set things right/take care of everything .

— How will " Vesti" be changed?

— "Vesti"/is going to a two-hour slot/will become a two-hour program/will run for two hours. We'll be airing/putting on the air/ broadcasting/ 12 information shows during a 24-hour period. Every two hours we'll/have a news program/broadcast the news/air the news/put the news on the air, but that doesn't mean we're going to turn into/become CNN. The viewer is guaranteed/assured of five installments/broadcasts of "Vesti" in a 24-hour period. Each broadcast will sift through the previous news program, leaving out old/stale/items and adding the latest/breaking news. The most/really important/key/ thing/point is that "Vesti" will air at 9:00 PM. Over/for the last ten years the viewers/audience/is in the habit of/have/has/gotten used/to watching the news at that time on the state channel. And now we're going to give them that chance/opportunity. Of course, we also want to change the design of the program, and the style/way/form of putting the news on the air/delivering the news .

— Will the program be aired in a new format?

— We're planning/intending to have a tighter/more concentrated news program. The formats for the broadcasts will run/be/take no more than 20-30 minutes. We can cover twice as many stories/topics as ORT or even NTV. We have a bigger network of correspondents and more possibilities/greater potential .

— Do you have complaints for/are you going to take up complaints with/Do you have problems to present to/the administration/bosses of " Vesti?" — Naturally, and I ' m going to present them/put them on the table/discuss them; for example, there's the problem of control, and there are creative problems. It seems to me that the present team/the team we now have at "Vesti" can put all that straight/resolve all that/take care of all that. Nothing special/extraordinary/imusua! is taking place/happening/occurring. These are all internal processes, and we'll be dealing with/analyzing/getting to the bottom of/them. I think that by September we'll have everything in place/settled/taken care of/resolved .

— Do the authorities still have problems with/complaints about the information programs/broadcasting of VGTRK?

— If they did/if there had been problems/in that case,/I think I'd simply/just have been removed/fired/dismissed/let go/be out of a job as chairman of the company. We have a normal relationship with the President's administration, and with the government, and with the parliament. A normal working relationship/dialogue with everyone .

As a state channel, we are trying to keep the balance that is needed/required today regarding the dissemination/distribution of information. I don't see any big/major problems .

— The decision of the administration of the company to take the program " Top Secret" off the air arouses suspicions that this decision was imposed on you "from above''/''from the top"/'from upstairs." How would you see that/What's your take on that?/What would you have to say to that?/How would you comment on that?

— Each time we take any decisions that evoke a reaction from the public/a public response, for some reason everyone starts saying that these decisions aren't taken by the administration of VGTRK, but by someone else. Frankly speaking,/To be honest, I'm surprised at/ astonished by/the fuss/hullabaloo/(that started up) about the decision on/regarding (the program) "Top Secret." The same (thing) was/held true/happened for the program on the war in the Balkans, and for the program on the investigation of the murder of Galina Starovoitova .

This/The same (thing) was/holds/true/goes for/applies to the most recent broadcast. I didn't much like/wasn't very keen on/the reaction of Artem Borovik, who quoted the correspondent of RIA "Vesti." He immediately started/right/off/away/talking about how/saying that/he had compromising material regarding corruption at VGTRK. If he's an honest journalist and he has such material, he should have published it regardless of whether or not the program is on the RTR channel. Of course, it's unpleasant/not pleasant/not fun/to read dirt/filth/muck about yourself, particularly when it's unfair/not true/unfounded. But I'd prefer to read those/such things when "Top Secret" is broadcasting freely/on the air unhampered/happily out on the airwaves/being broadcast/broadcasting free and clear/happily away/ airing with no problems. I'm eagerly awaiting/looking forward to those publications, so that I'll get my chance to sue/file suit against "Top Secret"/take "Top Secret" to court .

Комментарии:

1) год мы держались — the idea is that we managed to keep going for a year: "We hung/held on," or simply, "managed." A very colloquial rendition would be "we hung in there."

2) когда у нас был самый сложный период — сложный should not be rendered as "complex" or "complicated," which are not entirely appropriate here. The meaning is rather that of a "difficult" period; or, since this is a superlative, our "worst" period .

3) все поправим — translations involving "correct" or "right" should be avoided. "We'll have everything in place" or "taken care of" fits the colloquial tone of this interview .

4) каждые два часа будем делать новости — here the verbs "make" or "do" are not appropriate. Rather, "We'll have/air/broadcast" a news program .

5) самое принципиальное — the word "principled" should be avoided, as it sounds pompous and is in fact a mistranslation. "The most important/key" thing is what is meant here .

6) зритель привык — the audience "has (or viewers have) gotten used to/gotten in the habit of..." A compound tense is needed here to indicate action over a period of time. "Accustomed" is a bit highflown for this sentence .

7) если они были, думаю, меня бы просто сняли — sequence of tenses is theoretically important here, as well as an appropriate expression for меня бы просто сняли. "If there had been problems, I would have been removed." Simply saying "In that case" nicely solves any tense problems by eliminating the verb. Colloquially, such tense sequences are often ignored in English, i.e. " I f there were problems, I ' d have been removed."

"Let go" or "out of a job" are appropriate for "сняли" .

8) Как вы могли бы это прокомментировать? — a timesaving rendition could be, "What do you say to that?" "What's your comment?" or, very colloquially, "What's your take on that?"

9) я удивлен тем шумом — watch the prepositions here. "I'm surprised at " or "I'm astonished by... the fuss." "Noise" is not an ideal translation for шум; "fuss" is much more idiomatic .

10) это касалось и программы... — what is important here is the и, with the meaning of "also." "This" or "The same thing is also true for the program..." works well here .

11) совершенно безоблачно выходит в эфир — the word "безоблачно" takes a little rephrasing. "Is broadcasting happily away/free and clear" or "is airing with no problems" gets the meaning across .

12) я с интересом жду — this is the correct Russian rendition of the English phrase which is often tricky to get right in Russian, "I'm looking forward to..." It can be intensified by "eagerly;" "eagerly awaiting" or "eagerly looking forward to" the publications. "Awaiting with interest" sounds rather awkward .

Interview with Mikhail Shvidkoi, Chairman of VGTRK ( Читается с британским акцептом) — How do you explain the decline in the ratings of the news program " Vesti?" — That's partially due to seasonal factors, and in part it's due to a lack of funds. You can't do TV without money. We've managed for a year, and now we're starting to feel the effects. Although we got limited funding, most of that went to pay off debts, to establish a holding company, and so forth. For program policy — not much was left. Also, from last December until March, when we were in our worst period, the administration of VGTRK, frankly, was only serious about "Vesti," and we can see the result. Probably on the eve of the upcoming changes in July and August there was a breakdown of internal organization. I think that in July we'll have everything taken care of .

— How will " Vesti" he changed?

— "Vesti" is going to a two-hour slot. We'll be broadcasting 12 information shows during a 24-hour period. Every two hours we'll be putting the news on the air, but that doesn't mean we're going to become CNN. The viewer is assured of five installments of "Vesti" in a 24-hour period. Each broadcast will sift through the previous news program, leaving out stale items and adding breaking news. The really important thing is that "Vesti" will air at 9:00 PM. Over the last ten years the audience has gotten used to watching the news at that time on the state channel. And now we're going to give them that chance .

Of course, we also want to change the design of the program, and the way of putting the news on the air .

— Will the program be aired in a new format?

— We're intending to have a tighter news program. The formats for the broadcasts will run no more than 20—30 minutes. We can cover twice as many stories as ORT or even NTV. We have a bigger network of correspondents and greater potential .

— Are you going to take up complaints with the bosses of" Vesti?" — Naturally, and I'm going to put them on the table. For example, there's the problem of control, and there are creative problems. It seems to me that the team we now have at "Vesti" can take care of all that. Nothing unusual is happening. These are all internal processes, and we'll be dealing with them. I think that by September we'll have everything settled .

— Do the authorities still have problems with the information programs of VGTRK?

— If that were so, I think I'd just have been let go as chairman of the company. We have a normal relationship with the President's administration, and with the government, and with the parliament. A normal working dialogue with everyone. As a state channel, we are trying to keep the balance that is needed today regarding the dissemination of information. I don't see any major problems .

— The decision of the administration of the company to take the program " Top Secret" off the air arouses suspicions that this decision was imposed on you from the top. What's your take on that?

— Each time we take any decisions that evoke a public response, for some reason everyone starts saying that these decisions aren't being taken by the administration of VGTRK, but by someone else. Frankly speaking I'm surprised by the fuss about the decision on "Top Secret."

The same thing happened for the program on the war in the Balkans, and for the program on the investigation of the murder of Galina Starovoitova. The same holds true for the most recent broadcast. I didn't much like the reaction of Artem Borovik, who quoted the correspondent of R1A "Vesti." He immediately started talking about how he had compromising material regarding corruption at VGTRK .

If he's an honest journalist and he has such material, he should have published it regardless of whether or not the program is on the RTR channel. Of course, it's not fun to read dirt about yourself, particularly when it's not true. But I ' d prefer to read such things when "Top Secret" is happily out on the airwaves. I'm eagerly looking forward to those publications, so that I'll get my chance to sue "Top Secret."

Текст 23 Интервью с Викторией Федоровой Виктория Федорова приехала в Москву. Навещала своих старых друзей, гуляла по совершенно незнакомому для нее теперь городу, навещала могилу матери. Дочь кинодивы 30—40-х гг. и американского офицера (за свою любовь он заплатил высылкой из дружественного СССР, она — тюрьмой и ссылкой) и сама кинодива 70-х вернулась на Родину после четверти века жизни в Америке .

— Вы вернулись из небытия — многие годы в России о вас не известно ровно ничего. Что вы чувствуете теперь?

— Происходит что-то странное. Звоню человеку, с кем не разговаривала 25 лет, и слышу: «Вика, здорово, как дела?»

Вроде как не уезжала я никуда. Создается впечатление, что мы утратили ощущение времени. Другие говорят: «В один прекрас ный день тебя попросту не стало. Ты исчезла, будто и не было тебя никогда». На самом деле это самое исчезновение было вполне закономерным, если учесть, в какое жесткое время я уез жала из России. В ту пору мой поступок квалифицировался как предательство, хотя я вовсе не собиралась эмигрировать. Поеха ла на три месяца на первую встречу со своим отцом, которого искала 15 лет.

Ни малейшего желания жить там у меня не было:

здесь оставались мама, любимая работа, были назначены съем ки у Светланы Дружининой... Однако вышло, что я встретила человека, мы полюбили друг друга, я вышла за него замуж. Он был американец, для него приехать в тогдашний СССР было со вершенно нереально. Вот я и решилась. У меня долго еще оста валось советское подданство, и лишь после убийства мамы я сказала, что не хочу быть гражданкой этой кровавой страны, и отослала свой паспорт в посольство. Теперь у меня американ ское гражданство. Но человек я русский .

— Что вы делали все эти годы ?

— Была домохозяйкой. Воспитывала сына. Работала моде лью. Снималась для ТВ и в документальном кино. Написала две книги: автобиографическую и роман из древнерусской истории, который мы сделали вместе с Робином Муром (американский писатель)... и теперь никак не можем продать в издательство, потому что сейчас исторические романы — это немодно .

— Вы многие годы предпринимаете попытку сделать художе ственный фильм о судьбе вашей мамы. Что может побудить чело века заново пережить самые трагические моменты своей жизни ?

— А никто не говорит, что это дается легко. До сих пор не которые эпизоды не могу пересказывать без слез. Но мама за служила хотя бы то, чтобы ее история была рассказана правди во. А то сил нет читать все эти дешевые журналистические рас следования, книги, где обстоятельства маминой жизни и смер ти выворачиваются наизнанку, обрастают несусветными домыс лами, историями о мифических бриллиантах... Мотив, который движет авторами, понятен: делать деньги. Ну и Бог с ними. Не стану же я бегать за каждым и причитать: «Что же ты, окаян ный, понаписал!» В Америке этого добра еще больше, и им по ливают друг друга прилюдно и ежедневно. Такой своеобразный способ существования. Для меня же главное — сделать эту ис торию, какой она была на самом деле. А это была история пре красной любви с трагическим оборотом .

— Однако в Москву вы приехали с совсем другим кинопроектом.. .

— Вы про мой фильм говорите? Ну, это совсем другая исто рия. Современная, детективная, в хичкоковском духе. Про то, как муж пытается свести с ума жену, чтобы она исчезла из его жизни. Дело происходит у нас в Америке, главная героиня — русская, вышедшая замуж за американца. Когда я приезжала в Москву в начале 90-х, мне предложили сразу несколько ролей, и я отказалась: не хотелось появляться перед зрителем, который так давно меня не видел, в откровенно слабых картинах. Вот и решила сделать кино сама. Поскольку я не сценарист, да и мой русский за эти годы стал немного корявым, обратилась за помо щью к Эдику Володарскому и Андрею Разумовскому, чтобы они довели до ума мою писанину .

— Говорят, вы никогда не пересматриваете свои старые филь мы, и у вас даже нет кассет с ними. Почему?

— Не хочу оглядываться в ту сторону, куда меня еще очень манит. Быть актером — заболевание наподобие алкоголизма: это не проходит. Когда понимаешь, что шансов реализовать себя в этом направлении очень мало, какой смысл себя мучить .

В этом плане я вся в папу. Он был адмиралом американских ВМС, а когда ушел в отставку, первым делом сжег свою форму .

Он сказал: «А что ей в шкафу пылиться? Я знаю, что адмирал, что сделал много для страны, и мне не нужен пиджак с погона ми, чтобы напоминать о том, кто я есть и кем я был». Так и я .

Короче говоря, я не смотрю свои старые фильмы. Хотя... Рань ше смотрела себя на экране и думала, что все сыграно ужасно неправильно. А теперь я себе нравлюсь .

*** Viktoria Fyodorova came to/arrived in Moscow. She went to see/visited her old friends, strolled about/walked around a city that is now totally foreign to her/a city she no longer knows, visited/saw/went to her mother's grave. The daughter of a movie star of the 30s and 40s and of an American officer (he paid for his love with exile from the "friendly" USSR, and she — with prison and exile), and herself a movie star of the 70s, she has come back to Russia/her native land/home after a quarter of a century/25 years/in America .

— You've come back from nowhere/You've come back from being a nonperson — for many years absolutely nothing was known about you/you didn't exist in Russia. How do you feel now?

— It feels strange/it's odd/something funny is happening. I call up someone whom I haven't spoken to/with whom I've had no contact/whom I haven't talked to/for 25 years, and I hear: "Vika, hi/hello, how are things/what's up?" Just like I never left/It's as though I never left. It's as though we've lost our sense of time. Other say, "One fine day you just weren't there/were gone/just upped and left. You disappeared, as though you'd never existed." In fact that disappearance was totally logical/ understandable/legitimate, if you look at the harsh times/difficult period/when I left Russia. At that time my action was called/described as/termed betrayal/the act of a traitor though I had no plans to/did not intend to/emigrate/wasn't at all thinking of emigrating .

I left for three months to see my father for the first time, and I'd been looking for him for 15 years. I didn't have the slightest desire to stay/remain there: here I ' d left behind my mother, my work which I loved, I had a film planned with Svetlana Druzhinina... But it happened/turned out that I met someone/a man, we fell in love, I married him. He was an American, and it was totally unthinkable/ unrealistic/out of the question/impossible for him to come to the USSR then/and at that time coming to the USSR for him was totally unreal .

And so I made up my mind/And then I took a decision. For a long time I kept Soviet citizenship, and only after my mother's murder I said that I didn't want to be a citizen of this bloodstained country, and sent back/ returned my passport to the embassy. Now I have American citizenship. But I'm still Russian at heart/I'm still Russian .

— What did you do all these years ?

— \ was a housewife. Raised my son. Worked as a model. Acted for TV and for documentary films. I wrote two books: an autobiography and a novel about ancient Russian history, which I did with Robin Moore, an American writer...and now we can't manage to sell it to a publisher, because historical novels aren't fashionable .

— For many years you've been trying to make/shoot a feature film about your mother and her fate. What could prompt/make/bring someone to relive the most tragic moments of her life?

— No one says that's easy. I still can't talk about some scenes without crying/tears. But my mother at least deserved to have the truth about her told/to have her true story told. I'm fed up with/I can't put up with/I've had it with all those cheap investigations by journalists, the books in which the events/circumstances of my mother's life and death are turned inside out/all wrong/upside down, adorned/blown up with flights of fantasy/wild fabrications/ideas/ total distortions, stories about some invented diamonds... What's behind these authors'/writers' reasons/motives/ actions/What moves these authors/what makes these authors do this/is clear: to make money .

Well, too bad for them/forget about them/tough luck. I ' m not going to run after each of them wailing "what have you invented/ dreamed up, damn you!" In America there's even more of that stuff, and that gets hung out in public/thrown about publicly/they trade those kind of accusations/sling that kind of stuff back and forth/every day. It's a kind of a weird life style. For me the most important thing is to show this story the way it really was. And that was the story of a beautiful/marvelous love with a tragic twist .

— But you've come to Moscow with a completely different film project.. .

— You mean/you're talking about my film? Well, that's another story/that's completely different/that's something else altogether. It's modern, a Hitchcock style detective film. About how a husband tries to drive his wife crazy/nuts/mad, to get her out of his life. It takes place in America, where I live, and the heroine is a Russian who's married an American. When I came to Moscow in the early 90s I was offered several roles right away, but I refused: I didn't want to appear before/be seen by/an audience, which hadn't seen me for such a long time, in really/frankly bad films. And so I decided to do/shoot/a film myself. Since I ' m not a screenwriter, and my Russian/has gotten a bit/slightly shaky/isn't what it used to be over/after all these years, I asked for help from Edik Volodarsky and Andrei Razumovsky, to finish off/polish my scribbles .

— I've heard that/People say/It seems that you never watch your old films, and that you don't even have videotapes of them. Why?

— I don't want to look back to something that still tempts/ lures/attracts me/very strongly. Being an actor is an illness like alcoholism: it sticks around/you don't get better/doesn't end. When you understand that the chances for success/self-fulfillment here/in this area are infinitesimal/small, what's the point of torturing yourself/ agonizing over it? Here/In that/I'm just like my father/I'm my father's daughter/I'm a chip off the old block — My father was an admiral in the American navy, and when he retired, the first thing he did was to burn his uniform. He said, "Why should it gather dust in the closet? I know I ' m an admiral, that I did a lot/a great deal/ much/for the country, and I don't need a jacket with epaulets to remember/recall who I am and who I was." Me, too/That's me/I'm that way/I'm just like that, too. Well/in fact, I don't watch my old films. Although... formerly/in the past I ' d see myself on the screen and think that all of that was played/terribly/really badly acted all wrong. But now I like myself .

The tone of this newspaper interview is very colloquial, and should be rendered as such .

Комментарии:

1) на Родину — this should not be translated as "motherland" or "homeland," which sound artificial and affected in English. "Came home" or "back to Russia" are appropriate renderings .

2) вы вернулись из небытия — "non-existence" or "nonbeing" do not work here. "You've come back from nowhere" is idiomatic; "You've come back from being a nonperson" has a political tinge, as "nonperson" implies that someone is defined as such by the regime .

3) вроде как не уезжала я никуда — since the sentence is colloquial in Russian, the translation can reproduce this tone: "Just like I never left" or "It's just like I never left."

4) было вполне закономерным — закономерный is always tricky for translation, but here "logical" or "legitimate" will do. It can also be rendered as "understandable" or "explicable."

5) совершенно нереально — the idea is that this was impossible, rather than "unreal," which does not work well here. "Unthinkable" or "out of the question" would be the most colloquial renderings of this expression .

6) этой кровавой страны — the interpreter should be very careful not to translate this as "this bloody country," which does not make sense and, if the word "bloody" is used in the British sense, implies a sarcastic or iro nic kind of disapproval, and a figurative meaning of the word, which is not what is intended in this statement — (e.g. "the house was in a state of total disorder; it was a bloody mess"). Also, since Viktoria Fyodorova has lived for years in America, she is obviously not speaking British English .

7) но человек я русский — "but I ' m a Russian person" is meaningless in English, and the idea here is one of apposition — "I have American citizenship on the one hand, but on the other I'm still Russian." "I'm Russian at heart" provides a contrast to the "American citizenship."

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8) побудить человека — this is a good example of how small, "fourletter" English verbs can effectively render the meaning of the Russian:

"make" or "bring someone to" are just as good renditions as "prompt," which may not immediately come to mind as a translation for побудить .

9) а то сил нет читать... — сил here should not be translated as "force" or "strength," since that is not really what is meant. The idea is that the speaker "is fed up with" or, colloquially, "I've had it with" all these journalists .

10) выворачиваются наизнанку — "are turned upside down" or "inside out" are idiomatic renderings of this expression. Or, simply "are all wrong" conveys the idea .

11) мотив, который движет авторами — "the motives for these authors'/writers' actions" will do, but "What's behind these authors' actions" emphasizes the idea of a hidden motive .

12) мой русский за эти годы стал немного корявым — Fyodorova doesn't want to overemphasize this — she says немного, so "a bit" or "slightly" shaky would be appropriate. "Isn't what it used to be" is also mild and vague enough for this context .

13) говорят... — "It is said that" should be avoided, as it sounds stilted, particularly in a colloquial context. "I've heard that" or "It seems that" would be good choices .

14) в этом плане я вся в папу — the idiomatic expressions in English are "I'm my father's daughter" or "a chip off the old block." If neither comes to mind, "I'm just like my father" is fine. "В этом плане" doesn't need anything more than "here."

15) так и я — "me, too," or "that's me, too," are fine and much shorter than " I ' m just like that, too."

Interview with Viktoria Fyodorova (Читается с американским акцентом) Viktoria Fyodorova arrived in Moscow. She went to see her old friends, strolled about a city that is now totally foreign to her, visited her mother's grave. The daughter of a movie star of the 30s and 40s and of an American officer (he paid for his love with exile from the "friendly" USSR, and she — with prison and exile), and herself a movie star of the 70s, she has come back to Russia after a quarter of a century in America .

— You've come back from being a nonperson — for many years you didn't exist in Russia. How do you feel now?

— It feels strange. I call up someone with whom I've had no contact for 25 years, and I hear: "Vika, hi, what's up?" Just like I never left. It's as though we've lost our sense of time. Others say, "One fine day you just upped and left. You disappeared, as though you'd never existed." In fact that disappearance was totally understandable, if you look at the harsh times when I left Russia. At that time my action was called the act of a traitor, though I had no plans to emigrate. I left for three months to see my father for the first time, and I ' d been looking for him for 15 years. I didn't have the slightest desire to stay there: here I'd left behind my mother, my work which I loved, I had a film planned with Svetlana Druzhinina...But it turned out that I met someone, we fell in love, I married him. He was an American, and it was totally out of the question for him to come to the USSR then. And so I made up my mind. For a long time I kept Soviet citizenship, and only after my mother's murder I said that I didn't want to be a citizen of this bloodstained country, and sent back my passport to the embassy. Now I have American citizenship. But I ' m still Russian at heart .

— What did you do all these years ?

— I was a housewife. Raised my son. Worked as a model. Acted for TV and for documentary films. I wrote two books: an autobiography and a novel about ancient Russian history, which I did with Robin Moore, an American writer... and now we can't manage to sell it to a publisher, because historical novels aren't fashionable .

— For many years you've been trying to shoot a feature film about your mother and her fate. What could prompt someone to relive the most tragic moments of her life ?

— No one says that's easy. I still can't talk about some scenes without crying. But my mother at least deserved to have her true story told. I've had it with all those cheap investigations by journalists, the books in which the events of my mother's life and death are turned upside down, blown up with wild distortions, stories about some invented diamonds...What's behind these authors' actions is clear: to make money. Well, tough luck. I ' m not going to run after each of them wailing "What have you dreamed up, damn you!" In America there's even more of that stuff, and they sling that kind of stuff back and forth every day. It's a kind of a weird life style. For me the most important thing is to show this story the way it really was .

And that was the story of a beautiful love with a tragic twist .

— But you've come to Moscow with a completely different film project.. .

— You mean my film? Well, that's another story altogether. It's modern, a Hitchcock-style detective film. About how a husband tries to drive his wife crazy, to get her out of his life. It takes place in America, where I live, and the heroine is a Russian who's married an American. When I came to Moscow in the early 90s I was offered several roles right away, but 1 refused: I didn't want to be seen by an audience, which hadn't seen me for such a long time, in really bad films. And so I decided to do a film myself. Since I ' m not a screenwriter, and my Russian has gotten a bit shaky over the years, I asked for help from Edik Volodarsky and Andrei Razumovsky, to polish my scribbles .

— I've heard that you never watch your old films, and that you don't even have videotapes of them. Why?

— I don't want to look back to something that still tempts me very strongly. Being an actor is an illness like alcoholism: you don't get better. When you understand that the chances for self-fulfillment here are infinitesimal, what's the point of agonizing over it? Here I'm a chip off the old block — My father was an admiral in the American navy, and when he retired, the first thing he did was to burn his uniform. He said, "Why should it gather dust in the closet? I know I ' m an admiral, that I did a lot for the country, and I don't need a jacket with epaulets to remember who I am and who I was." Me, too. Well, I don't watch my old films. Although...in the past I 'd see myself on the screen and think that all of that was really badly acted. But now I like myself .

Текст 24 Интервью с Андреем Маковым о Малевиче — Давным-давно, начиная изучать в Париже историю ис кусств, я сказал своему профессору, что очень интересуюсь жи вописью двадцатого века. Он посмотрел на меня весьма неодобрительно и спросил: «Вы хотите стать серьезным искусст воведом или заурядным писакой?» Я все понял и, когда пришло время защищать докторскую диссертацию, выбрал искусство итальянского Ренессанса. Сегодня невозможно поверить, что еще каких-то тридцать лет тому назад абстрактная живопись счи талась чем-то недостойным внимания, и не только в ученых кру гах. Когда я впервые попытался устроить во Франции выставку работ Малевича, то не встретил абсолютно никакого понимания, в том числе и со стороны людей, которые с тех пор изменились и ныне определяют пути развития французской культуры .

Я начинал свои исследования с Кандинского и выучил немецкий язык, ведь художник жил в Баварии, там о нем много материалов. Я преподавал в Америке и в Англии, вот почему хорошо знаю английский. Но живу и работаю во Франции и, естественно, пишу по-французски. Однако, как славянин, немалым преимуществом считаю знание русского — это дает возможность изучать первоисточники .

Чем глубже я проникался русским искусством, тем больше меня притягивала загадочная фигура Казимира Малевича .

Я чувствовал себя как странник, перед которым открылся прекрасный неведомый континент. Мне, к счастью, довольно скоро удалось понять самое главное: личность такого масштаба надо представлять всесторонне, а не только через живопись .

Моя работа была чудовищно сложной по всем мыслимым и немыслимым параметрам. Я не имел доступа к официальным советским источникам, в первый раз в запасники Русского музея попал лишь в 1987 году. Потом добился возможности работать с текстами Малевича в Центральном Государственном архиве литературы и искусства. Наконец, времена изменились, и все стало проще. Так, шаг за шагом для меня все яснее очерчивалась его фигура .

Я трудился, как считают некоторые, слишком долго. Но, решившись однажды проделать работу предельно добросовестно, ты просто обязан вникнуть во все, не упуская мелочей. Самые важные произведения Малевича я даже подверг технической экспертизе, чтобы установить окончательно критерии подлинности, изучил невероятное количество подделок, проанализировал самые неприметные детали его художественных приемов .

Мой каталог готов, и, я надеюсь, он поможет организовать такие выставки, на которых искусство Малевича будет показано совершенно по-новому. Каталог включает примерно 1700 картин, рисунков и графических листов. Более 2000 страниц текста. Удивительное дело: много лет назад казалось, что не хватает материала, а сегодня к уже готовой монографии в 1500 страниц я мог бы добавить еще столько же .

В художественном мышлении Малевича есть что-то от алхимии: оно метафорично настолько, что кажется, будто происходит видимая трансформация энергии, сути и формы, когда все переходит в иное качество, в «пространство-время», в четвертое измерение. Мы теперь лучше понимаем его эстетическую реакцию, его нормы и чувственность. Вероятно, поэтому нам становится немного легче общаться с Малевичем и удается чуть точнее писать о нем. Мы не удаляемся от Малевича, мы, напротив, приближаемся к нему. И совсем не так быстро, как некоторым кажется. Восхождение к его творческому наследию требует огромных интеллектуальных и нравственных усилий .

*** — Ages ago/Long ago/Way back when/when I was starting to study the history of art in Paris, I said to my professor that I was very interested in/fascinated by/much taken with twentieth century painting. He looked at me disapprovingly and asked, "Do you want to become a serious art historian/expert/critic or an ordinary/run of the mill/humdrum scribbler/pencil-pusher/mediocre writer?" I understood all that/everything/what that was about/and when the time came to defend a doctoral dissertation/thesis, I chose/opted for the art of the Italian Renaissance. Today it's unbelievable/hard/ impossible to believe that only/some thirty years ago abstract painting was considered as something unworthy of/not worth/underserving of/attention, and that was the view not only/just/in academic circles/among scholars/ academics. When I first tried to organize an exhibit of Malevich's works in France 1 encountered no understanding whatsoever/no one understood me, including/on the part of people who have since changed and now determine the (course of/direction of the) development of French culture .

I started my research with Kandinsky, and studied German, since the painter had lived in Bavaria, and there was a lot of material on him there. I taught in America and in England, and therefore know English well. But I live and work in France, and so, naturally, I write in French. However, as a Slav, I consider my knowledge of Russian as a great advantage — it makes it possible for/lets/me study the original/firsthand sources .

The more I studied/The deeper I got into/The more I delved into Russian art, the more I was attracted to the mysterious/enigmatic figure of Kazimir Malevich. I felt like a wanderer/explorer, before/in front of/to/whom a marvelous/superb/beautiful unknown/unexplored continent had opened up/had revealed itself. Fortunately, I rather quickly grasped/understood the most important thing: a personality/ individual of that magnitude/greatness/scope must be understood as a whole/in his entirety/as an integral human being/in all of its aspects, and not just/only through (his) painting .

My work was inhumanly/monstrously/devilishly/horrendously/ unbelievably/nightmarishly complicated/complex in all respects/in every which way. I did not have access to official Soviet sources, and I got into the holdings/back rooms of the Russian Museum only in

1987. Later 1 was able/managed to work with Malevich's texts in the Central State Archive of Literature and Art. Finally, the times changed and everything became much simpler. And so, step by step the contours of his persona/personality became clearer to me/ emerged more clearly/delineated themselves more clearly .

I worked — some people think — for too long a time. But once you've decided to do a really honest job/to do the job with real integrity/to do a thoroughly conscientious piece of work, you're absolutely obliged/bound/duty bound to investigate everything, not to miss out on/overlook any details. I even subjected the most important works of Malevich to technical analysis; to establish once and for all/to lay down absolute criteria for authenticity/what was genuine/I studied an unbelievable/incredible number/quantity of fakes, and analyzed even the tiniest/most unremarkable/imperceptible details of his artistic devices/techniques. My catalogue is ready/done/fmished, and I hope it will help/be of assistance/use in organizing exhibitions at which Malevich's work will be shown/exhibited in a completely/totally new/different way/light. The catalogue includes approximately/about 1700 paintings, drawings, and print sheets. There are more than 2000 pages of text. Funny thing/it's amazing/weird/astounding/really odd: many years ago it seemed that/looked as though/appeared that there wasn't enough material, and today there's a monograph of 1500 pages, and I could/add an equal number of pages/just as many more/double its size .

Malevich's artistic thinking/smacks of/is reminiscent of/is tinged with alchemy/has something of alchemy to it: it is so metaphorical that it seems as though a visible transformation of energy, essence/ substance and form is taking place, in which everything is taking on a different quality/qualitatively changing, moving into "space-time," into a fourth dimension. We now better understand his aesthetic reaction, his norms and sensitivities/sensibility. Probably for that reason it is now somewhat easier for us to deal with/connect to/relate to/understand/Malevich and it's possible to write slightly more accurately about him. We're not moving (farther) away from Malevich; indeed/ on the contrary,/we're moving towards/coming closer to/him. But not as quickly/as it seems to some people/as some people think. Grasping/(a true) understanding (of)/penetrating his creative legacy/heritage/opus/work demands enormous intellectual and moral efforts .

Nakov is a Slav, but not a Russian, and Russian is not his native language. He is a little hesitant, though very enthusiastic about his subject, and some of his expressions may sound a bit awkward in both Russian and English. The interpreter should retain the proper academic/artistic terminology along with the informal and enthusiastic tone .

Комментарии:

I) давным-давно, начиная изучать — "a long time ago" is the most neutral expression for this. "Ages ago" is slightly colloquial, and "way back when" is highly informal .

2) и не только в ученых кругах — the word кругах does not necessarily have to be translated: "and not just among academics/scholars" will do and is shorter .

3) надо представлять всесторонне — "an all-round view" is too informal for a discussion of an artist. "From all sides" is awkward and not idiomatic .

"As a whole" or "in his entirety" are short and stylistically appropriate .

4) моя работа была чудовищно сложной по всем мыслимым и немысли мым параметрам — "Monstrously" will do but a word such as "horrendously" or "nightmarishly" is much more idiomatic. "Unbelievably" or "incredibly" are stylistically more neutral choices. "In every which way" condenses the long expression with параметры, saving time and words. A literal translation, "in terms of parameters," does not work .

5) но, решившись однажды проделать работу добросовестно... — "once you've decided" takes care of однажды, and attempts to translate the gerund literally will lead to an awkward sentence. "To do a really honest piece of work" is fine for "предельно добросовестно."

6) удивительное дело — the colloquial expression "funny thing" in English will cover this; "It's a" before "funny thing" is not needed but can be added to make the sentence slightly more structured. Otherwise "It's amazing" or "It's odd" are adequate renderings .

7) я мог бы добавить столько же — while there's nothing wrong in saying "I could add just as many pages," what Nakov means is "I could double its size" or "I could write twice as much," both of which are shorter .

8) в художественном мышлении Малевича есть... — here's another good example of "starting nominative." Beginning the sentence with "Malevich's artistic thinking" rather than "In Malevich's artistic thinking" leads to a much smoother syntactic structure: "Malevich's artistic thinking... has something of alchemy to it" will do if the interpreter does not think of more "interesting" constructions such as "smacks of," or "is tinged with."

9) поэтому нам становится немного легче общаться с Малевичем — the problem here is the verb общаться, which obviously cannot be rendered literally. The idea is of understanding or relating to the content and nature of the artist's creative legacy, i.e. his paintings .

Interview with Andrei Nakov about Malevich (Читается с британским акцентом) Way back when I was starting to study the history of art in Paris, I said to my professor that I was much taken with twentieth century painting. He looked at me disapprovingly and asked, "Do you want to become a serious art expert or a run of the mill scribbler?" I understood what that was about, and when the time came to defend a doctoral dissertation, I opted for the art of the Italian Renaissance .

Today it's unbelievable that only thirty years ago abstract painting was considered as something undeserving of attention, and that was the view not only among academics. When I first tried to organize an exhibit of Malevich's works in France 1 encountered no understanding whatsoever, including on the part of people who have since changed and now determine the development of French culture .

I started my research with Kandinsky, and studied German, since the painter had lived in Bavaria, and there was a lot of material on him there. I taught in America and in England, and therefore know English well. But I live and work in France, and so, naturally, I write in French. However, as a Slav, 1 consider my knowledge of Russian as a great advantage — it lets me study the original sources .

The more I delved into Russian art, the more I was attracted to the enigmatic figure of Kazimir Malevich. 1 felt like an explorer to whom a marvelous, unknown, unexplored continent had revealed

itself. Fortunately, I rather quickly grasped the most important thing:

a personality of that magnitude must be understood in his entirety, and not just through his painting .

My work was nightmarishly complicated in every which way. 1 did not have access to official Soviet sources, and I got into the holdings of the Russian Museum only in 1987. Later I was able to work with Malevich's texts in the Central State Archive of Literature and Art (TsGALI). Finally, the times changed and everything became much simpler. And so, step by step the contours of his persona became clearer to me .

I worked — some people think — for too long a time. But once you've decided to do an absolutely honest job, you're absolutely duty bound to investigate everything, not to overlook any details. The most important works of Malevich I even subjected to technical analysis, to establish once and for all absolute criteria for authenticity. I studied an unbelievable number of fakes, and analyzed even the most unremarkable details of his artistic techniques. My catalogue is ready, and I hope that it will be of assistance in organizing exhibitions at which Malevich's work will be shown in a totally different light. The catalogue includes about 1700 paintings, drawings, and print sheets .

There are more than 2000 pages of text. Funny thing: many years ago it looked as though there wasn't enough material, and today there's a finished monograph of 1500 pages, and I could double its size .

Malevich's artistic thinking smacks of alchemy: it is so metaphorical that it seems as though a visible transformation of energy, essence and form is taking place, in which everything is qualitatively changing, moving into "space-time," into a fourth dimension. We now better understand his aesthetic reaction, his norms and sensibility. Probably for that reason it is now somewhat easier for us to relate to Malevich, and it's possible to write slightly more accurately about him. We're not moving away from Malevich;

indeed, we're moving towards him. And not as quickly as some people think. A true understanding of his creative legacy demands enormous intellectual and moral efforts .

Текст 25 Интервью: Русскоамериканский семейный опыт Американка Джанни, окончив Университет в Огайо, приехала в Ленинград работать в американском консульстве. С тех пор прошло восемь лет и много чего случилось. Она влюбилась в москвича Андрея, переехала в Москву, родила Яшу и Тоню и живет теперь в Митино. Работает Джанни администратором в представительстве сингапурской фирмы .

— Первые впечатления от России совпали с последующими?

— Очень холодно — вот первое впечатление. И последую щее: у нас в Огайо снег выпадает не раньше января. Ну а рус ские мне сразу понравились. Очень теплые люди, любят пригла шать в гости, угощать новых знакомых .

— Мы внешне вписываемся в американские стандарты?

— У нас главное, чтобы одежда была комфортной. И женщи ны возраста моей матери, и подростки — все ходят в брюках .

Американки больше не носят юбки. Например, моя мама наде вает юбку, только когда заставляет этикет. Ваши женщины любят носить юбки. Они, мне кажется, стремятся выглядеть как на картинке в журнале мод. Это хорошо. Но я одобряю мотивы эмансипации, в соответствии с которыми американки пришли к своему выбору .

— Но эти же мотивы привели к скандалу с Клинтоном .

— В Америке сильный пол утратил мужскую агрессивность и уверенность в себе. Русские мужчины более... мужские. Они не боятся высказывать свое мнение, даже если оно может когото задеть или кому-то не понравиться .

— Скучаете по Америке?

— Когда я во время отпуска бываю дома, много гуляю за го родом, одна. Ландшафт плоский — кругом поля — и все хорошо видно. Если машина проезжает, даже незнакомые люди машут мне рукой или просто улыбаются. Можно сказать, что это искусственная вежливость, но таков этикет малого городка .

Я скучаю по вежливой одноэтажной Америке .

— Вы живете за границей — это нормально для Америки?

— Для большинства американцев необычны любые поездки за границу. Скажем, мои родственники имеют достаточно денег, чтобы отправиться в поездку по Европе, но они не ездят так далеко. Даже в Канаду, насколько я знаю, американцы не очень-то едут. Иногда отдыхают в Мексике. Но мои двоюрод ные братья и сестры никогда не выезжали за пределы Америки .

— На каком языке вы теперь говорите с детьми?

— Мы решили, что Андрей будет с детьми говорить по-рус ски, а я по-английски. Но иногда выходит наоборот. Смешно получается, когда они меня раздражают, и я говорю им с выра жением по-русски: «Всё!» По-английски надо было бы сказать два слова, а по-русски короче и звучит хорошо .

— Что чувствует иностранка на московской улице?

— Когда гуляю с детьми, встречаю других русских мам. Ме ня спрашивают, кто я такая, зачем приехала в Россию. Они очень мало интересуются Америкой, больше тем, как я справля юсь с двумя детьми. Не так часто есть необходимость говорить с незнакомыми по-русски. На работу езжу на метро, но у меня проездной. В магазин и на рынок обычно ходит Андрей. Он бы стрее и лучше все покупает, кроме того, его не обманут: он, ведь, как сам говорит, ходит на рынок всю жизнь .

— И последний вопрос. В России, говоря о любви к родине, ча сто приводят в пример американский патриотизм. Как, по-ваше му, что это такое?

— Патриотизм прежде всего — традиция. Сто лет назад аме риканцы уже праздновали День независимости США. Сколько поколений жило в США — столько и росло патриотами .

Школьники начинают учебный день с клятвы верности перед го сударственным флагом. Перед любым соревнованием, включая школьные, все поют гимн. Все это — искренне .

* * * An American, Jeanine, who was graduated from/graduated a college/university/went to college in Ohio, went to Leningrad to work in the American consulate. That was eight years ago/Since then eight years have passed/Eight years went by/and a lot has happened. She fell in love with a Muscovite, Andrei, moved to Moscow, had/gave birth to Yasha and Tonya, and now lives in Mitino. Jeanine works as an administrator in a branch/an office of a Singapore company/firm .

— Did your first impressions of Russia fit in/coincide with your later ones/Were your first impressions of Russia similar to/like/your later ones?

— It's very cold — that was my first impression. And then — at home in Ohio it doesn't snow before January. But I really liked the Russians right away. They're very warm people, they like to/invite you home/have you over, they like to entertain new friends/show their hospitality .

— In terms of appearance, do we follow American standards/are we like Americans?

— In America/Back home the most important thing is that clothes are comfortable. Women my mother's age, and teenagers — everybody goes around in/wears pants. American women don't wear skirts. For example, my mother only wears a skirt when she's got to/when it's really necessary/when etiquette calls for it. Your women like wearing skirts. I think that they're trying to look like fashion plates/models/the pictures/in fashion magazines. That's nice/a good thing. But I approve of/the reasons for/the motivation behind/that liberation which explains/ why/the reasons why American women made that choice (of theirs) .

— But those motives/reasons led to/resulted in the Clinton scandal .

— In America men/the stronger sex/have lost their male aggression and self-confidence. Russian men are more...masculine .

They aren't afraid of expressing their opinion, even if that might offend someone or if someone might not like it .

— Do you miss America ?

— When I ' m home on vacation I take a lot of walks/do a lot of walking/in the country. The landscape is flat — there are fields all around — and you can see everything. If a car comes by even strangers wave at me or just smile. You could say that it's artificial politeness, but/that's the way things are/done/that's life/that's how it is/that's the etiquette/in a small town. I miss polite/small-town America /America .

— You're living abroad — is that normal for America?

— For most Americans any trips abroad are unusual. Well/for example/Like,/my relatives/have enough money/can afford to go/ travel/to Europe, but they don't go that far. Even Canada — as far as I know, Americans don't go there that much. Sometimes they go on vacation to Mexico. But my cousins have never left the country/been out of the country/been abroad .

— What language do you now speak with your/the children ?

— We decided that Andrei would speak Russian to the children and that I'd speak English. But sometimes it's the other way around/it comes out backward. It's funny, when they annoy me/bother me and I/come at them with a Russian expression/use a Russian expression with them, "Всё!": "Stop it!"/"That's enough!"/"Cut it out!" In English that would take/you'd have to use/two words, and in Russian it's shorter and sounds good .

— What does a foreigner feel (like) on a Moscow street?

— When I ' m out for a walk with the children I run into/meet/ meet up with other Russian mother/moms. They ask me who I am, why I went/came to Russia. They're (really) not very much interested in America, much more in how I manage/cope with two children .

I don't have to speak Russian to strangers (all) that often. I take the subway to work, but I've got a monthly ticket. The store and the market — that's usually for Andrei/Andrei usually goes to the store and the market. He buys everything faster and better, and also, he doesn't get cheated: as he says, well, he's been going to the market all his/his whole/life/he's always been going to the market .

— And one last question. In Russia, when people talk about love of one's country, they often cite the example of/refer to/American patriotism. As you see it, what is that/what does that mean ?

— Patriotism means, first of all, tradition. A hundred years ago Americans were already celebrating Independence Day/the fourth of July. Each generation meant that many more patriots/children raised as patriots. You've got as many patriots in the US as generations .

School children start the (school) day in class with the pledge of allegiance to the flag. Before any competitions/sports competition, including school ones, everyone/everybody sings the national anthem .

And all that is sincere/And they're sincere about all that .

This is an interview with an American, a native speaker of English .

Many of her expressions in Russian are translated from English, and so the interpreter can "second-guess" what these were in the original English, rather than simply translating. There is also some interesting "Americana" in this piece. The young woman's tone is highly colloquial and should be rendered as such, even if the sentences may be slightly ungrammatical as a result .

Комментарии:

1) окончив университет — the correct grammatical form in English is "was graduated from" a university, but the overwhelming majority of native speakers say "graduated from." Colloquially, "she went to a university in Ohio" will do, but this does not necessarily mean that she actually finished the course and was graduated from the school. "College" and "university" can usually be used interchangeably. Both indicate an institution of higher learning which offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor's degree: BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BS (Bachelor or Science), but a university, as opposed to a college, also offers graduate programs of various types .

2) родила Яшу и Тоню — while the translation "gave birth to" is the correct expression, colloquially women often say "I had" when speaking of giving birth to a child .

3) любят приглашать в гости, угощать новых знакомых — for "пригла шать в гости," the word "guest" is not the best idea: "to have guests" sounds formal and stilted. "To have people/you over" or "invite you home" is normal spoken English. For угощать do not use the much-abused verb "treat," which implies something special and needs an object, e.g. "to treat someone to a meal in a five-star restaurant." The verb "entertain" is fine, and "show hospitality" obviously implies the presence of food and drink .

4) только когда заставляет этикет — the word "etiquette" is not absolutely necessary here, as it implies a more formal set of rules and regulations than the Russian этикет, and what is being talked about here is what is customary. "When she's got to" or "when it's really necessary" are good renderings in this context .

5) мотивы эмансипации, в соответствии с которыми — the sentence is awkward, since the young woman is referring to "women's liberation," but says эмансипации. Simply "the reasons why" will do, but the "reasons for that liberation which explains," though time-consuming, is better in the light of the next question,

6) но таков этикет маленького городка — here, again, "etiquette" is not the best word, since it implies a formal or somewhat codified system of behavior. "That's the way things are done/that's life in a small town/that's the way people behave in a small town" would be better .

7) одноэтажной Америке — very few Americans will understand the reference to I l f and Petrov's book, and it is most unlikely that the interpreter will have a chance to insert an explanation. "Small-town America" is an accepted idiom which gets this idea across .

8) скажем — "Let's say" does not work at all and sounds extremely awkward. "Well," or "for example" would do. Nowadays many Americans tend to insert the word "like" in such situations, where it acts purely as a verbal filler. This usage is ungrammatical, and sounds quite uneducated .

Such use of the word in English translation is certainly not recommended, and in fact should be actively discouraged; but the interpreter must be alert to its use (which is why it is included as a variant here!), be able to recognize it as such when used by English speakers, and to distinguish it from the use of the verb "like" meaning "нравиться."

9) никогда не выезжали за пределы Америки — anything involving "borders" or "frontiers" will sound awful in English. "Have never left the country" or "have never been abroad" will do. If you must use "America," then "have never been outside America" is acceptable .

10) выходит наоборот — "the other way around" is a normal rendering, while "conies out backward" is common colloquial usage. "Inside out" will not work here .

11) Всё! — it is common sense to first repeat the Russian word, since this is what the speaker will be contrasting to the English expressions. Since the young woman says that this expression would require "two words" in English, she is probably thinking of "stop it!" which is what would normally be said to a child in such situations. Other possibilities would be "that's enough!" "хватит!" or, if the parent is very angry, the three-word expression, "cut it out!" "прекрати!"

12) ходит на рынок всю жизнь — the idea here is of a continuous process, and the tense of the English verb must convey that: "He's been going" or just "He's been doing that all his life."

13) День независимости США — this is officially known as "Independence Day," but any American audience would immediately understand "the fourth of July" the date of the holiday, even if "Independence Day" was not specifically mentioned. Note that when referring to the holiday the form "the fourth of July" is more commonly used than "July 4."

14) клятвы верности перед государственным флагом — this is "the pledge of allegiance to the flag." "Государственным" should not be translated .

15) поют гимн — this must be translated as "the national anthem," never as "hymn," which has religious connotations .

Interview: The Experience of a Russian-American Family (Читается с американским акцентом) An American, Jeanine, who was graduated from a university in Ohio, went to Leningrad to work in the American consulate. That was eight years ago, and since then a lot has happened. She fell in love with a Muscovite, Andrei, moved to Moscow, had Yasha and Tonya, and now lives in Mitino. Jeanine works as an administrator in a branch of a Singapore firm .

— Were your first impressions of Russia similar to your later ones?

It's very cold — that was my first impression. And then — at home in Ohio it doesn't snow before January. But I really liked the Russians right away. They're very warm people, they like to invite you home, they like to entertain new friends .

— In terms of appearance, are we like Americans?

Back home the most important thing is that clothes are comfortable. Women my mother's age, and teenagers — everybody goes around in pants. American women don't wear skirts. For example, my mother only wears a skirt when she's got to. Your women like wearing skirts. I think that they're trying to look like the pictures in fashion magazines. That's nice. But I approve of the reasons for that liberation, which explain why American women made that choice .

— But those reasons led to the Clinton scandal .

— In America men have lost their male aggression and selfconfidence. Russian men are more... masculine. They aren't afraid of expressing their opinion, even if that might offend someone or if someone might not like it .

— Do you miss America ?

— When I ' m home on vacation I do a lot of walking in the country. The landscape is flat — there are fields all around — and you can see everything. If a car comes by even strangers wave at me or just smile. You could say that i t 's artificial politeness, but that's life in a small town. I miss polite small-town America .

— You're living abroad — is that normal far America?

— For most Americans any trips abroad are unusual. For example, my relatives can afford to go to Europe, but they don't go that far .

Even Canada — as far as I know, Americans don't go there that much. Sometimes they go on vacation to Mexico. But my cousins have never been out of the country .

— What language do you now speak with your children ?

— We decided that Andrei would speak Russian to the children and that I'd speak English. But sometimes it comes out backward. It's funny, when they annoy me and I use a Russian expression with them, "Всё! ": "Stop it!" In English that would take two words, and in Russian it's shorter and sounds good .

— What does a foreigner feel like on a Moscow street?

— When I ' m out for a walk with the children I run into other Russian moms. They ask me who I am, why I came to Russia .

They're really not very interested in America, much more in how I manage with two children. I don't have to speak Russian to strangers all that often. I take the subway to work, but I've got a monthly ticket .

The store and the market — Andrei usually does that. He buys everything faster and better, and also, he doesn't get cheated: as he says, well, he's been going to the market his whole life .

— And one last question. In Russia, when people talk about love of one's country, they often cite the example of American patriotism. As you see it, what does that mean ?

— Patriotism means, first of all, tradition. A hundred years ago Americans were already celebrating Independence Day, the fourth of July. Each generation meant that many more patriots. Children start the school day with the pledge of allegiance to the flag. Before any competitions, including school ones, everyone sings the national anthem. And all that is sincere .

Вместо заключения Окончив работу над последним текстом настоящего «Практикума», будущий переводчик, разумеется, не должен считать, что оказался в конечной фазе своего учебного пути. Первоклассный специалист в области перевода — вечный студент, по крайней мере в двух отношениях. Во-первых, синхронный перевод - не дежурный набор застывших приемов и правил, а живое искусство, в котором все элементы корректируются, видоизменяются и создаются заново. Во-вторых, языки больших культур — широкие реки, где все быстро течет и изменяется. В любом языке постоянно возникают новые слова и выражения, а их перевод, переплавление в русло другого языка порой требует немалой лингвистической изобретательности .

Сказанное полностью относится как к русскому языку, так и к английскому. Никто из нас не может с чистой совестью заявить: «Я в совершенстве знаю свой родной язык». Еще с меньшим основанием мы вправе сказать то же самое о языке иностранном, процесс самообновления которого естественно протекает на социальной или культурно-психологической дистанции от нас и поэтому менее очевиден, труднее уловим .

Иными словами, профессия переводчика — школа на всю жизнь и, следовательно, непрерывный процесс. Он совершается не только при чтении книг и учебников, но и в обыденных разговорах, деловых беседах, при воспроизведении речей перед микрофоном и всюду, где требуется умение переходить «из чужой» культуры в свою или, наоборот, «из своей» в «противоположную» сторону .

Но можно ли достичь высокой степени совершенства в искусстве перевода на английский, живя у себя на родине? Мой ответ на этот вопрос —- положительный, но с одной оговоркой:

можно, при условии, прежде всего, интенсивной слуховой тренировки, которая должна быть систематической, а еще лучше — повседневной .

Например, вы собираетесь слушать интересную теле- или радиопередачу, интересную тематически и лингвистически... Почему бы вам не записать ее на видео- или аудиокассету, а затем перевести ее и наговорить ее по-английски на пленку один, два, три раза, а если необходимо, то и больше .

Никогда не забывайте брать с собой маленький блокнот, чтобы иметь возможность заносить в него новые слова, выражения, синонимы, новые приемы передачи трудного материала и т.п .

Немалое значение для самообучения имеет и перевод на родной язык. Это позволяет увидеть, образно говоря, отражение своего языка в иностранном зеркале, что не только интересно и полезно, но и приятно. После многократных переводов на английский движение в искони знакомую сторону оказывается намного более легким и приятным .

Больше того, для тренировки переводческих навыков можно и нужно использовать любую возможность. Даже если вы попали на какую-то скучную лекцию, не зевайте и не засыпайте .

Перед вами — отличная возможность поупражняться. Переводите эту лекцию синхронно про себя, одновременно записывая незнакомые или трудные слова и идиомы. В результате у лектора не будет основания огорчаться по поводу нерадивого слушателя, так как на вашем лице отразится большая увлеченность материалом, ну, а вы воспользуетесь отличной возможностью еще раз усовершенствовать свои переводческие навыки .

Наконец, об общении с носителями вашего рабочего английского языка. Выбирайте их не только при личных встречах, что само собой разумеется, но и на бумаге, так сказать, в письменном общении. Читайте как можно больше — не только книги, но и газеты и журналы, публицистику и художественную литературу. Нив коем случае не забывайте о том, что вам необходимо знать как формальный письменный стиль публикаций на английском языке, так и его бытовую разговорную речь .

И еще одно. Со второй половины прошлого века глобализация международных связей между прежде изолированными или закрытыми социальными системами и культурами придала переводчикам очень большую и вместе с тем исключительно ответственную роль в контактах между лидерами государств, общественными деятелями, учеными, бизнесменами и т.п. Это делает работу профессионалов в нашей области интересной и одновременно очень трудной, требующей интенсивной, иногда утомительной подготовки. Поэтому сегодня, как никогда прежде, в памяти каждого из моих будущих русских коллег должно прочно храниться хорошее суворовское напутствие: «Тяжело в ученье, легко в бою» .

Счастливого вам пути в переводческую жизнь!

Линн Виссон

Содержание От составителя

Текст 1. "Цветы"

Текст 2. О несамоуправляющихся территориях

On Non-selfgoverning Territories

Текст 3. Выступление о конфликте на Ближнем Востоке .

..17 Statement on the Conflict in the Middle East

Текст 4. Специальное торжественное заседание Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН по случаю Года ООН, посвященного терпимости

Special Meeting of the UN General Assembly on the UN Year of Tolerance

Текст 5. Выступление Евгения Примакова перед ГА ООН .

.30 Statement by Evgeny Primakov to the UN General Assembly.40 Текст 6. Выступление Э.А.Шеварднадзе в Гарвардском университете

Speech by E. Shevardnadze, Harvard University

Текст 7. Защита гражданского населения в вооруженных конфликтах

Protection of the Civilian Population in Armed Conflicts....54 Текст 8. Ядерный терроризм

Nuclear Terrorism

Текст 9. Разоружение: выступление представителя Казахстана

Disarmament: Statement by the Delegate of Kazakhstan....68 Текст 10. Международное сотрудничество в использовании космического пространства в мирных целях

International Cooperation for the Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes

Текст 11. Здоровье и космос

Health and Space

Текст 12. Проблема: наркотики

The Problem of Drugs

Текст 13. Интервью с профессором Сергеем Мироновым .

..93 Interview with Professor Sergei Mironov

Текст 14. Выступление В .

С.Черномырдина на 19-й специальной сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН по охране окружающей среды

Statement by У. S. Chernomyrdin, 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly on Environmental Protection

Текст 15. Представитель Республики Кыргызстан по окружающей среде

Representative of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan on the Environment

Текст 16. Вопрос о национальном опыте в области народонаселения

National Experience with Population Issues

Текст 17. Вопрос о положении женщин:

национальные планы действия

The Status of Women: National Plans of Action

Текст 18. О развитии малого и среднего бизнеса в Казахстане

On the Development of Women's Medium and Small-scale Business in Kazakhstan................143 Текст 19. Выступление В.И.Ресина, на Американо-российском инвестиционном симпозиуме в Гарвардском университете (Бостон, США)

V.I. Resin, First Deputy Premier, Moscow City Administration, Russian-American Investment Symposium (Harvard University, Boston, USA)....153 Текст 20. К встрече директоров Всемирного Банка с ЭКОСОС

Intervention at a meeting of the Directors of the World Bank and ECOSOC

Текст 21. Реклама (интервью с К .

Костиным, руководителем рекламной службы банка)

Advertising (Interview with К. Kostin, Head of the Advertising Department of a Bank)..................165 Текст 22. Интервью с М.Швыдким, председателем ВГТРК.166 Interview with M. Shvidkoi, Chairman of VGTRK.................171 Текст 23. Интервью с Викторией Федоровой

Interview with Viktoria Fyodorova

Текст 24. Интервью с Андреем Маковым о Малевиче .

........... 180 Interview with Andrei Nakov about Malevich

Текст 25. Интервью: Русско-американский семейный опыт .

186 Interview: The Experience of a Russian-American Family..192 Вместо заключения

Линн Виссон Практикум по синхронному переводу с русского языка на английский (с аудиоприложением) 3-е издание, стереотипное

–  –  –

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